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Encyclopedia > Sikkim
  ?Sikkim
India
Coordinates: 27°20′N 88°37′E / 27.33, 88.62
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 7,096 km² (2,740 sq mi)
Capital Gangtok
Largest city Gangtok
District(s) 4
Population
Density
540,493 (28th)
• 76.17/km² (197/sq mi)
Language(s) Nepali
Chief Minister Pawan Kumar Chamling
Governor V. Rama Rao
Established 16 May 1975
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (32)
ISO abbreviation IN-SK
Website: sikkim.nic.in
Seal of Sikkim

Coordinates: 27°20′N 88°37′E / 27.33, 88.62 Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links India_Sikkim_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... Gangtok   (Nepali/Hindi: गंगटोक) is the capital and largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Gangtok   (Nepali/Hindi: गंगटोक) is the capital and largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... The divisions of a district. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Chief Ministers of Sikkim See Also Sikkim Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Sikkim | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Pawan Kumar Chamling (b. ... Governors of Sikkim See Also Sikkim Governors of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Sikkim | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... V Rama Rao (11 December 1935) is the governor of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... Image File history File links Seal of the government of Sikkim, India File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Sikkim (Nepali: सिक्किम , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. It is the least populous state in India,[1] and the second-smallest in area after Goa. The thumb-shaped state borders Nepal in the west, Chinese-administered Tibet to the north and east, and Bhutan in the southeast. The Indian state of West Bengal borders Sikkim to its south.[2] The official languages are Hindi , Bhutia, Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu, and English. The language of almost all written transactions is English. The predominant religions are Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Gangtok is the capital and largest town.[3] Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Image File history File links Sikkim. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) (Tibetan: བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་; Wylie: Bod-rang-skyong-ljongs; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a province-level autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... Sikkimese (also known as Bhutia) is a sublanguage of South Tibetan (Bhutanese-Sikkimese, Lhoke) language. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Lepcha (ISO/DIS 639-3: lep) is a language spoken by the Lepcha community in Sikkim in India, and parts of Nepal and Bhutan. ... Limbu (ISO/DIS 639-3: lif) is a Tibeto-Burman language (also called Yakthungpan, literally language of Limbus) spoken in parts of Sikkim in India and Nepal by the Limbu community. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Gangtok   (Nepali/Hindi: गंगटोक) is the capital and largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim. ...


Despite its tiny size, Sikkim is geographically diverse, owing to its location on the Himalaya. The climate ranges from subtropical to high alpine. Kangchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, is located in the northwestern part of the state on the boundary with Nepal, and can be seen from most parts of the state.[2] Sikkim is a popular tourist destination for its culture, scenic beauty and biodiversity. Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Contents

Origin of name

The most widely accepted origin of the name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two words in the Limbu Su, which means "new", and Khyim, which means "palace" or house, in reference to the palace built by the state's first ruler, Phuntsok Namgyal. The Tibetan name for Sikkim is 'Denjong, which means the "valley of rice".[4] Limbu (ISO/DIS 639-3: lif) is a Tibeto-Burman language (also called Yakthungpan, literally language of Limbus) spoken in parts of Sikkim in India and Nepal by the Limbu community. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...


History

Main article: History of Sikkim
Statue of Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. The statue in Namchi is the tallest statue of the saint in the world at 36 m.
Statue of Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. The statue in Namchi is the tallest statue of the saint in the world at 36 m.

The earliest recorded event related to Sikkim is the passage of the Buddhist saint Guru Rinpoche through the land in the 8th century. The Guru is reported to have blessed the land, introduced Buddhism to Sikkim, and foretold the era of monarchy in the state that would arrive centuries later. In the 14th century, according to legend, Khye Bumsa, a prince from the Minyak House in Kham in Eastern Tibet, had a divine revelation one night instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes. His descendants were later to form the royal family of Sikkim. In 1642, the fifth-generation descendant of Khye Bumsa, Phuntsog Namgyal, was consecrated as the first Chogyal (king) of Sikkim by the three venerated Lamas who came from the north, west and south to Yuksom, marking the beginning of the monarchy. Statue of Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim in Namchi is the tallest statue of saint in the world. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... Namchi is the capital of the South Sikkim district in the state of Sikkim, India. ... Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Khye Bumsa was a 14th century prince from the Minyak House in Kham in Eastern Tibet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Kham (Wylie transliteration: Khams, Tibetan: ཁམས, Simplified Chinese: 康, Pinyin: Kāng) province is one of several provinces comprising traditional Tibet (the others Amdo and Ü-Tsang). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Phuntsog Namgyal (1604–1670) was the first chogyal (monarch) of Sikkim, now an Indian state. ... The Chogyal were the monarchs of the former country of Sikkim. ... Yuksom is marked near the River Rangeet in western Sikkim. ...


Phuntsog Namgyal was succeeded in 1670 by his son, Tensung Namgyal, who moved the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse. In 1700, Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal, who had been denied the throne. The Bhutanese were driven away by the Tibetans, who restored the throne to the Chogyal ten years later. Between 1717 and 1733, the kingdom faced many raids by the Nepalese in the west and Bhutanese in the east, culminating with the destruction of the capital Rabdentse by the Nepalese.[5] Tensung Namgyal (1644-1700) was the second chogyal (monarch) of Sikkim. ... Rabdentse was the second capital of Sikkim. ...

Flag of the former monarchy of Sikkim.
Flag of the former monarchy of Sikkim.

