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Encyclopedia > Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud

Born May 6, 1856(1856-05-06)
Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire
Died September 23, 1939 (aged 83) London, England
Residence Austria, (later) England
Nationality Austrian
Ethnicity Jewish
Field Neurology, Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis
Institutions University of Vienna
Alma mater University of Vienna
Academic advisor   Jean-Martin Charcot, (later) Josef Breuer
Notable students   Alfred Adler, John Bowlby, Viktor Frankl, Anna Freud, Ernest Jones, Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, Maud Mannoni, Fritz Perls, Otto Rank, Wilhelm Reich, Donald Winnicott
Known for Psychoanalysis
Notable prizes Goethe Prize

Sigmund Freud (IPA: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, especially involving the mechanism of repression; his redefinition of sexual desire as mobile and directed towards a wide variety of objects; and his therapeutic techniques, especially his theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship and the presumed value of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x1536, 712 KB) Summary Sigmund Freud Published in the U.S. after 1923, but public domain because copyright was not renewed. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region (kraj) Moravian-Silesian Documented 1251 Area  - Town 22. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ... Viktor Emil Frankl, M.D., Ph. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8 1893, Berlin - March 14, 1970, Chicago), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist of Jewish descent. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... Donald Woods Winnicott (7 April 1896 - January 28, 1971) was a pediatrician and psychoanalyst. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Goethe Prize recipients: 1927 - Stefan Georg, Germany 1928 - Albert Schweitzer, Germany 1929 - Leopold Ziegler, Germany 1930 - Sigmund Freud, Germany 1931 - Ricarda Huch, Germany 1932 - Gerhart Hauptmann, Germany 1933 - Hermann Sehr, Germany 1934 - Hans Pfitzner, Germany 1935 - Hermann Stegemann, Germany 1936 - Georg Kolbe , Germany 1937 - Erwin Guido Kolbenheyer, Germany 1938 - Hans... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ... The word lust means sexual desire (this meaning is sometimes metaphorically extended to other forms of desire, e. ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ...


He is commonly referred to as "the father of psychoanalysis" and his work has been highly influential — popularizing such notions as the unconscious, the Oedipus complex, defense mechanisms, Freudian slips and dream symbolism—while also making a long-lasting impact on fields as diverse as literature, film, Marxist and feminist theories, philosophy, and psychology. His legacy is controversial and has drawn much criticism from a variety of sources, both in the sciences and the humanities. This has been characterised as "the Freud Wars". The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... It has been suggested that User:A Kiwi/Ego defense mechanisms be merged into this article or section. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The research and writings of Sigmund Freud about the symbolism in people´s dreams while they sleep is widely respected. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... “Moving picture” redirects here. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Sigmund Freud was born on 6 May 1856 to Galician Jewish[1] parents in Příbor (German: Freiberg in Mähren), Moravia, Austrian Empire, now Czech Republic. His father Jacob was 41, a wool merchant, and had two children by a previous marriage. His mother Amalia was 21. Owing to his intellect, which was obvious from an early stage of his childhood, his parents favored him over his siblings, and even though they were poor they offered everything to give him a proper education. Due to the economic crisis of 1857, father Freud lost his business, and the family moved first to Leipzig, Germany before settling in Vienna, Austria. In 1865, Sigmund entered the Leopoldstädter Communal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. Freud was an outstanding pupil and graduated the Matura in 1873 with honors. is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Galician Jewish cemetery in Buchach, western Ukraine, 2005 Galician Jews or Galitzianer Jews are a subdivision of the Ashkenazim geographically originating from Galicia, from western Ukraine (current Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil regions) and from the south-eastern corner of Poland (Podkarpackie and Lesser Poland voivodeships). ... Location of Příbor in the Czech Republic Příbor (Freiberg in German) is a town in the Czech Republic in Moravian-Silesian Region. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... The Panic of 1857 was a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ...

Part of a series of articles on
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

Constructs
Psychosexual development
Psychosocial development
ConsciousPreconsciousUnconscious
Id, ego, and super-ego
LibidoDrive
TransferenceSublimationResistance Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson describes eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The Preconscious is a structure of the mind, postulated by Sigmund Freud, containing all memories that can be easily accessed by the conscious mind. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The ego is not sharply separated from the id; its lower portion merges into it. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Important Figures
Sigmund FreudCarl Jung
Alfred AdlerOtto Rank
Anna FreudMargaret Mahler
Karen HorneyJacques Lacan
Ronald FairbairnMelanie Klein
Harry Stack Sullivan
Erik EriksonNancy Chodorow
Susan Sutherland Isaacs
Ernest Jones “Jung” redirects here. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897 – October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney [horn-eye], born Danielsen (September 16, 1885, – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn (1889-1964) was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst and is generally regarded as the father of British object relations theory. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York - January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was an American psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Susan Sutherland Isaacs (née Fairhurst) (1885–1948) was an educational psychologist and psychoanalyst from the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ...


Important works
The Interpretation of Dreams
Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle"
A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is an enlish Launguage translation of the works of Jaques Lacan. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ...


Schools of Thought
Self psychologyLacanian
Analytical psychologyObject relations
InterpersonalRelational
AttachmentEgo psychology Self psychology is a school of psychoanalytic theory and therapy developed in the United States. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ... Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patients interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. ... Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. ... Mother and child. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...

Psychology Portal
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After planning to study law, Freud joined the medical faculty at University of Vienna to study under Darwinist Prof. Karl Claus. At that time, Eel life history was still unknown, and due to their mysterious origins and migrations, a racist association was often made between eels and Jews and Gypsies. In search for their male sex organs, Freud spent four weeks at the Austrian zoological research station in Triest, dissecting hundreds of eels without finding more than his predecessors such as Simon von Syrski. In 1876, he published his first paper about "the testicles of eels" in the “Mitteilungen der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften”, conceding that he could not solve the matter either. Frustrated by the lack of success which would have gained him fame, and disgusted by the blood and gore, Freud chose to change his course of study. Biographers like Siegfried Bernfeld wonder if and how this early episode was significant for his later work regarding hidden sexuality and frustrations.[2][3][4] The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Karl Claus Karl Ernst Claus (Dorpat, Russian Empire, [now Tartu, Estonia ] 22 January 1796 – 24 March 1864) was a Russian chemist of Baltic German origin, professor at Kazan State University, and discoverer of ruthenium. ... Leptocephalus larva of an ocean eel The eel is a long, thin bony fish of the order Anguilliformes. ... For Auguste Piccards deep-sea submersible Trieste, see Bathyscaphe Trieste. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suborders See text for suborders and families. ...


