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Encyclopedia > Sikhism
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Sikhism

Image File history File links Khanda1. ...

History of Sikhism
Sikh beliefs
Sikh
The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab, the socio-political situation in medieval India, and the social structures and philosophies of Hinduism and Islam. ... // Ek Onkar There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...

The Sikh Gurus
Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ...

Sikh Bhagats
Sikh Bhagats refers to the Saints and holy men of various faiths whose teachings are included in the Sikh holy book the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. ...

Other Important People
This article list historic personalites who are important to the Sikh religion: Bhai Gurdas (1551-1637) is one of the most eminent literary personalities in the history of the Sikh religion. ...

Philosophy
Beliefs and principles
Underlying values
Prohibitions
Technique and methods
Other observations · Bani
The Sikh religious philosophy is covered in great detail in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy text. ... // There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... The Sikhs must believe in the following values: Equality: All humans are equal before God – No discrimination is allowed on the basis of caste, race, sex, creed, origin, color, education, status, wealth, etc. ... There are a number of religious prohibitions in Sikhism and by the SGPC: Cutting Hair: Cutting hair is strictly forbidden in Sikhism. ... Naam: Or Naam Japo. ... The Golden Temple is the most important sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism comes from the word Sikh, which means a strong and able disciple. ... Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ...

Sikh practices · List
The practice of the Sikh way of life has been laid out by the Gurus in simple, precise and practical manner. ...

Scripture
Guru Granth Sahib
Adi Granth · Dasam Granth
The principal Sikh scripture is the Adi Granth (First Scripture), more commonly called the Guru Granth Sahib. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ...

Categories
Practices · History
Family of the Sikh Gurus
Gurdwara
Places · Politics

Articles on Sikhism
Portal: Sikhism
This list is of topics related to Sikhs and Sikhism. ...

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Sikhism Portal

Sikhism (IPA: /ˈsiːkɪzəm/ or /ˈsɪk-/ ; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ, sikkhī, IPA: [ˈsɪkkʰiː] ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world.[1] This system of religious philosophy and expression has been traditionally known as the Gurmat (literally the counsel of the gurus) or the Sikh Dharma. Sikhism originated from the word Sikh, which in turn comes from the Sanskrit root śiṣya meaning "disciple" or "learner", or śikṣa meaning "instruction."[2][3] Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Seekism. ... Image File history File links Sikism. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Image File history File links Sikkhi. ... Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: , ) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 20th October 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005 (Encyclopaedia Britannica). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... GURMAT (gur-mat, mat, Sanskrit mati, i. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The guru-shishya tradition (also guru-shishya parampara or lineage) is a spiritual relationship found within traditional Hinduism which is centered around the transmission of teachings from a guru (teacher, ) to a Å›iá¹£ya (disciple, ). The term shishya roughly equates to the western term disciple, and in some parts of...


The principal belief of Sikhism is faith in Vāhigurū—represented using the sacred symbol of ēk ōaṅkār. Sikhism advocates the pursuit of salvation through disciplined, personal meditation on the name and message of God. A key distinctive feature of Sikhism is a non-anthropomorphic concept of God, to the extent that one can interpret God as the Universe itself. The followers of Sikhism are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture entitled the Gurū Granth Sāhib, which includes the selected works of many authors from diverse socioeconomic and religious backgrounds. The text was decreed by Gobind Singh, the tenth guru, as the final guru of the Khalsa Panth. Sikhism's traditions and teachings are distinctly associated with the history, society and culture of the Punjab. Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs (students or disciples) and number over 23 million across the world. Most Sikhs live in the state of Punjab in India and, prior to the country's partition, millions of Sikhs lived in what is now the Punjab province of Pakistan. Waheguru (Punjabi: , or , ) means The Wonderful Lord in the Punjabi language. ... Stylised Ek Onkar Simple Ek Onkar Ek Onkar (also , , Ä’k ÅŒaá¹…kār, Ek Omkar, Ik Onkar and other variants) means one God and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... Khalsa Panth is the literal theocracy that manages the affairs of the Khalsa. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ...

Contents

Philosophy and teachings

The Harimandir Sahib, known popularly as the Golden Temple, is a sacred shrine for Sikhs.
The Harimandir Sahib, known popularly as the Golden Temple, is a sacred shrine for Sikhs.

Sikh religious philosophy has roots in the religious traditions of northern India.[4] The Sant Mat traditions are fundamental to the teachings of Sikhism's founder, Nanak. Especially important to the connection with Sikhism were the teachings of some of the saints such as Ravidas and Kabir. Sikhism is also inspired by the emphasis on devotion to God in the traditions of Vaishnavism, especially through the Bhakti movement, as well as influences of Sufism. However, Nanak's teachings diverge significantly from Vaishnavism in their rejection of idol worship, the doctrine of divine incarnations and a strict emphasis on inward devotion; Sikhism is professed to be a more difficult personal pursuit than Bhakti.[5] The evolution of Nanak's thoughts on the basis of his own experiences and study have also given Sikhism a distinctly unique feature. The Sikh religious philosophy is covered in great detail in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy text. ... // There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (974x640, 77 KB) Summary The Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) at night. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (974x640, 77 KB) Summary The Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) at night. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan click here. ... Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ... This box:      Indian religious leader and founder Satguru of the Ravidasi beliefs, revered by most Hindus as a Sant, by Nirankari sect, Balmiki sect as a Guru, by Radhasoami organization as a Sant and as a Bhagat by Sikhs, which is a somewhat lesser station than that attributed to him... A painting of Kabir KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ...


God

Sikhism is a monotheistic religion. (belief in one God). In Sikhism, God—termed Vāhigurū—is formless, eternal, and unobserved: niraṅkār, akāl, and alakh. The beginning of the first composition of Sikh scripture is the figure "1"—signifying the universality of God. It states that God is omnipresent and infinite, and is signified by the term ēk ōaṅkār[5]. Sikhs believe that prior to creation, all that existed was God and his hukam (will or order).[6] When God willed, the entire cosmos was created. From these beginnings, God nurtured "enticement and attachment" to māyā, or the human perception of reality.[7] Waheguru (Punjabi: , or , ) means The Wonderful Lord in the Punjabi language. ... Nirankar (Punjabi: , ) means without form or formless and is used in the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib to refer to God. ... AKAL literally timeless, immortal, non-temporal, is a term integral to Sikh tradition and philosophy. ... Alakh Niranjan is a phrase used in Hinduism and Sikhism to describe the characteristics of God and the Self (Atman). ... This article is about the number one. ... Omnipresence is defined, in a general sense, as: the ability to be present in every place at the same time; unbounded or universal presence. ... Stylised Ek Onkar Simple Ek Onkar Ek Onkar (also , , Ä’k ÅŒaá¹…kār, Ek Omkar, Ik Onkar and other variants) means one God and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


While a full understanding of God is beyond human beings,[5] Nanak described God as not wholly unknowable. God is omnipresent (sarav viāpak) in all creation and visible everywhere to the spiritually awakened. Nanak stressed that God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the "heart", of a human being: devotees must meditate to progress towards enlightenment. Nanak emphasised the revelation through meditation, as its rigorous application permits the existence of communication between God and human beings.[5] God has no gender in Sikhism, though translations may incorrectly present a masculine God. In addition, Nanak wrote that there are many worlds on which God has created life.[8] Sarav viapak (Punjabi: , ) means all pervading or omnipresent and is used in the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib to refer to God. ... Meditation usually refers to a state of extreme relaxation and concentration, in which the body is generally at rest and the mind quieted of surface thoughts. ...