In 1791, China sent troops to support Sikkim and defend Tibet against the Gurkhas. Following Nepal's subsequent defeat, the Qing Dynasty established control over Sikkim. Following the arrival of the British Raj in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied with them against their common enemy, Nepal. The Nepalese attacked Sikkim, overrunning most of the region including the Terai. This prompted the British East India Company to attack Nepal, resulting in the Gurkha War of 1814. Treaties signed between Sikkim and Nepal — the Sugauli Treaty — and Sikkim and British India — the Titalia Treaty — returned the territory annexed by the Nepalese to Sikkim in 1817. Ties between Sikkim and the British administrators of India grew sour, however, with the beginning of British taxation of the Morang region. In 1849 two British doctors, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and Dr. Archibald Campbell, the latter being in charge of relations between the British and Sikkim Government, ventured into the mountains of Sikkim unannounced and unauthorised. The doctors were detained by the Sikkim government, leading to a punitive British expedition against the Himalayan kingdom, after which the Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed to India in 1835. The invasion led to the chogyal's becoming a puppet king under the directive of the British governor.[6] Image File history File links Sikkimflag. ... Image File history File links Sikkimflag. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Gurkha War (1814-1816), also known as the Anglo-Nepalese War, was fought between the British Empire and the Kingdom of Nepal. ... The Sugauli Treaty (also spelled Segowlee) was signed on December 2, 1815 and ratified by March 4, 1816, between the British East India Company and The Kingdom of Nepal, ending the second British invasion of the Himalayan kingdom during the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–16). ... The Treaty of Titalia (1817) was signed between the chogyal (monarch) of Sikkim and the British East India Company. ... Morang is a district on the southern Tarai, or plains, of Eastern Nepal. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... For other people with the same name see Archibald Campbell Argyll. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ...

The Dro-dul Chorten Stupa is a famous stupa in Gangtok.
The Dro-dul Chorten Stupa is a famous stupa in Gangtok.

In 1947, a popular vote rejected Sikkim's joining the Indian Union and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru agreed to a special protectorate status for Sikkim. Sikkim was to be a suzerainty of India, in which India controlled its external affairs, defence, diplomacy and communication. A state council was established in 1955 to allow for constitutional government for the Chogyal. Meanwhile trouble was brewing in the state after the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for the Nepalese. In 1973, riots in front of the palace led to a formal request for protection from India. The chogyal was proving to be extremely unpopular with the people. In 1975, the Kazi (Prime Minister) appealed to the Indian Parliament for representation and change of Sikkim's status to a state of India. In April, the Indian Army moved into Sikkim, seizing the city of Gangtok, disarming the Palace Guards. A referendum was held in which 97.5% of the people voted to join the Indian Union. A few weeks later on May 16, 1975, Sikkim officially became the 22nd state of the Indian Union, and the monarchy was abolished.[5][7] In 2000, in a major embarrassment for China, the seventeenth Karmapa Urgyen Trinley Dorje, who had been proclaimed a Lama by China, made a dramatic escape from Tibet to the Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim. Chinese officials were in a quandary on this issue as any protests to India on the issue would mean an explicit endorsement of India's governance of Sikkim, which the Chinese still regarded as an independent state occupied by India. China eventually recognised Sikkim as an Indian state in 2003, which led to a thaw in Sino-Indian relations. In return, India announced its official recognition of Tibet as an integrated part of China. As part of a significant pact between India and China signed by the prime ministers of the two countries, Manmohan Singh and Wen Jiabao, China released an official map clearly showing Sikkim as part of the Republic of India.[8] On July 6, 2006 the Himalayan pass of Nathula was opened to cross-border trade, a further evidence of improving sentiment over the region.[9] Download high resolution version (500x746, 97 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (500x746, 97 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Do-drul Chorten Dro-dul Chorten Stupa is a stupa in Gangtok in the Indian state of Sikkim. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Kazi may refer to: A Kazi or Qazi, an Islamic legal scholar and judge. ... The Parliament of India is bicameral. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 16th Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje (1924 - 1981) The Karmapa (officially His Holiness the Gyalwa Karmapa) is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyupa (Tib. ... The Karmapa lineage is the most ancient tulku lineage in Tibetan Buddhism, pre-dating the Dalai Lama lineage by more than two centuries. ... Rumtek monastery Rumtek (Tibetan: རུམ་ཐེག་དགོན་པ་, Wylie: Rum-theg dGon-pa), also called the Dharmachakra Centre, is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery located in the Indian state of Sikkim near the capital Gangtok. ... Sino-Indian relations refers to the ties and relations between China and India. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nathula Pass (also spelt Ntula, Natu La, Nathu la, or Natula) is a pass on the Indo-China border connecting the Indian state of Sikkim with South Tibet. ...


Geography

Himalayan peaks, Western Sikkim
Himalayan peaks, Western Sikkim

The thumb-shaped state of Sikkim is characterised by wholly mountainous terrain. Almost the entire state is hilly, with the elevation ranging from 280 metres (920 feet) to 8,585 metres (28,000 feet). The summit of the Kanchenjunga is the highest point. For the most part, the land is unfit for agriculture because of the precipitous and rocky slopes. However, certain hill slopes have been converted into farm lands using terrace farming techniques. Numerous snow-fed streams in Sikkim have carved out river valleys in the west and south of the state. These streams combine into the Teesta and its tributary, the Rangeet. The Teesta, described as the "lifeline of Sikkim", flows through the state from north to south. About a third of the land is heavily forested. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 768 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sikkim User:AmarChandra ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 768 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sikkim User:AmarChandra ... Kanchenjunga (a number of alternative spellings are used Kangchenjunga which is the correct spelling, Kangchen Dzö-nga, Khangchendzonga, Kanchenjanga, Kachendzonga, or Kangchanfanga) is the third highest mountain in the world and the second highest in Nepal and the highest in India, located in the Taplejung district of Sikkim, straddling the... The Teesta River is one of the most scenic rivers in Eastern India. ... The Rangeet River is a tributary of the river Teesta, the largest river in the Indian state of Sikkim. ...

The Himalayan mountain range in North Sikkim.
The Himalayan mountain range in North Sikkim.