Medical school

In 1874, the concept of "psychodynamics" was proposed with the publication of Lectures on Physiology by German physiologist Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke who, in coordination with physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, one of the formulators of the first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy), supposed that all living organisms are energy-systems also governed by this principle. During this year, at the University of Vienna, Brücke served as supervisor for first-year medical student Sigmund Freud who adopted this new “dynamic” physiology. In his Lectures on Physiology, Brücke set forth the radical view that the living organism is a dynamic system to which the laws of chemistry and physics apply.[5] This was the starting point for Freud's dynamic psychology of the mind and its relation to the unconscious.[5][6] The origins of Freud’s basic model, based on the fundamentals of chemistry and physics, according to John Bowlby, stems from Brücke, Meynert, Breuer, Helmholtz, and Herbart.[7] In 1879, Freud interrupted his studies to complete his one year of obligatory military service, and in 1881 he received his Dr. med. (M.D.) with the thesis "Über das Rückenmark niederer Fischarten" (on the spinal cord of lower fish species). Sigmund Freud - the central founder of psychodynamics Psychodynamics is the application of the principles of thermodynamics to psychology. ... Ernst Wilhelm Ritter von Brücke (b. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... The first law of thermodynamics, a generalized expression of the law of the conservation of energy, states: // Description Essentially, the First Law of Thermodynamics declares that energy is conserved for a closed system, with heat and work being the forms of energy transfer. ... In physics, the conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant, although it may change forms, e. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... In engineering and mathematics, a dynamical system is a deterministic process in which a functions value changes over time according to a rule that is defined in terms of the functions current value. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ... Ernst Wilhelm Ritter von Brücke (b. ... Theodor Meynert (1833-1892) was a German neuropathologist and anatomist who was born in Dresden. ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Johann Friedrich Herbart Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) was a German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Later life

Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall, C.G.Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi.
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall, C.G.Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi.

Freud married Martha Bernays in 1886, after opening his own medical practice, specializing in neurology. After experimenting with hypnosis on his neurotic patients, Freud abandoned this form of treatment, in favor of a treatment where the patient talked through his or her problems. This came to be known as the "talking cure". (The term was initially coined by the patient Anna O. who was treated by Freud's colleague Josef Breuer.) The "talking cure" is widely seen as the basis of psychoanalysis.[8] Image File history File links Hall_Freud_Jung_in_front_of_Clark_1909. ... Image File history File links Hall_Freud_Jung_in_front_of_Clark_1909. ... Statue at the center of campus of Sigmund Freud, commemorating his 1909 visit to the University Front Entrance to Clark Universitys Jonas Clark Hall, the main academic facility for undergraduate students For the university in Atlanta, see Clark Atlanta University. ... Granville Stanley Hall (1 February 1844 - 24 April 1924) was a psychologist and educationalist who pioneered American psychology. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Abraham Arden Brill (1874–1948), American psychiatrist, born in Austria, graduated New York University. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Sándor Ferenczi 1873-1933 was a Hungarian psychoanalyst who came to believe that his patients accounts of sexual abuse as children were truthful, having verified those accounts through other patients in the same family. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Professor Charcot was well-known for showing, during his lessons at the Salpêtrière hospital, hysterical woman patients – here, his favorite patient, Blanche (Marie) Wittman, supported by Joseph BabiÅ„ski. ... Anna O. was the name given to a patient of the physician and physiologist Josef Breuer in his book Studies on Hysteria, written in collaboration with Sigmund Freud. ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ...


Freud held the opinion (based on personal experience and observation) that sexual activity was incompatible with the accomplishing of any great work.[citation needed] Since he felt that the great work of creating and establishing psychotherapy was his destiny, he told his wife that they could no longer engage in sexual relations.[citation needed] Indeed from about the age of forty until his death Freud was absolutely celibate “in order to sublimate the libido for creative purposes,” according to his biographer Ernest Jones.[citation needed] Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ...


Nonetheless, there has been persistent gossip, which has always been staunchly denied by Freud loyalists, about the possibility that around this time a romantic liaison had blossomed between Freud and his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays, who had moved into Freud's apartment at 19 Berggasse in 1896. This rumour of an illicit relationship has been most notably propelled forward by Carl Jung, Freud's disciple and later his archrival, who had claimed that Miss Bernays had confessed the affair to him. (This claim was dismissed by Freudians as malice on Jung's part.) It has been suggested that the affair resulted in a pregnancy and subsequently an abortion for Miss Bernays. A hotel log dated August 13, 1898 seems to support the allegation of an affair.[9] “Jung” redirects here. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In his 40s, Freud "had numerous psychosomatic disorders as well as exaggerated fears of dying and other phobias" (Corey 2001, p. 67). During this time Freud was involved in the task of exploring his own dreams, memories, and the dynamics of his personality development. During this self-analysis, he came to realize the hostility he felt towards his father (Jacob Freud), and "he also recalled his childhood sexual feelings for his mother (Amalia Freud), who was attractive, warm, and protective" (Corey 2001, p. 67). Corey (2001) considers this time of emotional difficulty to be the most creative time in Freud's life.


After the publication of Freud's books in 1900 and 1901, interest in his theories began to grow, and a circle of supporters developed in the following period. Freud often chose to disregard the criticisms of those who were skeptical of his theories, however, and even gained a few direct opponents as a result,[citation needed] the most famous being Carl Jung, who was originally in support of Freud's ideas. “Jung” redirects here. ...


Carl Jung, the Swiss psychotherapist, told a colleague about his first visit with Sigmund Freud in the year 1907. Jung had much that he wanted to talk about with Freud, and he spoke with intense animation for three whole hours. Finally Freud interrupted him and, to Jung's astonishment, proceeded to group the contents of Jung's monologue into several precise categories that enabled them to spend their remaining hours together in a more profitable give-and-take.[10]


In 1930 Freud received the Goethe Prize in appreciation of his contribution to psychology and to German literary culture. Three years later the Nazis took control of Germany and Freud's books featured prominently amongst those burned by the Nazis. In March 1938, Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This led to violent outbursts of anti-Semitism in Vienna, and Freud and his family received visits from the Gestapo. Freud decided to go into exile "to die in freedom". He and his family left Vienna in June 1938 and traveled to London. Goethe Prize recipients: 1927 - Stefan Georg, Germany 1928 - Albert Schweitzer, Germany 1929 - Leopold Ziegler, Germany 1930 - Sigmund Freud, Germany 1931 - Ricarda Huch, Germany 1932 - Gerhart Hauptmann, Germany 1933 - Hermann Sehr, Germany 1934 - Hans Pfitzner, Germany 1935 - Hermann Stegemann, Germany 1936 - Georg Kolbe , Germany 1937 - Erwin Guido Kolbenheyer, Germany 1938 - Hans... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