Pursuing salvation

A Sikh man at the Harimandir Sahib.
A Sikh man at the Harimandir Sahib.

Nanak's teachings are founded not on a final destination of heaven or hell, but on a spiritual union with God which results in salvation. The chief obstacles to the attainment of salvation are social conflicts and an attachment to worldly pursuits, which commit men and women to an endless cycle of birth — a concept known as reincarnation. Image File history File linksMetadata Sikh. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sikh. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan click here. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ...


Māyā—defined as illusion or "unreality"—is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of God and salvation: people are distracted from devotion by worldly attractions which give only illusive satisfaction. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference to the unreality of the world, but of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, anger, greed, attachment and lust—known as the Five Evils—are believed to be particularly pernicious. The fate of people vulnerable to the Five Evils is separation from God, and the situation may be remedied only after intensive and relentless devotion.[9] Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... KRODH is derived from the Sanskrit word krodha which means wrath or Rage. ... Lobh is a Gurmukhi word which translates in English to greed. ... MOH or Moh may refer to: MOH, Method of Hardness of a tile. ... The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ...


Nanak described God's revelation—the path to salvation—with terms such as nām (the divine Name) and śabad (the divine Word) to emphasise the totality of the revelation. Nanak designated the word guru (meaning teacher) as the voice of God and the source and guide for knowledge and salvation.[10] Salvation can be reached only through rigorous and disciplined devotion to God. Nanak distinctly emphasised the irrelevance of outwardly observations such as rites, pilgrimages or asceticism. He stressed that devotion must take place through the heart, with the spirit and the soul. Shabad: Word Shabad is the term used by Sikhs to refer to a hymn or paragraph or sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A key practice to be pursued is nām simraṇ: remembrance of the divine Name. The verbal repetition of the name of God or a sacred syllable is an established practice in religious traditions in India, but Nanak's interpretation emphasised inward, personal observance. Nanak's ideal is the total exposure of one's being to the divine Name and a total conforming to Dharma or the "Divine Order". Nanak described the result of the disciplined application of nām simraṇ as a "growing towards and into God" through a gradual process of five stages. The last of these is sac khaṇḍ (The Realm of Truth)—the final union of the spirit with God.[10] Nām Japō (Punjabi: ), refers to the meditation, vocal singing of Hymns from the Sri Guru Granth Sahib or of the various Names of God, specially the chanting of the word Waheguru, which means Wonderful Lord. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Sach Khand alternatively spelt Sac Khand is the Sikh concept of Salvation or Liberation from the cycle of birth and rebirth in Samsara. ...


Nanak stressed kirat karō: that a Sikh should balance work, worship, and charity, and should defend the rights of all creatures, and in particular, fellow human beings. They are encouraged to have a caṛdī kalā, or optimistic, view of life. Sikh teachings also stress the concept of sharing—vaṇḍ chakkō—through the distribution of free food at Sikh gurdwaras (laṅgar), giving charitable donations, and working for the betterment of the community and others (sēvā). Kirat Karō is one of three primary pillars of Sikhism. ... Chardi Kala is an important expression used in Sikhism for a mind frame that a Sikh has to accept and practise. ... In Sikhism Vaṇḍ Chakkō (Punjabi: ) is a technique and method which means share it as you consume it. ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... For the Sufi practice of Langar, see Langar (Sufism). ...


The ten gurus and religious authority

Main article: Sikh Gurus
A rare Tanjore style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh Gurus with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana.
A rare Tanjore style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh Gurus with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana.

The term guru comes from the Sanskrit gurū, meaning teacher, guide or mentor. The traditions and philosophy of Sikhism were established by ten specific gurus from 1507 to 1708. Each guru added to and reinforced the message taught by the previous, resulting in the creation of the Sikh religion. Guru Nanak Dev was the first guru and appointed a disciple as successor. Guru Gobind Singh was the final guru in human form. Before his death, Gobind Singh decreed that the Gurū Granth Sāhib would be the final and perpetual guru of the Sikhs.[11] Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (887x1172, 452 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Tanjore painting Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (887x1172, 452 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Tanjore painting Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... A Tanjore Painting depicting Goddess Saraswati A rare Tanjore style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh Gurus with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana. ... Bhai Bala was a companion of the Sikh guru, Nanak. ... Bhai Mardana (1459-1534) was of the Muslim faith and a long term companion of the Sikh founder guru, Nanak throughout his extensive journeys across India and abroad. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: , ) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 20th October 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ...

# Name Date of Birth Guruship on Date of Death Age
1 Nanak Dev 15 April 1469 20 August 1507 22 September 1539 69
2 Angad Dev 31 March 1504 7 September 1539 29 March 1552 48
3 Amar Das 5 May 1479 26 March 1552 1 September 1574 95
4 Ram Das 24 September 1534 1 September 1574 1 September 1581 46
5 Arjan Dev 15 April 1563 1 September 1581 30 May 1606 43
6 Har Gobind 19 June 1595 25 May 1606 28 February 1644 48
7 Har Rai 16 January 1630 3 March 1644 6 October 1661 31
8 Har Krishan 7 July 1656 6 October 1661 30 March 1664 7
9 Teg Bahadur 1 April 1621 20 March 1665 11 November 1675 54
10 Gobind Singh 22 December 1666 11 November 1675 7 October 1708 41
11 Guru Granth Sahib N/A (Not applicable) 7 October 1708 to (Never ending) N/A N/A

After Guru Nanak Dev's passing, the most important phase in the development of Sikhism came with the third successor, Guru Amar Das. Guru Nanak Dev's teachings emphasised the pursuit of salvation; Guru Amar Das began building a cohesive community of followers with initiatives such as sanctioning distinctive ceremonies for birth, marriage and death. Guru Amar Das also established the manji (comparable to a diocese) system of clerical supervision.[10] Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: , ) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 20th October 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1507 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ ਦੇਵ ਜੀ) (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552) was the second of The Ten Gurus of Sikhism. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Guru Amar Das Guru Amar Das (Punjabi: ) (Born in Amritsar, Punjab, India on 5 May 1479 – 14 May 1574 Amritsar, Punjab, India) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 26 March 1552 following in the footsteps of Guru Angad Dev, who died 29... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... Guru Arjan, right, dictating the Adi Granth to Bhai Gurdas. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Mid-nineteenth century miniature of Guru Hargobind. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Guru Har Rai ji. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Guru Har Krishan (Punjabi: ) (Born in Rupnagar, Punjab, India on 7 July 1656 as – 30 March 1664, Delhi, India) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 7 October 1661 following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Har Rai. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... The characters N/A (sometimes n/a) are an abbreviation that is mainly used in information tables. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... The concept of something existing beyond the flow of time, or retaining its status for an infinite period of time. ... The characters N/A (sometimes n/a) are an abbreviation that is mainly used in information tables. ... The characters N/A (sometimes n/a) are an abbreviation that is mainly used in information tables. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...