The lofty Himalayan ranges surround the northern, eastern and western borders of Sikkim in a crescent. The populated areas lie in the southern reaches of the state, in the Lower Himalayas. The state has twenty-eight mountain peaks, twenty-one glaciers, 227 high-altitude lakes, including the Tsongmo Lake, Gurudongmar and Khecheopalri Lakes, five hot springs, and over 100 rivers and streams. Eight mountain passes connect the state to Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal.[2] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Tsongmo lake as seen from a height Tsongmo Lake (also called Changu Lake) is a large lake in East Sikkim district of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Gurudongmar Lake Gurudongmar Lake (also known as Gurudogmar Lake) is one of the highest lakes in the world located at an altiude of 17,100 feet (5210 m). ... Khecheopalri lake in West Sikkim district of the Indian state of Sikkim is considered to be a holy lake both by the Buddhist and the Hindu population. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or...

Cities and towns of Sikkim.
Cities and towns of Sikkim.

Towns of Sikkim, India Names in green are the district capitals. ... Towns of Sikkim, India Names in green are the district capitals. ...

Geology

The hills of Sikkim mainly consist of gneissose and half-schistose rocks, making their soil brown clay, and generally poor and shallow. The soil is coarse, with large amounts of iron oxide concentrations, ranging from neutral to acidic and has poor organic and mineral nutrients. This type of soil tends to support evergreen and deciduous forests. Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ...


A large portion of the Sikkim territory is covered by the Precambrian rock and is much younger in age than the hills. The rock consists of phyllites and schists and therefore the slopes are highly susceptible to weathering and prone to erosion. This, combined with the intense rain, causes extensive soil erosion and heavy loss of soil nutrients through leaching. As a result, landslides are frequent, isolating the numerous small towns and villages from the major urban centres.[2] The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Phyllite Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz, sericite mica, and chlorite; the rock represents a gradiation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Weathering is the decomposing of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the air. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Leaching is the process of extracting a substance from a solid by dissolving it in a liquid. ... Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. ...


Hot Springs

Sikkim has many hot springs known for medicinal and therapeutic values. The most important hot springs are at Phurchachu(Reshi), Yumthang, Borang, Ralang, Taram-chu and Yumey Samdong. All these hot springs have high sulphur content and are located near river banks. The average temperature of the water in these hot springs is 50°C. Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or...


Climate

The climate ranges from sub-tropical in the south to tundra in the northern parts. Most of the inhabited regions of Sikkim, however, enjoy a temperate climate, with the temperatures seldom exceeding 28 °C (82 °F) in summer or dropping below 0 °C (32 °F) in winter. The state enjoys five seasons: winter, summer, spring, and autumn, and a monsoon season between June and September. The average annual temperature for most of Sikkim is around 18 °C (64 °F). Sikkim is one of the few states in India to receive regular snowfall. The snow line is around 6 000 metres (19,600 feet). Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spring. ... This article is about the temperate season. ... Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ... The snow line is the point above which, or poleward of which, snow and ice cover the ground throughout the year. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


During the monsoon months, the state is lashed by heavy rains that increase the number of landslides. The state record for the longest period of non-stop rain is eleven days. In the northern region, because of high altitude, temperatures drop below −40 °C in winter. Fog also affects many parts of the state during winter and the monsoons, making transportation extremely perilous.[2] Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ...


Subdivisions

The four districts of Sikkim and their Headquarters

Sikkim has four districts, each overseen by a Central Government appointee, the district collector, who is in charge of the administration of the civilian areas of the districts. The Indian army has control of a large territory, as the state is a sensitive border area. Many areas are restricted and permits are needed to visit them. There are a total of eight towns and nine subdivisions in Sikkim. Districts of Sikkim. ... Districts of Sikkim. ... The District Collector is a Central Indian Government appointee who is in charge of the governance of a district in a state. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... The Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order states that a Protected Area Permit (PAP) is required for non-Indians to visit certain areas in India. ...


The four districts are East Sikkim, West Sikkim, North Sikkim and South Sikkim. The district capitals are Gangtok, Geyzing, Mangan and Namchi respectively.[3] These Four Districts are further divided into Subdivisions. "Pakyong" is the subdivision of East District. "Soreng" is the subdivision of West District. "Chungthang" is the subdivision of North District. "Ravongla" is the subdivision of South District.[10] East Sikkim is one of the four administrative districts of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... West Sikkim is a district of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... North Sikkim is a district of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... South Sikkim is a district of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Gyalshing or Geyzing is the capital of the district of West Sikkim in the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Mangan is the capital of the district of North Sikkim in the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Namchi is the capital of the South Sikkim district in the state of Sikkim, India. ...


Flora and fauna

The Rhododendron is the state tree.

Sikkim is situated in an ecological hotspot of the lower Himalayas, one of only three among the Ecoregions of India. The forested regions of the state exhibit a diverse range of fauna and flora. Owing to its altitudinal gradation, the state has a wide variety of plants, from tropical to temperate to alpine and tundra, and is perhaps one of the few regions to exhibit such a diversity within such a small area. Rhododendron from subsection arborea (my own photograph), taken at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in early Spring 2001, after a really hard frost. ... Rhododendron from subsection arborea (my own photograph), taken at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in early Spring 2001, after a really hard frost. ... A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region that is both a significant reservoir of biodiversity and is threatened with destruction. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Andaman Islands rain forests (India) Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests (India) Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests (India, Myanmar) Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests (India) Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal) Malabar Coast moist forests (India) Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ...


The flora of Sikkim includes the rhododendron, the state tree, with a huge range of species occurring from subtropical to alpine regions. Orchids, figs, laurel, bananas, sal trees and bamboo in the lower altitudes of Sikkim, which enjoy a subtropical-type climate. In the temperate elevations above 1,500 metres, oaks, chestnuts, maples, birches, alders, and magnolias grow in large numbers. The alpine-type vegetation includes juniper, pine, firs, cypresses and rhododendrons, and is typically found between an altitude of 3,500 to 5 000 m. Sikkim boasts around 5,000 flowering plants, 515 rare orchids, 60 primula species, 36 rhododendron species, 11 oak varieties, 23 bamboo varieties, 16 conifer species, 362 types of ferns and ferns allies, 8 tree ferns, and over 424 medicinal plants. The orchid Dendrobium nobile is the official flower of Sikkim. Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera (Azaleas) Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi (Azaleas) Vireya Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron po(from the Greek: rhodos, rose, and dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Genera Many; see text The Lauraceae or Laurel family comprises a group of flowering plants included in the order Laurales. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Roth Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut (Castanea), including... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Trees or shrubs in the genus Acer are commonly called Maples. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... This article is about the plant. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... Species See text. ... For the character from the Shuffle! series, see Primula (Shuffle!). Species many; see text A modern garden primula cultivar Primula farinosa flowers Primula hortensis Primula prolifera Primula sieboldii Primula veris Primula is a genus of 400-500 species of low-growing herbs in the family Primulaceae. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Tree Fern refers to any fern that grows with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level. ...