A heavy cigar smoker, Freud endured more than 30 operations during his life due to mouth cancer. In September 1939 he prevailed on his doctor and friend Max Schur to assist him in suicide. After reading Balzac's La Peau de chagrin in a single sitting he said, "My dear Schur, you certainly remember our first talk. You promised me then not to forsake me when my time comes. Now it is nothing but torture and makes no sense any more." Schur administered three doses of morphine over many hours that resulted in Freud's death on September 23, 1939.[11] Three days after his death, Freud's body was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium during a service attended by Austrian refugees, including the author Stefan Zweig. His ashes were later placed in the crematorium's columbarium. They rest in an ancient Greek urn which Freud had received as a present from Marie Bonaparte and which he had kept in his study in Vienna for many years. After Martha Freud's death in 1951, her ashes were also placed in that urn. Golders Green Crematorium has since also become the final resting place for Anna Freud and her lifelong friend Dorothy Burlingham, as well as for several other members of the Freud family. Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ... Max Schur, M.D., 1897–1969 was a doctor and friend of Sigmund Freud. ... Honoré de Balzac Honoré de Balzac (May 20, 1799 - August 18, 1850), was a French novelist. ... La Peau de chagrin (1831) is a philosophical fantasy novel by Honoré de Balzac. ... Golders Green Crematorium and Mausoleum is one of the oldest crematoria in Britain and opened in 1901 having been designed by the architect Sir Ernest George. ... Stefan Zweig Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881 Vienna, Austria–February 22, 1942 Petrópolis, Brazil) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer. ... Columbarium niches built into the side of St. ... Princess Marie Bonaparte (2 July 1882-21 September 1962) was a French psychoanalyst, closely linked with Freud. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ...


Innovations

Freud has been influential in two related but distinct ways. He simultaneously developed a theory of how the human mind is organized and operates internally, and how human behavior both conditions and results from this particular theoretical understanding. This led him to favor certain clinical techniques for attempting to help cure psychopathology. For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ...


Early work

Sigmund Freud memorial in Hampstead, North London. Sigmund and Anna Freud lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens, near to this statue. Their house is now a museum dedicated to Freud's life and work. [1] The building behind the statue is the Tavistock Clinic, a major psychiatric institution.
Sigmund Freud memorial in Hampstead, North London. Sigmund and Anna Freud lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens, near to this statue. Their house is now a museum dedicated to Freud's life and work. [1] The building behind the statue is the Tavistock Clinic, a major psychiatric institution.

Since neurology and psychiatry were not recognized as distinct medical fields at the time of Freud's training, the medical degree he obtained after studying for six years at the University of Vienna board certified him in both fields, although he is far more well-known for his work in the latter. As far as neurology went, Freud was an early researcher on the topic of neurophysiology, specifically cerebral palsy, which was then known as "cerebral paralysis." He published several medical papers on the topic, and showed that the disease existed far before other researchers in his day began to notice and study it. He also suggested that William Little, the man who first identified cerebral palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during the birth process being a cause. Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom of the problem. It was not until the 1980s that Freud's speculations were confirmed by more modern research.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 3. ... , Hampstead is a suburb of north London in the London Borough of Camden, located four miles (6. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... The Tavistock Clinic is a noted centre for mental health therapy in the British NHS. It offers outpatient clinical services in London and provides many postgraduate training and academic courses for the mental health and social care professions. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... William Little was an English surgeon who, in the 1860s, identified cerebral palsy in children. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...



Freud was an early user and proponent of cocaine as a stimulant as well as analgesic. He wrote several articles on the antidepressant qualities of the drug and he was influenced by his friend and confidant Wilhelm Fliess, who recommended cocaine for the treatment of the "nasal reflex neurosis." Fliess operated on Freud and a number of Freud's patients whom he believed to be suffering from the disorder, including Emma Eckstein, whose surgery proved disastrous. Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... A recent form of antidepressant medication - Prozac Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, in the most common usage, is a psychiatric medication taken to alleviate clinical depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Wilhelm Fliess (1858–1928) was a German otorhinolaryngologist who practiced in Berlin. ... Emma Eckstein (1865 - 1924) was an early patient of Sigmund Freud who underwent disastrous nasal surgery, undertaken by Freuds friend and confidant, Wilhelm Fliess. ...


Freud felt that cocaine would work as a cure-all for many disorders and wrote a well-received paper, "On Coca," explaining its virtues. He prescribed it to his friend Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow to help him overcome a morphine addiction he had acquired while treating a disease of the nervous system. Freud also recommended it to many of his close family and friends. He narrowly missed out on obtaining scientific priority for discovering cocaine's anesthetic properties (of which Freud was aware but on which he had not written extensively), after Karl Koller, a colleague of Freud's in Vienna, presented a report to a medical society in 1884 outlining the ways in which cocaine could be used for delicate eye surgery. Freud was bruised by this, especially because this would turn out to be one of the few safe uses of cocaine, as reports of addiction and overdose began to filter in from many places in the world. Freud's medical reputation became somewhat tarnished because of this early ambition. Furthermore, Freud's friend Fleischl-Marxow developed an acute case of "cocaine psychosis" as a result of Freud's prescriptions and died a few years later. Freud felt great regret over these events, which later biographers have dubbed "The Cocaine Incident." Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow (1846–1891) was an Austrian physiologist and physician who became known for his important investigations on the electrical activity of nerves and the brain. ... For other uses, see addicted. ... In science, priority is the claim and recognition of first discovery or theory. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Karl Koller (1857-1944} was an Austrian ophthalmologist who began his medical career as a surgeon at the Vienna General Hospital, and was a colleague of Sigmund Freud. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ...


Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was to bring to consciousness repressed thoughts and feelings. According to some of his successors, including his daughter Anna Freud, the goal of therapy is to allow the patient to develop a stronger ego; according to others, notably Jacques Lacan, the goal of therapy is to lead the analysand to a full acknowledgment of his or her inability to satisfy the most basic desires. Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


Classically, the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging the patient to talk in free association and to talk about dreams. Another important element of psychoanalysis is a relative lack of direct involvement on the part of the analyst, which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts and feelings onto the analyst. Through this process, transference, the patient can reenact and resolve repressed conflicts, especially childhood conflicts with (or about) parents. A Free Association is an association which meets certain mostly negative criteria. ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ...