The interior of the Akal Takht.
The interior of the Akal Takht.

Guru Amar Das's successor and son-in-law Ram Das founded the city of Amritsar, which is home of the Harimandir Sahib and regarded widely as the holiest city for all Sikhs. When Guru Ram Das's youngest son Guru Arjun Dev succeeded him, the line of male gurus from the Sodhi Khatri family was established: all succeeding gurus were direct descendants of this line. Guru Arjun Dev was responsible for compiling the Sikh scriptures. Guru Arjun Dev was captured by Mughal authorities who were suspicious and hostile to the religious order he was developing.[12] His persecution and death inspired his successors to promote a military and political organisation of Sikh communities to defend themselves against the attacks of Mughal forces. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1727x1188, 425 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1727x1188, 425 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan click here. ...


The Sikh gurus established a mechanism which allowed the Sikh religion to react as a community to changing circumstances. The sixth guru, Guru Har Gobind Sahib, was responsible for the creation of the Akal Takht (throne of the timeless one) which serves as the supreme decision-making centre of Sikhdom and sits opposite the Harimandir Sahib. The Sarbat Ḵẖālsā (a representative portion of the Khalsa Panth) historically gathers at the Akal Takht on special festivals such as Vaisakhi or Diwali and when there is a need to discuss matters that affect the entire Sikh nation. A gurmatā (literally, guru's intention) is an order passed by the Sarbat Ḵẖālsā in the presence of the Gurū Granth Sāhib. A gurmatā may only be passed on a subject that affects the fundamental principles of Sikh religion; it is binding upon all Sikhs.[13] The term hukamnāmā (literally, edict or royal order) is often used interchangeably with the term gurmatā. However, a hukamnāmā formally refers to a hymn from the Gurū Granth Sāhib which is given as an order to Sikhs. The Akal Takht (Punjabi: , ) is the second holiest shrine of the Sikhs. ... The Sarbat Khalsa is a gathering of a representative portion of the Khalsa Panth. ... A Gurmata (literally, gurus intention) is an order passed by the Sarbat Khalsa in the presence of the Guru Granth Sahib. ... A Hukamnama refers to a hymn from the Guru Granth Sahib which is given as an order to Sikhs. ...


History

Main article: History of Sikhism

Guru Nanak Dev (1469–1538), the founder of Sikhism, was born in the village of Rāi Bhōi dī Talvaṇḍī, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore (in what is present-day Pakistan).[14] His father, Mehta Kalu was a Patwari: an accountant of land revenue in the government. Nanak's mother was Tripta Devi and he had one older sister, Nanaki. His parents were Khatri Hindus of the Bedi clan. As a boy, Nanak was fascinated by religion, and his desire to explore the mysteries of life eventually led him to leave home. It was during this period that Nanak was said to have met Kabir (1440–1518), a saint revered by people of different faiths. The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab, the socio-political situation in medieval India, and the social structures and philosophies of Hinduism and Islam. ... Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: , ) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 20th October 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. ... Nankana Sahib, also known as Raipur and Rai-Bhoi-di-Talwandi is a city in the state of Punjab in present-day Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Accountant, or Qualified Accountant, or Professional Accountant, is a certified accountancy and financial expert in the jurisdiction of many countries. ... Category: ... Bibi Nanki. ... A Khatri is not a Kshatriya and never was one. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bedi is a well known Khatri clan in India. ... A painting of Kabir KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ...


Sikh tradition states that at the age of thirty, Nanak went missing and was presumed to have drowned after going for one of his morning baths to a local stream called the Kali Bein. Three days later he reappeared and would give the same answer to any question posed to him: "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim" (in Punjabi, "nā kō hindū nā kō musalmān"). It was from this moment that Nanak would begin to spread the teachings of what was then the beginning of Sikhism.[15] Although the exact account of his itinerary is disputed, he is widely acknowledged to have made four major journeys, spanning thousands of kilometres. The first tour being east towards Bengal and Assam, the second south towards Ceylon via Tamil Nadu, the third north towards Kashmir, Ladakh and Tibet, and the final tour west towards Baghdad and Mecca.[16] For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


Nanak was married to Sulakhni, the daughter of Moolchand Chona, a rice trader from the town of Batala. They had two sons. The elder son, Sri Chand, was an ascetic, and he came to have a considerable following of his own, known as the Udasis. The younger son, Lakshmi Das, on the other hand, was totally immersed in worldly life. To Nanak, who believed in the ideal of rāj maiṁ jōg (detachment in civic life), both his sons were unfit to carry on the Guruship. The history of the town Gurdaspur, the district headquarter,dates back to early seventeenth century. ... Baba Sri Chand (1494-1629[1]) was the first son of Guru Nanak, raised by his sister. ... Udasi is a sect within Sikhism. ...


Growth of the Sikh community

In 1538, Nanak chose his disciple Lahiṇā, a Khatri of the Trehan clan, as a successor to the guruship rather than either of his sons. Lahiṇā was named Guru Angad Dev and became the second guru of the Sikhs.[17] Nanak conferred his choice at the town of Kartarpur on the banks of the river Ravi, where Nanak had finally settled down after his travels. Though Sri Chand was not an ambitious man, the Udasis believed that the Guruship should have gone to him, since he was a man of pious habits in addition to being Nanak's son. They refused to accept Angad's succession. On Nanak's advice, Angad shifted from Kartarpur to Khadur, where his wife Khivi and children were living, until he was able to bridge the divide between his followers and the Udasis. Angad continued the work started by Nanak and is widely credited for standardising the Gurmukhī script as used in the sacred scripture of the Sikhs. A Khatri is not a Kshatriya and never was one. ... Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ ਦੇਵ ਜੀ) (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552) was the second of The Ten Gurus of Sikhism. ... Kartarpur is a small town located about 16 km from Jalandhar. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... Mata Khivi (1506 - 1582) came from the small town of Sanghar which is now located in the province of Sindh in Pakistan. ... The GurmukhÄ« (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) script is derived from the Later Sharada script and was standardized by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad Dev, in the 16th century for writing the Punjabi language. ...