The fauna includes the snow leopard, the musk deer, the Bhoral, the Himalayan Tahr, the red panda, the Himalayan marmot, the serow, the goral, the barking deer, the common langur, the Himalayan Black Bear, the clouded leopard, the Marbled Cat, the leopard cat, the wild dog, the Tibetan wolf, the hog badger, the binturong, the jungle cat and the civet cat. Among the animals more commonly found in the alpine zone are yaks, mainly reared for their milk, meat, and as a beast of burden. The Himalayan Black Bear is native to the Himalayan mountains. ... The Himalayan Black Bear is native to the Himalayan mountains. ... The Himalayan Black Bear pictured here in the Gangtok zoo. ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Range map Synonyms Panthera uncia The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia[1] or Panthera uncia[3]), sometimes known as the Ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Asia. ... The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... Binomial name Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arnott Bauhinia vahlii (Bhoral or Mehroin), is a species of tree found in Sikkim. ... Binomial name Hemitragus jemlahicus (H. Smith, 1826) Himalayan Tahr Young Himalayan Tahr The Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) is a large ungulate and a close relative to the wild goat, with its habitat in the rugged wooded hills and mountain slopes of the Himalaya from northern India to Tibet, They spend... For the Canadian Superhero, see Decoder Ring Theatre Binomial name F. Cuvier, 1825 Red Panda range subspecies The Red Panda, Ailurus fulgens (shining cat, from a Latinized form of the Greek αίλουρος, ailouros, cat, and the participial form of the Latin fulgere, to shine) [1] is a mostly herbivorous mammal, slightly... Binomial name Marmota himalayana (Hodgson, 1841) Himalayan marmots are marmots found in the Himalayan regions ranging in elevation from 300 metres to 4,500 metres. ... Valentin Alexandrovich Serov (1865 - 1911) was a Russian painter. ... Species Nemorhaedus goral Nemorhaedus caudatus Nemorhaedus baileyi Nemorhaedus crispus Nemorhaedus swinhoei Nemorhaedus sumatraensis The genus Nemorhaedus includes six small species of ungulate with a goat-like or antelope-like appearance. ... Species 10 species, see text Muntjac are deer of the genus Muntiacus, also known as Barking Deer. ... The common langur are langurs found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar (Burma). ... The Himalayan Black Bear pictured here in the Gangtok zoo. ... Binomial name (Griffith, 1821) Range map Synonyms Felis macrocelis Felis marmota The Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a medium-sized cat, 55 to 110 cm (2 ft to 3 ft 6 in) long and weighing between 15 and 23 kg (33 to 50 lb). ... Binomial name Pardofelis marmorata Martin, 1837 The Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata) is similar in size to the Domestic Cat, with a longer, more thickly furred tail, an indicator of an arboreal life-style, where the tail is used as a counterbalance. ... Binomial name Felis bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) The Leopard Cat (Felis bengalensis) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) The Binturong (Arctictis binturong), also known as the Asian Bearcat, the Palawan Bearcat, or just simply the Bearcat, is neither a bear nor a cat but is a species of the family Viverridae, which includes the civets and genets. ... Binomial name Felis chaus Schreber, 1777 The Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), also called the Swamp Lynx (although not closely related to the lynxes), is a small cat with a rather short tail (length 70 cm, plus 30 cm tail). ... Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, genet and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ...


The avifauna of Sikkim is comprised of the Impeyan pheasant, the crimson horned pheasant, the snow partridge, the snow cock, the lammergeyer and griffon vultures, as well as golden eagles, quail, plovers, woodcock, sandpipers, pigeons, Old World flycatchers, babblers and robins. A total of 550 species of birds have been recorded in Sikkim, some of which have been declared endangered.[2] For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lophophorus impejanus (Latham, 1790) The Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus is a bird of genus Lophophorus of the Pheasant family, Phasianidae. ... Binomial name Tragopan satyra (Linnaeus, 1758) The Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra also known as the crimson horned pheasant is a pheasant found in the Himalayan reaches of India, Nepal and Bhutan. ... Binomial name Lerwa lerwa (Hodgson, 1833) The Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Gypaetus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lammergeier or Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus is an Old World vulture, the only member of the genus Gypaetus (Storr, 1784). ... Binomial name Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783 The Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus is an Old World vulture in the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, kites, buzzards and hawks. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... Genera Coturnix Anurophasis Perdicula Ophrysia † See also Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. ... Genera Pluvialis Charadrius Thinornis Elseyornis Peltohyas Anarhynchus Phegornis Oreopholus Plovers are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae. ... Species Eurasian Woodcock, Amami Woodcock, Bukidnon Woodcock, Dusky Woodcock, Sulawesi Woodcock, Moluccan Woodcock, American Woodcock, The woodcock are a group of seven very similar wading bird species in the genus Scolopax, characterised by a long slender bill and cryptic brown and blackish plumage. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... Genera See text. ... Babbler can refer to bird species that belong to either of two unrelated families. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Sikkim also has a rich diversity of arthropods, much of which remains unexplored even today. The best studied group remains, as with the rest of India, the butterflies. Of the approximately 1438[11] butterfly species found in the Indian subcontinent, 695 have been recorded from Sikkim. These include the endangered Kaiser-i-hind, Yellow Gorgon and the Bhutan Glory amongst others.[12]. Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Binomial name Hope, 1843 The Kaiser-i-Hind (Teinopalpus imperialis) is a rare species of swallowtail butterfly native to India. ... Binomial name Boisduval, 1836 Synonyms Papilio evan Doubleday, 1845 The Yellow Gorgon, Meandrusa payeni, is a species of swallowtail found in parts of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Atkinson, 1873 Synonyms Armandia lidderdali The Bhutan Glory, Bhutanitis lidderdalii, is a species of butterfly found in Bhutan, parts of northeastern India and parts of Southeast Asia. ...