The origin of Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Joseph Breuer. Freud actually credits Breuer with the discovery of the psychoanalytical method. One case started this phenomenon that would shape the field of psychology for decades to come, the case of Anna O. In 1880 a young girl came to Breuer with symptoms of what was then called female hysteria. Anna O. was a highly intelligent 21-year-old woman. She presented with symptoms such as paralysis of the limbs, split personality and amnesia; today these symptoms are known as conversion disorder. After many doctors had given up and accused Anna O. of faking her symptoms, Breuer decided to treat her sympathetically, which he did with all of his patients. He started to hear her mumble words during what he called states of absence. Eventually Breuer started to recognize some of the words and wrote them down. He then hypnotized her and repeated the words to her; Breuer found out that the words were associated with her father's illness and death. Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ... Anna O. was the name given to a patient of the physician and physiologist Josef Breuer in his book Studies on Hysteria, written in collaboration with Sigmund Freud. ... Water massages as a treatment for hysteria c. ... Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), as defined by the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), is a mental condition whereby a single individual evidences two or more distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. ... // Definition Conversion Disorder is a DSM-IV diagnosis which describes neurological symptoms such as weakness, sensory disturbance and attacks that look like epilepsy but which can not be attributed to a known neurological disease. ...


In the early 1890s Freud used a form of treatment based on the one that Breuer had described to him, modified by what he called his "pressure technique". The traditional story, based on Freud's later accounts of this period, is that as a result of his use of this procedure most of his patients in the mid-1890s reported early childhood sexual abuse. He believed these stories, but after having heard a patient tell the story about Freud's personal friend being the victimizer, Freud concluded that his patients were fantasizing the abuse scenes.


In 1896 Freud posited that the symptoms of 'hysteria' and obsessional neurosis derived from unconscious memories of sexual abuse in infancy, and claimed that he had uncovered such incidents for every single one of his current patients (one third of whom were men). However a close reading of his papers and letters from this period indicates that these patients did not report early childhood sexual abuse as he later claimed: rather, he arrived at his findings by analytically inferring the supposed incidents, using a procedure that was heavily dependent on the symbolic interpretation of somatic symptoms.


The unconscious

Perhaps the most significant contribution Freud made to Western thought was his argument for the existence of an unconscious mind. During the 19th century, the dominant trend in Western thought was positivism, which subscribed to the belief that people could ascertain real knowledge concerning themselves and their environment and judiciously exercise control over both. Freud, however, suggested that such declarations of free will are in fact delusions; that we are not entirely aware of what we think and often act for reasons that have little to do with our conscious thoughts. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... // Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ...


The concept of the unconscious as proposed by Freud was considered by some to be groundbreaking in that he proposed that awareness existed in layers and that some thoughts occurred "below the surface." Nevertheless, as psychologist Jacques Van Rillaer, among others, pointed out, "contrary to what most people believe, the unconscious was not discovered by Freud. In 1890, when psychoanalysis was still unheard of, William James, in his monumental treatise on psychology, examined the way Schopenhauer, von Hartmann, Janet, Binet and others had used the term 'unconscious' and 'subconscious'".[12] Boris Sidis, a Jewish Russian who escaped to the USA in 1887, and studied under William James, wrote The Psychology of Suggestion: A Research into the Subconscious Nature of Man and Society in 1898, followed by ten or more works over the next twenty five years on similar topics to the works of Freud. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... JANET is a private British government-funded computer network dedicated to education and research. ... Alfred Binet (July 11, 1857 – October 18, 1911), French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, the basis of todays IQ test. ... Boris Sidis, Ph. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Moreover, the historian of psychology Mark Altschule wrote: "It is difficult - or perhaps impossible - to find a nineteenth-century psychologist or psychiatrist who did not recognize unconscious cerebration as not only real but of the highest importance."[13] Freud's advance was not, then, to uncover the unconscious but to devise a method for systematically studying it.


Dreams, which he called the "royal road to the unconscious," provided the best access to our unconscious life and the best illustration of its "logic," which was different from the logic of conscious thought. Freud developed his first topology of the psyche in The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) in which he proposed the argument that the unconscious exists and described a method for gaining access to it. The preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought—that which we could access with a little effort. Thus for Freud, the ideals of the Enlightenment, positivism and rationalism, could be achieved through understanding, transforming, and mastering the unconscious, rather than through denying or repressing it. For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... A Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ... A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Preconscious is a structure of the mind, postulated by Sigmund Freud, containing all memories that can be easily accessed by the conscious mind. ... ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is "repression." According to Freud, people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful that they cannot bear them. Such thoughts and feelings—and associated memories—could not, Freud argued, be banished from the mind, but could be banished from consciousness. Thus they come to constitute the unconscious. Although Freud later attempted to find patterns of repression among his patients in order to derive a general model of the mind, he also observed that individual patients repress different things. Moreover, Freud observed that the process of repression is itself a non-conscious act (in other words, it did not occur through people willing away certain thoughts or feelings). Freud supposed that what people repressed was in part determined by their unconscious. In other words, the unconscious was for Freud both a cause and effect of repression. Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ...


Later, Freud distinguished between three concepts of the unconscious: the descriptive unconscious, the dynamic unconscious, and the system unconscious. The descriptive unconscious referred to all those features of mental life of which people are not subjectively aware. The dynamic unconscious, a more specific construct, referred to mental processes and contents which are defensively removed from consciousness as a result of conflicting attitudes. The system unconscious denoted the idea that when mental processes are repressed, they become organized by principles different from those of the conscious mind, such as condensation and displacement. Social scientists and literary scholars have claimed that many things are social constructions or social constructs, or that they have been socially constructed. ...


Eventually, Freud abandoned the idea of the system unconscious, replacing it with the concept of the Ego, super-ego, and id (discussed below). Throughout his career, however, he retained the descriptive and dynamic conceptions of the unconscious. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Psychosexual development

Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and thus turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material. Freud named his new theory the Oedipus complex after the famous Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. “I found in myself a constant love for my mother, and jealousy of my father. I now consider this to be a universal event in childhood,” Freud said. Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the dynamics of the mind. Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity, characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay gratification (cf. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality). He used the Oedipus conflict to point out how much he believed that people desire incest and must repress that desire. The Oedipus conflict was described as a state of psychosexual development and awareness. He also turned to anthropological studies of totemism and argued that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oedipus the King Oedipus the King (Greek , Oedipus Tyrannos), also known as Oedipus Rex, is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles and first performed in 428 BC. The play was the second of Sophocles three Theban plays to be produced, but... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... Category: ... Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Totemism (derived from the root -oode in the Ojibwe language, which referred to something kinship-related) is a religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religions. ... The Oedipus complex is a concept developed by Sigmund Freud, who was inspired by Carl Jung (he described the concept and coined the term Complex), to explain the maturation of the infant through identification with the father and desire for the mother. ...