Guru Amar Das, a Khatri of the Bhalla clan, became the third Sikh guru in 1552 at the age of 73. Goindval became an important centre for Sikhism during the guruship of Amar Das. He preached the principle of equality for women by prohibiting purdah and sati. Amar Das also encouraged the practice of langar and made all those who visited him attend laṅgar before they could speak to him.[18] In 1567, Emperor Akbar sat with the ordinary and poor people of Punjab to have laṅgar. Amar Das also trained 146 apostles of which 52 were women, to manage the rapid expansion of the religion.[19] Before he died in 1574 aged 95, he appointed his son-in-law Jēṭhā, a Khatri of the Sodhi clan, as the fourth Sikh guru. Guru Amar Das Guru Amar Das (Punjabi: ) (Born in Amritsar, Punjab, India on 5 May 1479 – 14 May 1574 Amritsar, Punjab, India) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 26 March 1552 following in the footsteps of Guru Angad Dev, who died 29... A Khatri is not a Kshatriya and never was one. ... Goindval(also known as Goindwal) is a place in Amritsar district in the states of Punjab in India. ... Ladies of Caubul (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in zenana areas. ... // Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ... For the Sufi practice of Langar, see Langar (Sufism). ... Jalauddin Akbar Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbár, (alternative spellings include Jellaladin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – 1605) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from the time of his accession in 1556 until 1605. ... Prominent Sodhi families: Sodhis of Guru Harshai, Ferozpur, Punjab: descended from the first son of Guru Ram Das, Baba Prithi Chand and are the most prominet family of the Sodhi clan Sodhis of Anandpur: Anandpur was founded by Gulab Rai, first cousin to the 10th Guru. ...


Jēṭhā became Guru Ram Das and vigorously undertook his duties as the new guru. He is responsible for the establishment of the city of Ramdaspur later to be named Amritsar. In 1581, Guru Arjun Dev—youngest son of the fourth guru—became the fifth guru of the Sikhs. In addition to being responsible for building the Harimandir Sahib (often called the Golden Temple), he prepared the Sikh sacred text known as the Ādi Granth (literally the first book) and included the writings of the first five gurus. In 1606, for refusing to make changes to the Granth and for supporting an unsuccessful contender to the throne, he was tortured and killed by the Mughal ruler, Jahangir.[20] Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan click here. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... n ...


Political advancement

Guru Har Gobind, became the sixth guru of the Sikhs. He carried two swords—one for spiritual and the other for temporal reasons (known as mīrī and pīrī in Sikhism).[21] Sikhs grew as an organised community and always had a trained fighting force to defend their independence. In 1644, Guru Har Rai became guru followed by Guru Har Krishan, the boy guru, in 1661. No hymns composed by these three gurus are included in the Sikh holy book.[22] Mid-nineteenth century miniature of Guru Hargobind. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article is about secularism. ... Guru Har Rai ji. ... Guru Har Krishan (Punjabi: ) (Born in Rupnagar, Punjab, India on 7 July 1656 as – 30 March 1664, Delhi, India) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 7 October 1661 following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Har Rai. ...


Guru Teg Bahadur became guru in 1665 and led the Sikhs until 1675. Teg Bahadur was executed by Aurangzeb for helping to protect Hindus, after a delegation of Kashmiri Pandits came to him for help when the Emperor condemned them to death for failing to convert to Islam.[23] He was succeeded by his son, Gobind Rai who was just nine years old at the time of his father's death. Gobind Rai further militarised his followers, and was baptised by the Pañj Piārē when he formed the Khalsa in 1699. From here on in he was known as Guru Gobind Singh.[24] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Original Kashmiri Pandit (Hindi: ) refers to a person who belongs to a sect of Hindu Pandits who originate from the Kashmir region. ... The Panj Piare (Punjabi: , , literally the five beloved ones), name given to the five Sikhs, Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mukham Singh and Bhai Sahib Singh, who were so designated by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ...


From the time of Nanak, when it was a loose collection of followers who focused entirely on the attainment of salvation and God, the Sikh community had significantly transformed. Even though the core Sikh religious philosophy was never affected, the followers now began to develop a political identity. Conflict with Mughal authorities escalated during the lifetime of Teg Bahadur and Gobind Singh. The latter founded the Khalsa in 1699. The Khalsa is a disciplined community that combines its religious purpose and goals with political and military duties.[4] After Aurangzeb killed four of his sons, Gobind Singh sent Aurangzeb the Zafarnāmā (Notification/Epistle of Victory). Zafarnama means the Notification of Victory and is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1705 to the Emperor of India, Aurangzeb. ...


Shortly before his death, Gobind Singh ordered that the Gurū Granth Sāhib (the Sikh Holy Scripture), would be the ultimate spiritual authority for the Sikhs and temporal authority would be vested in the Khalsa Panth – The Sikh Nation/Community.[11] The first scripture was compiled and edited by the fifth guru, Arjun Dev, in 1604. a former ascetic, was charged by Gobind Singh with the duty of punishing those who had persecuted the Sikhs. After the guru's death, Banda Bahadur became the leader of the Sikh army and was responsible for several attacks on the Mughal empire. He was executed by the emperor Jahandar Shah after refusing the offer of a pardon if he converted to Islam.[25] The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Jahandar Shah (1661-1713) was Mughal Emperor for a brief period in 1712-1713 AD. Jahandar Shah was born on May 9, 1661, a son of the future emperor Bahadur Shah I. Upon the death of their father, he and his brother Azim-ush-shan both declared themselves emperor and...


The Sikh community's embrace of military and political organisation made it a considerable regional force in medieval India and it continued to evolve after the demise of the gurus. After the death of Banda Bahadur, a loose confederation of Sikh warrior bands known as misls formed. With the decline of the Mughal empire, a Sikh empire arose in the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, with its capital in Lahore and limits reaching the Khyber Pass and the borders of China. The order, traditions and discipline developed over centuries culminated at the time of Ranjit Singh to give rise to the common religious and social identity that the term "Sikhism" describes.[26] The Sikh Confederacy (from 1716-1799) was a collection of small to medium sized independent sovereign, punjabi Sikh states, which were governed by barons, in Punjab[1]. They were loosely politically linked but strongly bound in the cultural and religious spheres. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Not to be confused with Ranjitsinhji (1872-1933), cricketer and Maharaja of Nawanagar. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m , 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. ...