Economy

Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Sikkim at market prices estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.[13]

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 520
1985 1,220
1990 2,340
1995 5,200
2000 9,710
2003 23,786 [1]

Sikkim's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $478 million in current prices.


Sikkim's economy is largely agrarian, based on traditional farming methods, on terraced slopes. The rural populace grows crops such as cardamom, ginger, oranges, apples, tea and orchids.[3] Rice is grown on terraced hillsides in the southern reaches. Sikkim has the highest production and largest cultivated area of cardamom in India. Because of the hilly terrain, and lack of reliable transportation infrastructure, there are no large-scale industries. Breweries, distilleries, tanning and watchmaking are the main industries. These are located in the southern reaches of the state, primarily in the towns of Melli and Jorethang. The state has an impressive growth rate of 8.3%, which is the second highest in the country after Delhi.[14] Agriculture (from Agri Latin for ager (a field), and culture, from the Latin cultura cultivation in the strict sense of tillage of the soil. A literal reading of the English word yields tillage of the soil of a field.) is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by... Genera Amomum Elettaria The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... For other uses, see Apple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... The entrance of a brewery. ... A watch is a timepiece or portable clock that displays the time and sometimes the day, date, month and year. ... Melli (also spelt Malli) is a town on the West Bengal-Sikkim border on the River Teesta. ... Jorethang is a major town in south Sikkim, India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

Elaichi or Cardamom is the chief cash crop of Sikkim.
Elaichi or Cardamom is the chief cash crop of Sikkim.

In recent years, the government of Sikkim has promoted tourism. Sikkim has a vast tourism potential and by tapping into this the state has grossed an earnings windfall. With the general improvement in infrastructure, tourism is slated to be the mainstay of Sikkim's economy. A fledgling industry the state has recently invested in is online gambling. The "Playwin" lottery, which is played on custom-built terminals connected to the Internet, has been a commercial success, with operations all over the country.[15] Among the minerals mined in Sikkim are copper, dolomite, limestone, graphite, mica, iron and coal.[16] Elaichi or cardamom is the chief cash crop in the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Elaichi or cardamom is the chief cash crop in the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Genera Amomum Elettaria The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... Online gambling is a general term for gambling using the Internet. ... A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


The opening of the Nathula Pass on July 6, 2006 connecting Lhasa, Tibet to India is expected to give a boost to the local economy, though the financial benefits will be slow to arrive. The Pass, closed since the 1962 Sino-Indian War, was an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road, which was essential to the wool, fur and spice trade.[9] Nathula Pass (also spelt Ntula, Natu La, Nathu la, or Natula) is a pass on the Indo-China border connecting the Indian state of Sikkim with South Tibet. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha sa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), sometimes spelled Llasa, is the traditional capital of Tibet and the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... “Silk Route” redirects here. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ...


Transport

The River Teesta said to be the lifeline of Sikkim.
The River Teesta said to be the lifeline of Sikkim.

Sikkim does not have any airports or railheads because of its rough terrain. The closest airport, Bagdogra Airport, is near the town of Siliguri, West Bengal. The airport is about 124 km away from Gangtok. A regular helicopter service run by the Sikkim Helicopter Service connects Gangtok to Bagdogra; the flight is thirty minutes long, operates only once a day, and can carry 4 people.[17] The Gangtok helipad is the only civilian helipad in the state. The closest railway station is New Jalpaiguri which is situated sixteen kilometres from Siliguri.[3] The Teesta River, which begins in the Himalayas, is the lifeline of the Indian state of Sikkim, almost bisecting the state before merging with the mighty Brahmaputra. ... The Teesta River, which begins in the Himalayas, is the lifeline of the Indian state of Sikkim, almost bisecting the state before merging with the mighty Brahmaputra. ... The Teesta River is one of the most scenic rivers in Eastern India. ... Bagdogra airport is a civilian airport at a distance of about eighteen kilometres from the city of Siliguri in northern West Bengal, India. ... , Siliguri   (Bengali: শিলিগুড়ি) is a rapidly developing metropolis in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... An Atlas Oryx helicopter touches down on a helipad onboard the High Speed Vessel Swift (HSV 2) ship. ... New Jalpaiguri is a sister city of the city of Siliguri in Indias state of West Bengal. ... “km” redirects here. ...


National Highway 31A links Siliguri to Gangtok. The highway is an all-weather metalled road which mostly runs parallel to the river Teesta, entering Sikkim at Rangpo. Numerous public and privately run bus and jeep services connect the airport, railway station, and Siliguri to Gangtok. A branch of the highway from Melli connects western Sikkim. Towns in southern and western Sikkim are connected to the northern West Bengal hill stations of Kalimpong and Darjeeling. Within the state, four wheel drives are the most popular means of transport, as they can navigate rocky slopes. Minibuses link the smaller towns to the state and district headquarters.[3] The Teesta River is one of the most scenic rivers in Eastern India. ... Rangpo is a town in the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Melli (also spelt Malli) is a town on the West Bengal-Sikkim border on the River Teesta. ... Kalimpong town as viewed from a distant hill. ... , Kalimpong (Nepali: कालिम्पोङ) is a hill station (a hill town) nestled in the Shiwalik Hills (or Lower Himalaya) in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ...