Freud originally posited childhood sexual abuse as a general explanation for the origin of neuroses, but he abandoned this so-called "seduction theory" as insufficiently explanatory, noting that he had found many cases in which apparent memories of childhood sexual abuse were based more on imagination than on real events. During the late 1890s Freud, who never abandoned his belief in the sexual etiology of neuroses, began to emphasize fantasies built around the Oedipus complex as the primary cause of hysteria and other neurotic symptoms. Despite this change in his explanatory model, Freud always recognized that some neurotics had been sexually abused by their fathers, and was quite explicit about discussing several patients whom he knew to have been abused.[14] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object, a process codified by the concept of sublimation. He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse", meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. He further argued that, as humans develop, they become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development—first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in evacuating his or her bowels), then in the phallic stage. Freud argued that children then passed through a stage in which they fixated on the mother as a sexual object (known as the Oedipus Complex) but that the child eventually overcame and repressed this desire because of its taboo nature. (The lesser known Electra complex refers to such a fixation on the father.) The repressive or dormant latency stage of psychosexual development preceded the sexually mature genital stage of psychosexual development. For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ... The oral stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the childs development during the first 18 to 24 months of life, in which an infants pleasure centers are in the mouth. ... The Anal Stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the development during the second year of life, in which an childs pleasure and conflict centers are in the anal area. ... The phallic stage is the third of Freuds psychosexual stages, when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... The Electra complex is an ambiguous psychiatric concept which attempts to explain the maturation of the human female. ... Freud describes in his model of psychosexual development five stages. ... The genital stage is a stage of child development in one of the theories postulated by Sigmund Freud and elaborated by his followers. ...


Freud's way of interpretation has been called phallocentric by many contemporary thinkers. This is because, for Freud, the unconscious always desires the phallus (penis). Males are afraid of castration - losing their phallus or masculinity to another male. Females always desire to have a phallus - an unfulfillable desire. Thus boys resent their fathers (fear of castration) and girls desire theirs. For Freud, desire is always defined in the negative term of lack - you always desire what you don't have or what you are not, and it is very unlikely that you will fulfill this desire. Thus his psychoanalysis treatment is meant to teach the patient to cope with his or her insatiable desires.


Ego, super-ego, and id

Main article: Ego, super-ego, and id

In his later work, Freud proposed that the psyche could be divided into three parts: Ego, super-ego, and id. Freud discussed this structural model of the mind in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and fully elaborated it in The Ego and The Id (1923), where he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (conscious, unconscious, preconscious). This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ...


Freud acknowledges that his use of the term Id (or the It) derives from the writings of Georg Grodeck. It is interesting to note that the term Id appears in the earliest writing of Boris Sidis, attributed to William James, as early as 1898. Georg Grodeck was a German psychiatrist and contemporary of Sigmund Freud, but apparently not a part of his circle of psychoanalysts. ... Boris Sidis, Ph. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Defense mechanisms

According to Kirrilee Arb, the defense mechanisms are the methods by which the ego can deal with conflicts between the super-ego and the id. The use of defense mechanisms may attenuate the conflict between the id and super-ego, but their overuse or reuse rather than confrontation can lead to either anxiety or guilt which may result in psychological disorders such as depression. His daughter Anna Freud had done the most significant work on this field, yet she credited Sigmund with defense mechanisms as he began the work. The defense mechanisms include denial, reaction formation, displacement, repression/suppression (the proper term), projection, intellectualization, rationalization, compensation, sublimation and regressive emotionality. In psychoanalytic theory, a defence mechanism is an unconscious way to protect ones personality from unpleasant thoughts which may otherwise cause anxiety. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory, reaction formation is a defense mechanism in which anxiety-producing or unacceptable emotions are replaced by their direct opposites. ... In psychology, the term displacement is an unconscious defence mechanism, whereby the mind redirects emotion from a dangerous object to a safe object. ... Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ... Censorship is the control of speech and other forms of human expression, often by government intervention. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Intellectualization is a defense mechanism where reasoning is used to block confrontation with an unconscious conflict and its associated emotional stress. ... In psychology, rationalization is the process of constructing a logical justification for a decision, action or lack thereof that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ...

  • Denial occurs when someone fends off awareness of an unpleasant truth or of a reality that is a threat to the ego. For example, a student may have received a bad grade on a report card but tells himself that grades don't matter. (Some early writers argued for a striking parallel between Freudian denial and Nietzsche's ideas of ressentiment and the revaluation of values that he attributed to "herd" or "slave" morality.)
  • Reaction formation takes place when a person takes the opposite approach consciously compared to what that person wants unconsciously. For example, someone may engage in violence against another race because, that person claims, the members of the race are inferior, when unconsciously it is that very person who feels inferior.
  • Displacement takes place when someone redirects emotion from a "dangerous" object to a "safe" one, such as punching a pillow when one is angry at a friend.
  • Repression occurs when an experience is so painful (such as war trauma) that it is unconsciously forced from consciousness, while suppression is a conscious effort to do the same.
  • Psychological projection occurs when a person "projects" his or her own undesirable thoughts, motivations, desires, feelings — basically parts of oneself — onto someone or something else. Since the person is experiencing particular desires, feelings, thoughts, or anxieties, s/he is more prone to attribute those same characteristics to the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of others.
  • Intellectualization involves removing one's self, emotionally, from a stressful event, by focusing on rational and factual components of the situation.
  • Rationalization involves constructing a logical justification for a decision that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. For example, Jim may drink red wine because he is an alcoholic, but he tells himself he drinks it because it has some health benefits, in order to avoid facing his alcoholism.
  • Compensation occurs when someone takes up one behaviour because one cannot accomplish another behaviour. For example, the second born child may clown around to get attention since the older child is already an accomplished scholar.
  • Sublimation is the channeling of impulses to socially accepted behaviours. For instance, an aggressive or homicidal person may join the military as a cover for their violent behavior.

Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Ressentiment (pronounced r&-sän-tE-män, or ray-sawn-tea-mawn) is a term used in Psychology and Existentialist Philosophy that comes from the French word ressentiment (meaning resentment: fr. ... Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Attribution theory is a social psychology theory developed by Fritz Heider, Harold Kelley, Edward E. Jones, and Lee Ross. ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ...

The life and death instincts

Freud believed that humans were driven by two conflicting central desires: the life drive (Eros) (incorporating the sex drive) and the death drive (Thanatos). Freud's description of Eros and Libido included all creative, life-producing drives. The death drive (or death instinct) represented an urge inherent in all living things to return to a state of calm, or, ultimately, of non-existence. The presence of the Death Drive was only recognized in his later years, and the contrast between the two represents a revolution in his manner of thinking. The death instinct is also referred to as the Nirvana Principle. In Freudian psychology, Eros is the life instinct innate in all humans. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (in Ancient Greek, θάνατος – Death) was the Daimon personification of Death and Mortality. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Thanatos (Freud). ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-das-pa; Mongolian ɣasalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame...