After the death of Ranjit Singh, the Sikh kingdom fell into disorder and was eventually annexed by Britain after the hard fought Anglo-Sikh Wars. This brought the Punjab under British rule. Sikhs formed the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee and the Shiromani Akali Dal to preserve Sikhs religious and political organisation. With the partition of India in 1947, thousands of Sikhs were killed in violence and millions were forced to leave their ancestral homes in West Punjab.[27] Sikhs were facing opposition from the Government in forming a linguistic state that other states in India were afforded.The Akali Dal started a non-violent movement for Sikh and Punjabi rights, but was brutally suppressed by India. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale led a movement to restore Sikh rights but the movement was opposed by the Indira Government and eventually attacked by the army killing thousands of Sikhs in Operation Bluestar and the Khalistan movement, This was followed by the 1984 Anti-Sikh riots massacres all over India.[28] There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (Punjabi: , ) is a Sikh religious organisation responsible for the upkeep of gurdwaras. ... Akali Dal, also termed as Shiromani Akali Dal (Akali Religious Party), is a Sikh political party mainly based in Punjab, India. ... This article is under construction. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale or Jarnail Singh (Punjabi: ; February 12, 1947–June 6, 1984) was the leader of the Damdami Taksal, a Sikh religious group based in India. ... The Operation Blue Star (also known as the Golden Temple Massacre) (June 4 to June 6, 1984) was the Indian military raid of the Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, the holiest temple of the Sikh religion. ... Punjab State A proposed flag for Khalistan Proposed Khalistani Currency The Khālistān movement (Punjabi: ) is a movement in Indian Punjab in the 1970s and 80s to create The Land of the Pure as an independent state in all Punjabi-speaking areas contiguous to the borders of Indian Punjab... 1984 Anti-Sikh riots took place in India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi on October 31, 1984. ...


Another note to add: Sikhs like to call the 10 Gurus our "shaheed's" - or martyrs of the Sikh religion. We don't like to use time of "death".


Scripture

There are two primary sources of scripture for the Sikhs: the Gurū Granth Sāhib and the Dasam Granth. The Gurū Granth Sāhib may be referred to as the Ādi Granth—literally, The First Volume—and the two terms are often used synonymously. Here, however, the Ādi Granth refers to the version of the scripture created by Arjun Dev in 1604. The Gurū Granth Sāhib refers to the final version of the scripture created by Gobind Singh. Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ...


Adi Granth

Main article: Ādi Granth

It is believed that the Ādi Granth was compiled primarily by Bhai Gurdas under the supervision of Arjun Dev between the years 1603 and 1604.[29] It is written in the Gurmukhī script, which is a descendant of the Laṇḍā script used in the Punjab at that time.[30] The Gurmukhī script was standardised by Arjun Dev for use in the Sikh scriptures and is thought to have been influenced by the Śāradā and Devanāgarī scripts. An authoritative scripture was created to protect the integrity of hymns and teachings of the Sikh gurus and selected bhagats. At the time, Arjun Dev tried to prevent undue influence from the followers of Prithi Chand, the guru's older brother and rival.[31] The Adi Granth (Punjabi: , ; pronounced Aad Granth), literally the first book is an early compilation of the Sikh scriptures by Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru. ... Bhai Gurdas (1551-1636) was a Punjabi Sikh writer, historian, missionairy, and religious figure. ... Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... The Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ... The Laṇḍā script (Gurmukhi: ਲੰਡਾ), meaning an alphabet without tail, is a Punjabi word used to refer to scripts in Northern India that do not use vowel signs. ... The Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ... Kashmiri Shaivaite manuscript (17th or 18th century) The Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts, developed from ca. ... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ...


The original version of the Ādi Granth is known as the kartārpur bīṛ and is currently held by the Sodhi family of Kartarpur.


Guru Granth Sahib

Gurū Granth Sāhib folio with Mūl Mantra.
Gurū Granth Sāhib folio with Mūl Mantra.
Main article: Gurū Granth Sāhib

The final version of the Gurū Granth Sāhib was compiled by Guru Gobind Singh. It consists of the original Ādi Granth with the addition of Guru Teg Bahadur's hymns. It is believed that it was decreed by Gobind Singh that the Granth was to be considered the eternal, living guru of all Sikhs, however, this belief finds no mention either in 'Guru Granth Sahib' or in 'Dasham Granth' compiled by Guru Gobind Singh. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1059x1510, 412 KB) Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan of Guru Gobind Singh. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1059x1510, 412 KB) Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ...

Punjabi: ਸੱਬ ਸਿੱਖਣ ਕੋ ਹੁਕਮ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਨਯੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ।

(This statement finds no mention either in 'Guru Granth Sahib' or in 'Dasham Granth' compiled by Guru Gobind Singh.) Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ...

Transliteration: Sabb sikkhaṇ kō hukam hai gurū mānyō granth.
English: All Sikhs are commanded to take the Granth as Guru.

It contains compositions by the first five gurus, Guru Teg Bahadur and just one śalōk (couplet) from Guru Gobind Singh.[32] It also contains the traditions and teachings of sants (saints) such as Kabir, Namdev, Ravidas and Sheikh Farid along with several others.[26] Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A painting of Kabir KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... Namdev, Nam Dev, or Saint Namdev (1270-1350) born to a low-caste tailor named Damasheti and his wife, Gonabi in the village of Naras-Vamani, in the district of Maharashtra, India. ... This box:      Indian religious leader and founder Satguru of the Ravidasi beliefs, revered by most Hindus as a Sant, by Nirankari sect, Balmiki sect as a Guru, by Radhasoami organization as a Sant and as a Bhagat by Sikhs, which is a somewhat lesser station than that attributed to him... Fariduddin Ganjshakar (Farid-ul-Din Masaud Shakar Ganj) c. ...

A group of Sikh musicians at the Golden Temple complex.
A group of Sikh musicians at the Golden Temple complex.

The bulk of the scripture is classified into rāgs, with each rāg subdivided according to length and author. There are 31 main rāgs within the Gurū Granth Sāhib. In addition to the rāgs, there are clear references to the folk music of Punjab. The main language used in the scripture is known as Sant Bhāṣā, a language related to both Punjabi and Hindi and used extensively across medieval northern India by proponents of popular devotional religion.[4] The text further comprises over 5000 śabads, or hymns, which are poetically constructed and set to classical form of music rendition, can be set to predetermined musical tāl, or rhythmic beats. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... Sant Bhasha () is a scriptural language related to both Punjabi and Hindi and used extensively across medieval northern India by proponents of popular devotional religion. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Shabad is the term used by Sikhs to refer to a hymn or paragraph or sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... In Indian classical music, Tala (tāl (Hindi), tāla (anglicised from talam; in Sanskrit), literally a clap, is a rhythmical pattern that determines the rhythmical structure of a composition. ...


The Granth begins with the Mūl Mantra, an iconic verse created by Nanak: Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ...

Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
ISO 15919 transliteration: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi.
Simplified transliteration: Ik ōaṅkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād.
English: One Universal Creator God, The Name Is Truth, Creative Being Personified, No Fear, No Hatred, Image Of The Undying, Beyond Birth, Self Existent, By Guru's Grace.

All text within the Granth is known as gurbānī. Gurbānī, according to Nanak, was revealed by God directly, and the authors wrote it down for the followers. The status accorded to the scripture is defined by the evolving interpretation of the concept of gurū. In the Sant tradition of Nanak, the guru was literally the word of God. The Sikh community soon transferred the role to a line of men who gave authoritative and practical expression to religious teachings and traditions, in addition to taking socio-political leadership of Sikh adherents. Gobind Singh declared an end of the line of human gurus, and now the Gurū Granth Sāhib serves as the eternal guru, with its interpretation vested with the community.[4] Punjabi redirects here. ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sikh Holy Texts Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books The important Banis are listed below: Japji Sahib 1. ...