Demographics

A traditional Buddhist dwelling in Gangtok
A traditional Buddhist dwelling in Gangtok

Today the majority of Sikkim's residents are of Nepali ethnic-national origin who came to the province in the 19th century. The native Sikkimese consist of the Bhutias, who migrated from the Kham district of Tibet in the 14th century, and the Lepchas who are believed to have migrated from the Far East. Tibetans reside mostly in the northern and eastern reaches of the state. Immigrant resident communities not native to the state include the Marwaris, who own most of the shops in South Sikkim and Gangtok; the Biharis, most of whom are employed in blue collar jobs; and the Bengalis. A traditional Buddhist house complete with Buddhist icons and statues in Gangtok. ... A traditional Buddhist house complete with Buddhist icons and statues in Gangtok. ... Motto जननी जन्मभूमिष्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी  (Sanskrit) Mother and motherland are dearer than the heavens Anthem Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka Capital (and largest city) Kathmandu Official languages Nepali Demonym Nepali Government Interim government  -  King Gyanendra1  -  Interim Head of State Girija Prasad Koirala  -  Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala Unification December 21, 1768  Area  -  Total 147,181... The Bhutias are people of Tibetan origin, who migrated to Sikkim, India and Bhutan some time after the 15th century. ... The Lepcha (population: 50,000) are the aboriginal inhabitants of present day Sikkim. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Marwari may refer to: Marwari Site, Connecting Marwaris :TheMarwari. ... South Sikkim is a district of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Bihari is a name given to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the Bihar region of India. ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Hinduism is the majority religion in the state with 60.9% of the population adhering to the religion [18]. Buddhism forms a large minority with 28.1% of the population following the religion [19]. Christian's form 6.7% of the population [20], consisting mostly of people of Lepcha origin, converted to the faith after British missionaries started preaching in the region in the late 19th century. The state has never had inter-religious strife. Mosques in downtown Gangtok and Mangan also serve the Muslim population, which numbers at 1.4% of the population [21]. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Mangan is the capital of the district of North Sikkim in the Indian state of Sikkim. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Nepali is the lingua franca of Sikkim. English and Hindi are also spoken and understood in most of Sikkim. Other languages spoken in Sikkim include Bhutia, Dzongkha, Groma, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Magar, Majhi, Majhwar, Nepal Bhasa, Rai, Sherpa, Sunuwar, Tamang, Thulung, Tibetan, and Yakha.[3][22] Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Indian English refers to the dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... Sikkimese (also known as Bhutia) is the sublanguage of South Tibetan (bhutanese-sikkimese, lhoke) language. ... Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... Groma (ISO/DIS 639-3: gro) is a language spoken in Sikkim and Tibet. ... Gurung (ISO/DIS 639-3: gvr) is a language spoken by the Gurung community in parts of Nepal and Sikkim in India. ... Lepcha (ISO/DIS 639-3: lep) is a language spoken by the Lepcha community in Sikkim in India, and parts of Nepal and Bhutan. ... Limbu (ISO/DIS 639-3: lif) is a Tibeto-Burman language (also called Yakthungpan, literally language of Limbus) spoken in parts of Sikkim in India and Nepal by the Limbu community. ... Magar (ISO/DIS 639-3: mgp /ISO/DIS 639-3: mrd) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim in India. ... Majhi (ISO/DIS 639-3: mjz) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... Majhwar (ISO/DIS 639-3: mmj) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... The Newar are the indigenous ethnolinguistic group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ... Dhanwar also known as Rai (ISO/DIS 639-3: dhw) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim mainly by the Rai community. ... Sherpa (ISO/DIS 639-3: xsr) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim mainly by the Sherpa community. ... Sunwar (ISO/DIS 639-3: suz) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... Tamang (ISO/DIS 639-3: taj) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... Majhi (ISO/DIS 639-3: tdh) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Yakha (ISO/DIS 639-3: ybh) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ...


As India's least populous state, Sikkim has only 540,493 inhabitants,[23] with 288,217 males and 252,276 females. It is also one of the least densely populated states with only 76 persons per square kilometre. Its growth rate is 32.98% (1991–2001). The sex ratio is 875 females per 1000 males. With 50,000 inhabitants, Gangtok is the state's only significant town. The urban population in Sikkim is 11.06%.[10] The per capita income stands at Rs. 11,356, which is one of the highest in the country.[22] Sex ratio by country for total population. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... The word male has the following meanings: In biology, it refers to one half of a heterogamous reproduction system, where the female is the other half. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Pakistani Rupee Indian Rupee Collection The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ...


Culture

The Gumpa being performed in Lachung during the Buddhist festival of Losar.
The Gumpa being performed in Lachung during the Buddhist festival of Losar.

Sikkim residents celebrate all major Indian festivals such as Diwali and Dussera, the popular Hindu festivals. Losar, Loosong, Saga Dawa, Lhabab Duechen, Drupka Teshi and Bhumchu are Buddhist festivals that are also celebrated. During the Losar – the Tibetan New Year in mid-December – most government offices and tourist centres are closed for a week. Christmas has also recently been promoted in Gangtok to attract tourists during the off-season.[24] The Gumpa dance is a special dance celebrated around the time of Losar, the Tibetan New Year. ... The Gumpa dance is a special dance celebrated around the time of Losar, the Tibetan New Year. ... Losar (Tibetan: ལོ་གསར་; Wylie: lo gsar) is the Tibetan word for new year. ... This article is about the Religious festival. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Losar (Tibetan: ལོ་གསར་; Wylie: lo gsar) is the Tibetan word for new year. ... Loosong is a Buddhist festival celebrated in the twelfth month of the Tibetan calendar. ... Saga Dawa is a Buddhist festival celebrated to observe Buddhas enlightenment. ... Lhabab Duechen is a Buddhist festival celebrated to observe the descent of Buddha from heaven back to earth. ... Drupka Teshi is a Buddhist festival celebrated to observe Buddhas first preaching of the Noble Truths at the Deer park in Sarnath. ... Bhumchu (Bhum=pot; Chu=water) is a Buddhist festival celebrated to predict the future. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


It is common to hear Western rock music being played in homes and in restaurants even in the countryside. Hindi songs have gained wide acceptance among the masses. Indigenous Nepali rock, music suffused with a Western rock beat and Nepali lyrics, is also particularly popular. Football and cricket are the two most popular sports. The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... IndiPop is a fusion of Indian and Western musical styles. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ...