It should be added that these ideas owe a great deal to both Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. Schopenhauer's pessimistic philosophy, expounded in The World as Will and Representation, describes a renunciation of the will to live that corresponds on many levels with Freud's Death Drive. The life drive clearly owes much to Nietzsche's concept of the Dionysian in The Birth of Tragedy. Freud was an avid reader of both philosophers and acknowledged their influence.


Freud's legacy

Freud on the Austrian 50-Schilling Note (Enlargement) File links The following pages link to this file: Sigmund Freud Categories: Public domain images ... Freud on the Austrian 50-Schilling Note (Enlargement) File links The following pages link to this file: Sigmund Freud Categories: Public domain images ... The Schilling was the currency of Austria until the Euro exchange in 2002. ...

Psychotherapy

Main article: Psychotherapy

Freud's theories and research methods were controversial during his life and still are so today, but few dispute his huge impact on psychologists and the academically inclined. Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... A psychologist is a researcher and/or a practitioner of psychology. ...


Most importantly, Freud popularized the "talking-cure"—an idea that a person could solve problems simply by talking over them, something that was almost unheard of in the 19th century. Even though many psychotherapists today tend to reject the specifics of Freud's theories, this basic mode of treatment comes largely from his work.


Most of Freud's specific theories—like his stages of psychosexual development—and especially his methodology, have fallen out of favor in modern experimental psychology. Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ...


Some psychotherapists, however, still follow an approximately Freudian system of treatment. Many more have modified his approach, or joined one of the schools that branched from his original theories (see Neo-Freudian). Still others reject his theories entirely, although their practice may still reflect his influence. The Neo-Freudian psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way. ...


Psychoanalysis today maintains the same ambivalent relationship with medicine and academia that Freud experienced during his life. Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Philosophy

While he saw himself as a scientist, Freud greatly admired Theodor Lipps, a philosopher and main supporter of the ideas of the subconscious and empathy.[15] Freud's theories have had a tremendous impact on the humanities--especially on the Frankfurt school and critical theory. Freud's model of the mind is often criticized as an unsubstantiated challenge to the enlightenment model of rational agency, which was a key element of much modern philosophy. Theodor Lipps (1851-1914) was a German philosopher. ... The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Agency considered in the philosophical sense is the capacity of an agent to act in a world. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ...

Rationality
While many enlightenment thinkers viewed rationality as both an unproblematic ideal and a defining feature of man, Freud's model of the mind drastically reduced the scope and power of reason. In Freud's view, reasoning occurs in the conscious mind--the ego--but this is only a small part of the whole. The mind also contains the hidden, irrational elements of id and superego, which lie outside of conscious control, drive behavior, and motivate conscious activities. As a result, these structures call into question humans' ability to act purely on the basis of reason, since lurking motives are also always at play. Moreover, this model of the mind makes rationality itself suspect, since it may be motivated by hidden urges or societal forces (e.g. defense mechanisms, where reasoning becomes "rationalizing").
Transparency of Self
Another common assumption in pre-Freudian philosophy was that people have immediate and unproblematic access to themselves. Emblematic of this position is René Descartes' famous dictum, "Cogito ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am"). For Freud, however, many central aspects of a person remain radically inaccessible to the conscious mind (without the aid of psychotherapy), which undermines the once unquestionable status of first-person knowledge.

René Descartes (French IPA: ) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... In common law legal terminology a dictum (plural dicta) is any statement that forms a part of the judgment of a court, in particular a court whose decisions have value as precedent under the doctrine of stare decisis. ...

Critical reactions

Although Freud's theories were influential, they came under widespread criticism during his lifetime and afterward. A paper by Lydiard H. Horton, read in 1915 at a joint meeting of the American Psychological Association and the New York Academy of Sciences, called Freud's dream theory "dangerously inaccurate" and noted that "rank confabulations...appear to hold water, psycho analytically" [16]. The philosopher A. C. Grayling has said that "Philosophies that capture the imagination never wholly fade....But as to Freud's claims upon truth, the judgment of time seems to be running against him."[17] Peter D. Kramer, a psychiatrist and faculty member of Brown Medical School, said "I'm afraid [Freud] doesn't hold up very well at all. It almost feels like a personal betrayal to say that. But every particular is wrong: the universality of the Oedipus complex, penis envy, infantile sexuality." A 2006 article in Newsweek magazine called him "history's most debunked doctor."[[2]] Lydiard Heneage Horton, 1879- January 19, 1945, consulting psychologist and author. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... New York Academy of Sciences is a society of some 20,000 scientists of all disciplines from 150 countries. ... Anthony Clifford Grayling MA, DPhil (Oxon) FRSA (born 3 April 1949) is a British philosopher and author. ... Peter D. Kramer, M.D., is a psychiatrist and faculty member of Brown Medical School specializing in the area of depression. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... The Warren Alpert Medical School (Formerly known as Brown Medical School) is a graduate school of Brown University. ... Newsweek Logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and Canada. ...


Freud's theories are often criticized for not being real science.[18] This objection was raised by Karl Popper, who claimed that all proper scientific theories must be potentially falsifiable. Popper argued that no experiment or observation could ever falsify Freud's theories of psychology (e.g. someone who denies having an Oedipal complex is interpreted as repressing it), and thus they could not be considered scientific.[19] Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... This page discusses how a theory or assertion is falsifiable (disprovable opp: verifiable), rather than the non-philosophical use of falsification, meaning counterfeiting. ...


H. J. Eysenck claims that Freud 'set psychiatry back one hundred years', consistently mis-diagnosed his patients, fraudulently misrepresented case histories and that "what is true in Freud is not new and what is new in Freud is not true".[20] Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ...


Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen claims that "The truth is that Freud knew from the very start that Fleischl, Anna O. and his 18 patients were not cured, and yet he did not hesitate to build grand theories on these non-existent foundations...he disguised fragments of his self-analysis as ‘objective’ cases, that he concealed his sources, that he conveniently antedated some of his analyses, that he sometimes attributed to his patients ‘free associations’ that he himself made up, that he inflated his therapeutic successes, that he slandered his opponents."[[3]]


Among adherents of Freudian thought, a frequently criticized aspect of Freud's belief system is his model of psychosexual development, including Freud's claim that infants are sexual beings.[citation needed] Others have accepted Freud's expanded notion of sexuality, but have argued that this pattern of development is not universal, nor necessary for the development of a healthy adult.[citation needed] Instead, they have emphasized the social and environmental sources of patterns of development. Moreover, they call attention to social dynamics Freud de-emphasized or ignored, such as class relations. This branch of Freudian critique owes a great deal to the work of Herbert Marcuse. Social dynamics means the ability of a society to react to inner and outer changes and deals with its regulation mechanisms. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ...