Dasam Granth

Main article: Dasam Granth

The Dasam Granth (formally dasvēṁ pātśāh kī granth or The Book of the Tenth Master) is an eighteenth-century collection of miscellaneous works generally attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. The teachings of Gobind Singh were not included in Gurū Granth Sāhib, the holy book of the Sikhs, and instead were collected in the Dasam Granth. Unlike the Gurū Granth Sāhib, the Dasam Granth was never declared to hold guruship. The authenticity of some portions of the Granth has been questioned and the appropriateness of the Granth's content still causes much debate. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1574x1371, 1701 KB) Summary Painstakingly stitched together from [1]. Frontispiece of a Dasam Granth manuscript, dating from between 1825 and 1850. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1574x1371, 1701 KB) Summary Painstakingly stitched together from [1]. Frontispiece of a Dasam Granth manuscript, dating from between 1825 and 1850. ... In architecture, a frontispiece constitutes the elements that frame and decorate the main, or front, door to a building; especially when the main entrance is the chief face of the building, rather than being kept behind columns or a portico. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


The entire Granth is written in the Gurmukhī script, although most of the language is Braj and not Punjabi. Sikh tradition states that Mani Singh collected the writings of Gobind Singh after his death to create the Granth.[33] The GurmukhÄ« (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) script is derived from the Later Sharada script and was standardized by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad Dev, in the 16th century for writing the Punjabi language. ... Brij Bhasha (or Braj Bhasha) is a language spoken in India by more than 42,000 people in the undefined region of Brij Bhoomi, which was a political state in the era of the Mahabharata wars. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Bhai Mani Singh Bhai Mani Singh a great Sikh scholar and illustrious Martyr, came, according to Bhai Kesar Singh ji Chhibbar, his contemporary, of a Kamboj family, but according to Giani Gian Singh Dullat [1822-1921], author of Panth Parkash, of a Dullat Jatt family of Kamboval village (now extinct...


From 1892 to 1897, scholars assembled at the Akal Takht, Amritsar, to study the various printed Dasam Granths and prepare the authoritative version. They concluded that the Dasam Granth was entirely the work of Gobind Singh. Further re-examinations and reviews took place in 1931, under the Darbar Sahib Committee of the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee they too vindicated the earlier conclusion..[34] The Akal Takht (Punjabi: , ) is the second holiest shrine of the Sikhs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (Punjabi: , ) is a Sikh religious organisation responsible for the upkeep of gurdwaras. ...


Janamsakhis

Main article: Janamsākhīs

The Janamsākhīs (literally birth stories), are writings which profess to be biographies of Guru Nanak Dev. Although not scripture in the strictest sense, they provide an interesting look at Nanak's life and the early start of Sikhism. There are several—often contradictory and sometimes unreliable—Janamsākhīs and they are not held in the same regard as other sources of scriptural knowledge. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Observances and ceremonies

Observant Sikhs adhere to long-standing practices and traditions to strengthen and express their faith. The daily recitation from memory of specific passages from the Gurū Granth Sāhib, especially the Japu (or Japjī, literally chant) hymns is recommended immediately after rising and bathing. Family customs include both reading passages from the scripture and attending the gurdwara (also gurduārā, meaning the doorway to God). There are many gurdwaras prominently constructed and maintained across India, as well as in almost every nation where Sikhs reside. Gurdwaras are open to all, regardless of religion, background, caste or race. The Harimandir Sahib. ...


Worship in a gurdwara consists chiefly of singing of passages from the scripture. Sikhs will commonly enter the temple, touch the ground before the holy scripture with their foreheads, and make an offering. The recitation of the eighteenth century ardās is also customary for attending Sikhs. The ardās recalls past sufferings and glories of the community, invoking divine grace for all humanity.[35] The Ardās (Punjabi: ) are the Sikh daily prayers. ...


The most sacred shrine is the Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar, famously known as the Golden Temple. Groups of Sikhs regularly visit and congregate at the Harimandir Sahib. On specific occasions, groups of Sikhs are permitted to undertake a pilgrimage to Sikh shrines in the province of Punjab in Pakistan, especially at Nankana Sahib and the samādhī (place of cremation) of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Lahore. For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan click here. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Nankana Sahib, also known as Raipur and Rai-Bhoi-di-Talwandi is a city in the state of Punjab in present-day Pakistan. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ...


Festivals in Sikhism mostly centre around the lives of the Gurus and Sikh martyrs. The SGPC, the Sikh organisation in charge of upkeep of the gurdwaras, organises celebrations based on the new Nanakshahi calendar. This calendar is highly controversial among Sikhs and is not universally accepted. Several festivals (Hola Mohalla, Diwali and Guru Nanak's birthday) continue to be celebrated using the Hindu calendar. Sikh festivals include the following: The Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee is a sikh religious organization responsible for the upkeep of Gurudwaras. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ...

  • Gurpurabs are celebrations or commemorations based on the lives of the Sikh gurus. They tend to be either birthdays or celebrations of Sikh martyrdom.
  • Vaisakhi normally occurs on 13 April and marks the beginning of the new spring year and the end of the harvest. Sikhs celebrate it because on Vaisakhi in 1699, the tenth guru, Gobind Singh, began the Khalsa baptismal tradition.
  • Diwali (also known as bandī chōḍ divas) celebrates Guru Hargobind's release from the Gwalior Jail on 26 October 1619.
  • Hola Mohalla occurs the day after Holi and is when the Khalsa Panth gather at Anandpur and display their fighting skills.

A Gurpurab is a celebration or commemoration based on the lives of one of the Sikh gurus. ... The Khanda Vaisakhi (Punjabi: , , also known as Baisakhi) is a long established harvest festival in Punjab that also has religious significance for both Sikhs[1] and Hindus. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... Diwali,or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Holla Mohalla festival (Photo:Reuters/Kamal Kishore) Hola Mohalla or Hola Mahalla or simply Hola is a Sikh festival that takes place on the first of the lunar month of Chet which usually falls in March. ... For the Indian film of the same name, see Holi (film). ... Khalsa Panth is the literal theocracy that manages the affairs of the Khalsa. ...

Ceremonies and customs

The anand kāraj (Sikh marriage) ceremony.
The anand kāraj (Sikh marriage) ceremony.

Nanak taught that rituals, religious ceremonies or empty worship is of little use and Sikhs are discouraged from fasting or going on pilgrimages.[36] However, during the period of the later gurus, and due to increased institutionalisation of the religion, some ceremonies and rites did arise. Sikhism is not a proselytizing religion and most Sikhs do not make active attempts to gain converts. However, converts to Sikhism are welcomed, although there is no formal conversion ceremony. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1728, 2143 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1728, 2143 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used...