Noodle-based dishes such as the thukpa, chowmein, thanthuk, fakthu, gyathuk and wonton are common in Sikkim. Momos, steamed dumplings filled with vegetable, buff (buffalo's meat) or pork and served with a soup are a popular snack. The mountain peoples have a diet rich in beef, pork and other meats. Alcohol is cheap owing to the low excise duty in Sikkim and beer, whiskey, rum and brandy are consumed by many Sikkimese. For other uses, see Noodle (disambiguation). ... This page has been successfully copied to the Wikibooks Cookbook using the Import tool. ... Look up buff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... This article is about the beverage. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ...


Almost all dwellings in Sikkim are rustic, consisting of a bamboo frame, woven with pliable bamboo and coated with cow dung, providing a warm interior. In the higher elevations, houses are made of wood. For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Fresh cow dung Cow dung being dried for fuel in India. ...

See also: Music of Sikkim

Sikkim is a state of India. ...

Government and politics

The White Hall complex houses the residences of the Chief Minister and Governor of Sikkim.
The White Hall complex houses the residences of the Chief Minister and Governor of Sikkim.

Like all states of India, the head of the state government is a governor appointed by the Central Indian Government. His appointment is largely ceremonial, and his main role is to oversee the swearing in of the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister, who holds the real executive powers, is the head of the party or coalition garnering the largest majority in the state elections. The governor also appoints the cabinet ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister. Sikkim has a unicameral legislature like most other Indian states. Sikkim is allocated one seat in each of both chambers of India's national bicameral legislature, the Lok Sabha, and the Rajya Sabha. There are a total of 32 state assembly seats including one reserved for the Sangha. The Sikkim High Court is the smallest high court in the country.[25] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... The Sikkim High Court is the High Court of the state of Sikkim. ...

State symbols[3]
State animal Red Panda
State bird Blood Pheasant
State tree Rhododendron
State flower Noble orchid

In 1975, after the abrogation of Sikkim's monarchy, the Congress Party got the largest majority in the 1977 elections. In 1979, after a period of instability, a popular ministry headed by Nar Bahadur Bhandari, leader of the Sikkim Sangram Parishad Party was sworn in. Bhandari held on to power in the 1984 and 1989 elections. In the 1994 elections Pawan Kumar Chamling from the Sikkim Democratic Front becoming the Chief Minister of the state. The party has since held on to power by winning the 1999 and 2004 elections.[6][17] A state animal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... For the Canadian Superhero, see Decoder Ring Theatre Binomial name F. Cuvier, 1825 Red Panda range subspecies The Red Panda, Ailurus fulgens (shining cat, from a Latinized form of the Greek αίλουρος, ailouros, cat, and the participial form of the Latin fulgere, to shine) [1] is a mostly herbivorous mammal, slightly... This is a list of Indian state (and union territory) birds: Categories: India lists ... Binomial name Ithaginis cruentus (Hardwicke, 1821) The Blood Pheasant, Ithaginis cruentus, is the only species in genus Ithaginis (Wagler, 1832) of the Pheasant family. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: U.S. state insignia | Lists of plants | Trees ... Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera (Azaleas) Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi (Azaleas) Vireya Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron po(from the Greek: rhodos, rose, and dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: External link Juelies State Flower Garden of Gifs See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: Lists of flowers | U.S. state insignia ... The Noble Orchid (Cymbidium goeringii) is an orchid found in Himalayan regions and in temperate locations. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Nar Bahadur Bhandari was the former Chief Minister of Sikkim from the Sikkim Parishad Party. ... The Sikkim Sangram Parishad Party is a political party based in the state of Sikkim in India. ... Pawan Kumar Chamling (b. ... The Sikkim Democratic Front is the largest and ruling party of the Indian state of Sikkim. ...

See also: Elections in Sikkim and List of political parties in the state

Legislative Assembly election results of Sikkim The total number of seats in the assembly is 32, including one seat reserved for the Sangha. ...

Infrastructure

Tibetology Museum and research centre
Tibetology Museum and research centre

Although roads in Sikkim are often exposed to landslides and flooding by nearby streams, the roads are significantly better than the equivalent roads of other Indian states. The roads are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO), an offshoot of the Indian army. The roads in South Sikkim and NH-31A are in good condition, landslides being less frequent in these areas. The state government maintains 1857.35 km of roadways that do not fall in the BRO jurisdiction.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. ... The Border Roads Organisation, also known by its acronym BRO, is run by the Indian army to maintain roads that serve the borders areas. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ...


Sikkim has a number of hydroelectric power stations, providing a steady electricity source. However the voltage is unstable and voltage stabilisers are needed. Per capita consumption of electricity in Sikkim is 182 kWh. 73.2% of households have access to safe drinking water,[10] and the large number of streams assures abundant water supply, thus the state never witnesses droughts. A number of hydel projects are under construction on the Teesta river and their likely environmental impact is a matter of concern. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... The kilowatt-hour (symbol: kW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ...


Media

The Rumtek monastery is the most famous monument of Sikkim and was the centre of media attention in 2000.
The Rumtek monastery is the most famous monument of Sikkim and was the centre of media attention in 2000.

The southern urban areas have English, Nepali and Hindi dailies. Nepali language newspapers are locally printed, whereas Hindi and English newspapers are printed in Siliguri. English newspapers include The Statesman and The Telegraph which are printed in Siliguri, as well as The Hindu and The Times of India, printed in Calcutta, and are received with a day's delay in the towns of Gangtok, Jorethang, Melli and Geyzing. The Sikkim Herald is an official weekly publication of the government. The Haalkhabar is the only International standard daily news portal from Sikkim. Download high resolution version (900x665, 193 KB)Rumtek Monastery, Sikkim. ... Download high resolution version (900x665, 193 KB)Rumtek Monastery, Sikkim. ... Rumtek monastery Rumtek (Tibetan: རུམ་ཐེག་དགོན་པ་, Wylie: Rum-theg dGon-pa), also called the Dharmachakra Centre, is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery located in the Indian state of Sikkim near the capital Gangtok. ... , Siliguri   (Bengali: শিলিগুড়ি) is a rapidly developing metropolis in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Established in 1875, The Statesman is among the leading daily newspapers of India. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... The Hindu is a leading English-language newspaper in South India, with its largest base of circulation in Tamil Nadu. ... The Times of India, often abbreviated as TOI, is one of Indias leading daily newspapers, owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Jorethang is a major town in south Sikkim, India. ... Melli (also spelt Malli) is a town on the West Bengal-Sikkim border on the River Teesta. ... Gyalshing or Geyzing is the capital of the district of West Sikkim in the Indian state of Sikkim. ...