Freud has also come under fire from many feminist critics.[citation needed] Freud was an early champion of both sexual freedom and education for women (Freud, "Civilized Sexual Morality and Modern Nervousness"). Some feminists have argued that at worst his views of women's sexual development set the progress of women in Western culture back decades, and that at best they lent themselves to the ideology of female inferiority. Believing as he did that women are a kind of mutilated male, who must learn to accept their "deformity" (the "lack" of a penis) and submit to some imagined biological imperative, he contributed to the vocabulary of misogyny. Terms such as "penis envy" and "castration anxiety" contributed to discouraging women from entering any field dominated by men, until the 1970s. Some of Freud's most criticized statements appear in his 'Fragment of Analysis' on Ida Bauer such as "This was surely just the situation to call up distinct feelings of sexual excitement in a girl of fourteen" in reference to Dora being kissed by a 'young man of prepossessing appearance'[21] implying the passivity of female sexuality and his statement "I should without question consider a person hysterical in whom an occasion for sexual excitement elicited feelings that were preponderantly or exclusively unpleasurable"[21] Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... For the Crass album, see Penis Envy (album). ... Castration anxiety is an idea put forth by Sigmund Freud in his writings on the Oedipus complex; it posits a deep-seated fear or anxiety in boys and men said to originate during the genital stage of sexual development. ... Ida Bauer (1882–1945) was a hysterical patient of Sigmund Freud whom he wrote a famous case study about using the psuedonym Dora. Doras most manifest hysterical symptom was aphonia (loss of voice). ...


On the other hand, feminist theorists such as Juliet Mitchell, Nancy Chodorow, Jessica Benjamin, Jane Gallop, and Jane Flax have argued that psychoanalytic theory is essentially related to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be adapted by women to free it from vestiges of sexism. Freud's views are still being questioned by people concerned about women's equality. Another feminist who finds potential use of Freud's theories in the feminist movement is Shulamith Firestone. In "Freudianism: The Misguided Feminism", she discusses how Freudianism is essentially completely accurate, with the exception of one crucial detail: everywhere that Freud wrote "penis", the word should be replaced with "power". Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Juliet Mitchell (* 1940 in New Zealand) is a British feminist. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Jessica Benjamin is an American psychoanalyst and feminist. ... Jane Gallop is a Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. ... Shulamith Firestone (1945, also called Shulie Firestone) was a founding member of the Chicago Womens Liberation Union in 1969, and was a member of Redstockings and the New York Radical Feminists. ...


Dr. Jurgen von Scheidt speculated that most of Freud's psychoanalytical theory was a byproduct of his cocaine use.[22] Cocaine enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission increasing sexual interest and obsessive thinking. Chronic cocaine use can produce unusual thinking patterns due to the depletion of dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas. ...


Patients

This is a partial list of patients whose case studies were published by Freud, with pseudonyms substituted for their names:

Freud's couch used during psychoanalytic sessions
Freud's couch used during psychoanalytic sessions
  • Anna O. = Bertha Pappenheim (1859–1936)
  • Cäcilie M. = Anna von Lieben
  • Dora = Ida Bauer (1882–1945)
  • Frau Emmy von N. = Fanny Moser
  • Fräulein Elizabeth von R.
  • Fräulein Katharina = Aurelia Kronich
  • Fräulein Lucy R.
  • Little Hans = Herbert Graf (1903–1973)
  • Rat Man = Ernst Lanzer (1878–1914)
  • Wolf Man = Sergei Pankejeff (1887–1979)

Other patients: Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... Anna O. was the name given to a patient of the physician and physiologist Josef Breuer in his book Studies on Hysteria, written in collaboration with Sigmund Freud. ... Ida Bauer (1882–1945) was a hysterical patient of Sigmund Freud whom he wrote a famous case study about using the psuedonym Dora. Doras most manifest hysterical symptom was aphonia (loss of voice). ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... Herbert Graf(1903-1973) was an Austrian-American opera producer. ... The Rat Man was a pseudonym given by Sigmund Freud to one of his patients, Ernst Lanzer, to protect his anonymity when his case study was published. ... Sergei Konstantinovitch Pankejeff (Russian: ) (December 24, 1886 – May 7, 1979) was a Russian aristocrat from Odessa, who was best known for being a patient of Sigmund Freud, who gave him the pseudonym of Wolf Man (der Wolfsmann) to protect his identity, after a dream Pankejeff had of a tree full...

People on whom psychoanalytic observations were published but who were not patients: H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolitle(September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States – September 27, 1961, Zürich, Switzerland), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... Emma Eckstein (1865 - 1924) was an early patient of Sigmund Freud who underwent disastrous nasal surgery, undertaken by Freuds friend and confidant, Wilhelm Fliess. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Princess Marie Bonaparte (2 July 1882-21 September 1962) was a French psychoanalyst, closely linked with Sigmund Freud. ...

Daniel Paul Schreber (1842-1911) was a German judge suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... William Christian Bullitt, Jr. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gresser, Moshe (1994). Dual Allegiance: Freud As a Modern Jew. SUNY Press, 225. ISBN 0791418111. 
  2. ^ http://www.expertensprechen.de/
  3. ^ http://www.berlinonline.de/berliner-zeitung/archiv/.bin/dump.fcgi/2004/1020/feuilleton/0027/index.html
  4. ^ http://www.wno.org/newpages/sci02b.html
  5. ^ a b Hall, Calvin, S. (1954). A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Book. ISBN 0452011833. 
  6. ^ Freud's Psycho Dynamic Theory and Thermodynamics [1873-1923] - Institute of Human Thermodynamics
  7. ^ Bowlby, John (1999). Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed.. Basic Books, 13-23. ISBN 0-465-00543-8. 
  8. ^ Gay, Peter (1988). Freud: A Life for Our Time, p.65-66. 
  9. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph. "Hotel log hints at desire that Freud didn't repress", International Herald Tribune, 24 December 2006. 
  10. ^ Ernest Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, edited and abridged by Lionell Trilling and Steven Marcus (New York: Basic Books, 1961), p. 253.
  11. ^ Gay, Peter (1988). Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. 
  12. ^ Meyer (2005, 217).
  13. ^ Altschule, M (1977). Origins of Concepts in Human Behavior. New York: Wiley, 199. , cited in Allen Esterson, Freud returns?
  14. ^ Freud: A Life for Our Time, p.95. 
  15. ^ Pigman, G.W. (April 1995). "Freud and the history of empathy". The International journal of psycho-analysis 76 (Pt 2): 237-56. 
  16. ^ http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=AbnPsyc.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=32&division=div1
  17. ^ The Guardian, 22 June 2002 http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/politicsphilosophyandsociety/story/0,,741510,00.html
  18. ^ Ludwig, 1973, pg. 93
  19. ^ Karl Popper, “Philosophy of Science: A Personal Report,” in British Philosophy in the Mid-Century: A Cambridge Symposium, ed. C. A. Mace (1957), 155-91; reprinted in Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (1963; 2d ed., 1965), 33-65.
  20. ^ Eysenck, Hans, Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire (Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1986)
  21. ^ a b S.E. 7. pp28
  22. ^ Scheidt, Jürgen vom (1973). "Sigmund Freud and cocaine". Psyche: pp. 385–430. 
  • Corey, Gerald (2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 6th ed. ISBN 0534348238