Upon a child's birth, the Gurū Granth Sāhib is opened at a random point and the child is named using the first letter on the top left-hand corner of the left page. All boys are given the middle name or surname Singh, and all girls are given the middle name or surname Kaur.[37] Sikhs are joined in wedlock through the anand kāraj ceremony. Sikhs marry when they are of a sufficient age (child marriage is taboo), and without regard for the future spouse's caste or descent. The marriage ceremony is performed in the company of the Gurū Granth Sāhib; around which the couple circles four times. After the ceremony is complete, the husband and wife are considered "a single soul in two bodies."[38] For the fictional global crime syndicate, see Singh Brotherhood. ... Kaur, (meaning:princess) in Punjabi, is widely used as a name by female Sikhs. ... Sikh Woman in traditional bridal costume Anand Karaj (Punjabi: , ) is the name of the Sikh Marriage ceremony, meaning Blissful Union or Joyful Union, which was introduced by Guru Amar Das. ...


According to Sikh religious rites, neither husband nor wife are permitted to divorce. A Sikh couple that wishes to divorce may be able to do so in a civil court – but this is not condoned.[39] Upon death, the body of a Sikh is usually cremated. If this is not possible, any means of disposing the body may be employed. The kīrtan sōhilā and ardās prayers are performed during the funeral ceremony (known as antim sanskār).[40] Antam or Antim mean Final or Last Sanskar means ritual, rite, ceremony, service In Sikhism death is considered a natural process and Gods will or Hukam. ...


Baptism and the Khalsa

Khalsa (meaning pure) is the name given by Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking ammrit in a ceremony called ammrit sañcār. The first time that this ceremony took place was on Vaisakhi, which fell on 30 March 1699 at Anandpur Sahib in India. It was on that occasion that Gobind Singh baptised the Pañj Piārē who in turn baptised Gobind Singh himself. Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... Look up Amrita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Amrit Sanskar Ceremony Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Sanchar or the Amrit ceremony is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. ... The Khanda Vaisakhi (Punjabi: , , also known as Baisakhi) is a long established harvest festival in Punjab that also has religious significance for both Sikhs[1] and Hindus. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Anandpur Sahib is a holy Sikh city and one of the five most holy places in Sikhism. ... The Panj Piare (Punjabi: , , literally the five beloved ones), name given to the five Sikhs, Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mukham Singh and Bhai Sahib Singh, who were so designated by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699...

A kaṛā, kaṅghā and kirpān.
A kaṛā, kaṅghā and kirpān.

Baptised Sikhs are bound to wear the Five Ks (in Punjabi known as pañj kakkē or pañj kakār), or articles of faith, at all times. The tenth guru, Gobind Singh, ordered these Five Ks to be worn so that a Sikh could actively use them to make a difference to their own and to others' spirituality. The 5 items are: kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā (small comb), kaṛā (circular heavy metal bracelet), kirpān (ceremonial short sword), and kacchā (special undergarment). The Five Ks have both practical and symbolic purposes.[41] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1601 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism User:Harisingh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1601 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism User:Harisingh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The Five Ks, or kakaars, are five items that baptised Orthodox Sikhs wear at all times either out of respect for the tenth teacher, Guru Gobind Singh, or out of a sense of religious devotion. ... Kesh - Uncut hair is one of the five articles of faith for the Sikhs The Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear long uncut hair, called Kesh, at all times. ... Kanga - one of the five articles of faith for the Sikhs The Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear a small comb called a Kanga at all times. ... Kara - one of the five articles of faith for the Sikhs The Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear a steel slave bangle called a Kara at all times. ... Typical Kirpan worn by modern Sikhs The Kirpan (IPA: ) (Punjabi: ) is a ceremonial sword or dagger worn by all baptised Sikhs. ... Kaccha - one of the five articles of faith for the Sikhs Kachera/Kaccha: Undershorts/undergarment which looks like boxer shorts. ...


Sikh people

Main article: Sikh

Worldwide, Sikhs number more than 23 million, but more than 90% of Sikhs live in the Indian state of Punjab, where they are close to 65% of the population. Large communities of Sikhs live in the neighbouring states, and large communities of Sikhs can be found across India. However, Sikhs are only about 2% of the Indian population. Migration beginning from the 19th century led to the creation of significant communities in Canada (Brampton & Malton, Ontario; Surrey, British Columbia), the United Kingdom, the Middle East, East Africa, Southeast Asia and more recently, the United States, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... Location of Surrey Country Province Regional District Metro Vancouver Incorporation 1879 (municipality status)   1993 (city status) Government  - Mayor Dianne Watts  - Governing body  - MLAs List of MLAs Harry Bains (NDP) Jagrup Brar (NDP) Bruce Ralston (NDP) Kevin Falcon (LIB) Dave Hayer (LIB) Gordon Hogg (LIB) Sue Hammell (NDP) leader_title3 = MPs Area... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Smaller populations of Sikhs are found in Mauritius, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Fiji and other countries.


As with most world religions, there are groups of Sikhs (such as the Namdharis, Ravidasis and Udasis) who do not adhere to the mainstream principles followed by most Sikhs. Some of these groups may not consider themselves a part of Sikhism, although from an outsider's perspective similarities in beliefs and principles may firmly render them a part of the Sikh religious domain[citation needed]. Groups such as the Nirankaris have a history of bad relations with mainstream Sikhism, and are considered pariahs by some Sikhs. Others, such as the Nihangs, tend to have little difference in belief and practice, and are considered Sikhs proper by mainstream Sikhism. Namdhari Guru Jagjit Singh Ji Maharaj Namdharis are a sect of the Sikh religion. ... Har The members of the Ravidassi religion believe in Guru Ravidas or Raidas as their founding prophet. ... Udasi is a sect within Sikhism. ... The Sant Nirankari Mission was started in 1929 by Baba Buta Singh Ji in the province of Punjab (British India). ... Look up Pariah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Nihang Sikh at the Harimandir Sahib. ...