Internet cafés are well established in the district capitals, but broadband connectivity is not widely available, and many rural areas have yet to be linked to the Internet. Satellite television channels through dish antennae are available in most homes in the state. Channels served are the same available throughout India along with a Nepali language channels. The main service providers are Sikkim Cable, Dish TV, Doordarshan and Nayuma. The area is well serviced by local cellular companies such as BSNL, Reliance Infocomm, and Airtel. BSNL has state wide coverage, whereas Reliance Infocomm and Airtel have coverage only in urban areas. The national All India Radio is the only radio station in the state.[26] Dish TV is a satellite broadcasting service available to users in India,Sri Lanka,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nepal and parts of South East Asia. ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... Logo BSNL or Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is Indias largest Communication Service Provider (CSP), and seventh largest in the world. ... Reliance could refer to: Reliance Industries Limited, Indian conglomerate which includes: Reliance Infocomm, telecommunications subsidiary Reliance Energy, electricity subsidiary Reliance (yacht), Americas Cup defender in 1903 a popular name for the ZPG-3W airships of the US Navy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bharti Televentures. ... For the electronica band, see All India Radio (band). ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ...


Education

Literacy is 69.68%, which breaks down into 76.73% for males and 61.46% for females. There are a total of 1545 government-run educational institutions and eighteen private schools mostly located in the towns.[10] There are about twelve colleges and other institutions in Sikkim that offer higher education. The largest institution is the Sikkim Manipal University of Health Medical and Technological Sciences which offers higher education in engineering, medicine and management. It also runs a host of distance education in diverse fields. There are two state-run polytechnics, Advanced Technical Training Centre (ATTC) and Centre for Computers and Communication Technology (CCCT) in Sikkim which offer diploma courses in various branches of engineering. ATTC is situated at Bardang, Singtam and CCCT at Chisopani, Namchi. Many students however, migrate to Siliguri and Calcutta for their higher education. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Arjun Adlakha (April 1997). Population Trends: India (PDF). International brief 5. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Physical Features of Sikkim. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim (2005-09-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g General Information. Sikkiminfo.net. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  4. ^ About Sikkim. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim (2005-09-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  5. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  6. ^ a b History of Sikkim. Government of Sikkim (2002-08-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  7. ^ Elections after the merger. Sikkiminfo.net. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  8. ^ Baruah, Amit. "China backs India's bid for U.N. Council seat", The Hindu, 2005-04-12. Retrieved on 2006-10-12. 
  9. ^ a b "Hisotric India-China link opens", BBC, 2006-07-06. Retrieved on 2006-10-12. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Sikkim at a glance. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim (2005-09-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  11. ^ Evans,W.H.(1932) The Identification of Indian Butterflies, (2/e) pp 23
  12. ^ Haribal, Meena (1994) Butterflies of Sikkim, pg 9.
  13. ^ National Accounts Division : Press release & Statements. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (2006-05-23). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  14. ^ Economy of Sikkim. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim (2005-09-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  15. ^ Playwin lottery. Interplay Multimedia Pty. Ltd. (2006-08-20). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  16. ^ Sikkim's Economy. National Informatics Centre (2002-08-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  17. ^ a b 30 Years of Statehood In a Nutshell. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim (2005-11-24). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  18. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  19. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  20. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  21. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  22. ^ a b People of Sikkim. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim (2005-09-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  23. ^ Sikkim statistics. Government of India. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  24. ^ Culture and Festivals of Sikkim. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim (2005-09-29). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  25. ^ "Judge strengths in High Courts increased", Ministry of Law & Justice, 2003-10-30. Retrieved on 2006-10-12. 
  26. ^ Entertainment in Sikkim. Sikkiminfo.net. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Evans, W.H. (1932) The Identification of Indian Butterflies. (2nd Ed), Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.
  • Haribal, Meena (1992) Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and their Natural History. Sikkim Nature Conservation Foundation.
  • Hooker, Joseph Dalton "Himalayan Journals" Ward, Lock, Bowden & Co. Assistant-director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Holidaying in Sikkim and Bhutan – published by Nest and Wings – ISBN 81-87592-07-9
  • Sikkim — Land of Mystic and Splendour – published by Sikkim Tourism.
  • Manorama Yearbook 2003 – ISBN 81-900461-8-7

Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sikkim - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3811 words)
Sikkim has four districts, each overseen by a Central Government appointee, the district collector, who is in-charge of the administration of the civilian areas of the districts.
The avifauna of Sikkim is comprised of the Impeyan pheasant, the crimson horned pheasant, the snow partridge, the snow cock, the lammergeyer and griffon vultures, as well as golden eagles, quail, plovers, woodcock, sandpipers, pigeons, Old World flycatchers, babblers and robins.
Among the minerals mined in Sikkim are copper, dolomite, limestone, graphite, mica, iron, and coal.
History of Sikkim - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1597 words)
In 1835, Sikkim was forced to cede the town of Darjeeling to the British on the condition that a compensation of Rs 35,000 be paid to him.
The doctors were detained by the Sikkim government, which led to a punitive British expedition against the Himalayan kingdom in which the whole of Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed in 1861, although the kingdom continued to exist as an independent rump state centred around the capital at Gangtok.
Sikkim had retained guarantees of independence from Britain when she became independent, and such guarantees were transferred to the Indian government when it gained independence in 1947.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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