See also

This list is of topics related to Sikhs and Sikhism. ... This is a partial list of prominent Sikhs. ... Here are major worldwide Gurdwaras. ... // Gurdwaras in Africa Kenya Eldoret Gurdwara Ramgharia Sabha, Eldoret Siri Guru Singh Sabha, Eldoret Kericho Sikh Temple, Kericho Guru Nanak NSJ, Kericho Kisumu Ramgharia Sikh Sabha, Kisumu Siri Guru Singh Sabha, Kisumu Kitale Siri Guru Singh Sabha, Kitale Gurdwara Ramgharia Sabha, Kitale Nairobi Siri Guru Singh Sabha, Nairobi Ramgharia Sikh... A Gurdwara is a place of worship for Sikh people. ... // Gurdwara Nanaksar, Austria Gurdwara Nanaksar Galicija, Austria Gurdwara Sangat Sahib, Belgium Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Denmark Gurdwara Singh Sabha, Paris Gurdwara Nanaksar, Germany Gurdwara Nanak Niwas, Germany Babbar Khalsa International, Germany Gurunanak Darbar, Ireland Gurdwara Singh Sabha, Italy Shri Guru Hargobind Sahib Sewa Society, Italy Sikh Center And Gurdwara... Historic Gurdwaras in India are those gurdwaras built to honor important people contributing to, or significant events occurring during, the growth of Sikhism primarily in what is now Punjab, India. ... Historical Gurdwaras in Pakistan are an essential part of Sikhism and form an important part of the history of Sikhism. ... The following is a list of gurdwaras in Canada // Alberta Fort Mcmurray Sikh Society Gurdwara Nanaksar Edmonton Sikh Federation Edmonton Sri Guru Singh Sabha Society Edmonton 47 Sri Guru Singh Sabha Society Edmonton 155 Sikh Heritage Association Edmonton Sikh Society Of Alberta Sikh Society Of Brooks Sikh Society Of Calgary... A list of Gurdwaras in the United Kingdom: Central Gurdwara London (Established 1908) Guru Nanak Gurdwara Wednesfield (Established 1976) This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... // Sikh Society of Alaska Siri Guru Singh Sabha of Arizona Sikh Gurdwara Selma Sri Guru Nanak Sikh Temple Yuba City Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha Pittsburg Gurdwara Sahib of San Jose Pacific Khalsa Diwan Society Sikh Council of North America Sikh Gurdwara Sahib Live Oak Sikh Temple Livingston Sikh Gurdwara Sahib... Here is a list of some of the Gurdwaras in Australia and nearby islands, like Fiji, New Zealand. ... Here is a list of Gurdwaras in Mexico and South America, please note these are only major known Gurdwaras around the area. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... These are a list of the Sikh festivals and their dates and a short description. ...

References

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  3. ^ (Punjabi) Nabha, Kahan Singh (1930). Gur Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh/ਗੁਰ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਰਤਨਾਕਰ ਮਹਾਨ ਕੋਸ਼ (in Punjabi), 720. Retrieved on 2006-05-29. 
  4. ^ a b c d Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 259. ISBN 0-87196-129-6. 
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  6. ^ Dev, Nanak. Gurū Granth Sāhib, 1035. Retrieved on 2006-06-15. “For endless eons, there was only utter darkness. There was no earth or sky; there was only the infinite Command of His Hukam.” 
  7. ^ Dev, Nanak. Gurū Granth Sāhib, 1036. Retrieved on 2006-06-15. “When He so willed, He created the world. Without any supporting power, He sustained the universe. He created Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva; He fostered enticement and attachment to Maya.” 
  8. ^ Dev, Nanak. Gurū Granth Sāhib, 15. Retrieved on 2006-06-15. “You are the One True Lord and Master of all the other beings, of so many worlds.” 
  9. ^ Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 253. ISBN 0-87196-129-6. 
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  33. ^ McLeod, WH (1993). "The Study of Sikh Literature", Studying the Sikhs: Issues for North America. SUNY Press, 60–61. ISBN 0-7914-1425-6. 
  34. ^ Singh, Kirpal (2002). Sri Dasam Granth Sahib - About the Dasam Granth. Retrieved on 2006-05-30.
  35. ^ Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 260. ISBN 0-87196-129-6. 
  36. ^ Dev, Nanak. Gurū Granth Sāhib, 75. Retrieved on 2006-06-30. “Pilgrimages, fasts, purification and self-discipline are of no use, nor are rituals, religious ceremonies or empty worship.” 
  37. ^ Loehlin, Clinton Herbert [1958] (1964). The Sikhs and Their Scriptures, Second edition, Lucknow Publishing House, 42. 
  38. ^ Sikh Reht Maryada - Anand Sanskar : (Sikh Matrimonial Ceremony and Conventions). Retrieved on 2006-06-08.
  39. ^ Mansukhani, Gobind Singh (1977). Introduction to Sikhism. India: Hemkunt Press. Retrieved on 2006-06-11. 
  40. ^ Sikh Reht Maryada - Funeral Ceremonies (Antam Sanskar). Retrieved on 2006-06-08.
  41. ^ Simmonds, David (1992). Believers All: A Book of Six World Religions. Nelson Thornes, 120–121. ISBN 0-17-437057-1. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Khushwant Singh , born on 2 February 1915 in Punjab (Hadali, now a part of Pakistan) is one of the most prominent novelists and journalists of India. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Khushwant Singh , born on 2 February 1915 in Punjab (Hadali, now a part of Pakistan) is one of the most prominent novelists and journalists of India. ... Khushwant Singh , born on 2 February 1915 in Punjab (Hadali, now a part of Pakistan) is one of the most prominent novelists and journalists of India. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Khushwant Singh , born on 2 February 1915 in Punjab (Hadali, now a part of Pakistan) is one of the most prominent novelists and journalists of India. ... Khushwant Singh , born on 2 February 1915 in Punjab (Hadali, now a part of Pakistan) is one of the most prominent novelists and journalists of India. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Sir George Abraham Grierson (7 January 1851, County Dublin, Ireland - 9 March 1941, Camberley, Surrey, United Kingdom) was a famous British civil servant who spent much of his life in British India. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

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  • Duggal, Kartar Singh (1988), Philosophy and Faith of Sikhism, Himalayan Institute Press, ISBN 0-893-89109-6
  • Mahmood, Cynthia (2002), A Sea of Orange, Xlibris, USA, ISBN 1-401-02856-X
  • Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001), The Making of Sikh Scripture,, Oxford University Press, USA, ISBN 0-195-13024-3
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971), World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present, Hamlyn Publishing Group, USA, ISBN 0-87196-129-6
  • Rama, Swami (1986), Celestial Song/Gobind Geet: The Dramatic Dialogue Between Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Singh Bahadur, Himalayan institute Press, ISBN 0-893-89103-7
  • Shackl, Christopher, A.P. Singh (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0-415-26604-1
  • Singh, Khushwant (2006), The Illustrated History of the Sikhs, Oxford University Press, India, ISBN 0-195-67747-1

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Search Sikhism Home Page (319 words)
Sikhism is about 500 years old and the youngest religion in the world.
Sikhism is a completely different religion than Hinduism and Islam.
In Sri Guru Granth Sahib, it is well stated that Sikhism is a separate religion rather than a sect or movement of Hinduism or Islam.
Sikhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5414 words)
Sikhism's traditions and teachings are distinctly associated with the history, society and culture of the Punjab.
Sikhism is also inspired by the emphasis on devotion to God in the traditions of Vaishnavism, especially through the Bhakti movement, as well as influences of Sufism.
In Sikhism, the influences of ego, anger, greed, attachment and lust — known as the Five Evils — are to be particularly pernicious.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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