Peter Gay (June 20, 1923-), a Jewish American historian of the social history of ideas, born in Berlin as Peter Joachim Fröhlich . ...

Bibliography

Major works by Freud

Books about Freud and psychoanalysis

  • Ernest Jones : "The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud.", Publisher: Basic Books, 1981, ISBN 0-465-04015-2
  • "The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908-1939, R. Andrew Paskauskas (Editor), Riccardo Steiner (Introduction), Publisher: Belknap Press; Reprint edition 1995, ISBN 0-674-15424-X
  • "The Language of Psycho-Analysis" , Jean Laplanche et J.B. Pontalis, Editeur: W. W. Norton & Company, 1974, ISBN 0-393-01105-4
  • "Sigmund Freud and Lou Andreas-Salome" : Letters" Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company (November 1985), ISBN 0-393-30261-X
  • Lou Andreas-Salome : "The Freud Journal" , Publisher: Texas Bookman, 1996, ISBN 0-7043-0022-2
  • Sabina Spielrein : "Destruction as cause of becoming", 1993, OCLC 44450080
  • Marthe Robert : "The Psychoanalytic Revolution", Publisher: Avon Books; Discus ed edition, 1968, OCLC 2401215
  • Bruno Bettelheim : "Freud and Man's Soul: An Important Re-Interpretation of Freudian Theory" Publisher: Vintage; Vintage edition, 1983, ISBN 0-394-71036-3
  • André Green: "The Work of the Negative" by Andre Green, Andrew Weller (Translator), Publisher: Free Association Books, 1999, ISBN 1-85343-470-1
  • André Green: "On Private Madness", Publisher: International Universities Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8236-3853-7
  • André Green: "The Chains of Eros", Publisher: Karnac Books, 2002, ISBN 1-85575-960-8
  • André Green: "Psychoanalysis: A Paradigm For Clinical Thinking" Publisher: Free Association Books, 2005, ISBN 1-85343-773-5
  • John Farrell. Freud's Paranoid Quest: Psychoanalysis and Modern Suspicion (NYU Press, 1996). A vigorous account of the relations between Freud's logic, rhetoric, and personality, as well as his relations with literary sources like Cervantes, Goethe, and Swift.
  • Rieff, Philip. Freud: The Mind of the Moralist, 3d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979).
  • Roazen, Paul. Freud and His Followers (Random House, 1975). A rich study of the development of psychoanalysis, based upon many personal interviews.
  • Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth (1992). Freud on Women: A Reader. Norton. ISBN 0-393-30870-7.
  • Anthony Bateman and Jeremy Holmes, Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Contemporary Theory & Practice (London: Routledge, 1995)
  • Isbister, J. N. "Freud, An Introduction to his Life and Work" Publisher: Polity Press: Cambridge, Oxford. (1985)
  • Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, The Assault on Truth: Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory, Ballantine Books (November 2003), ISBN 0-345-45279-8

Conceptual critiques

  • Robert Aziz, The Syndetic Paradigm:The Untrodden Path Beyond Freud and Jung (2007), a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN-13:978-0-7914-6982-8.
  • Adler, Mortimer J., What Man Has Made of Man: A Study of the Consequences of Platonism and Positivism in Psychology (New York: Longmans, Green, 1937). (A philosophical critique from an Aristotelian/Thomistic point of view.)
  • Cioffi, Frank. Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience. Chicago and La Salle: Open Court, 1998.
  • Deleuze, Gilles and Guattari, Félix, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem and Helen R. Lane (London and New York: Continuum, 2004). (This first volume of the famous two-part work (also subtitled Capitalism and Schizophrenia) polemicises Freud's argument that the Oedipal complex determines subjectivity. It is also, therefore, a staunch critique of the Lacanian 'return to Freud.)
  • Henri Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious: the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (London: Penguin, 1970). (An extensive account and sensitive critique of Freudian metapsychology.) (Swiss link: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_F._Ellenberger)
  • Esterson, Allen, "Seductive Mirage: An Exploration of the Work of Sigmund Freud." Chicago: Open Court, 1993.
  • Eysenck, H. J. and Wilson, G. D. The Experimental Study of Freudian Theories, Methuen, London (1973).
  • Eysenck, Hans, Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire (Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1986).
  • Hobson, J. Allan Hobson, Dreaming: An Introduction to the Science of Sleep (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). ISBN 0-19-280482-0. (Critique of Freud's dream theory in terms of current neuroscience)
  • Johnston, Thomas, Freud and Political Thought (New York: Citadel, 1965). (One of the more accessible accounts of the import of Freudianism for political theory.)
  • Kofman, Sarah, The Enigma of Woman: Woman in Freud's Writings (Ithaca, NY, & London: Cornell University Press, 1985).
  • Simonsen, Sean "I'm Okay, Freud is a Crackpot: Collected Essays on Denial" "Stand Like A Rock"
  • Marcuse, Herbert, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1974). (Mentioned above. For a good review, see Stirk, Peter M. R., ‘Eros and Civilization revisited’, History of the Human Sciences, 12 (1), 1999, pp. 73–90.)
  • Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis Originally published in 1974; Basic Books reissue (2000) ISBN 0-465-04608-8
  • Chasseguet-Smirgel, Janine & Grunberger, Béla. Freud or Reich? Psychoanalysis and Illusion. (London: Free Association Books, 1986)
  • Neu, Jerome (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Freud (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). (A good conceptual overview.)
  • Ricoeur, Paul, Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation, trans. Denis Savage (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972).
  • —, The Conflict of Interpretations: Essays in Hermeneutics, ed. Don Ihde (London: Continuum, 2004). (A critical examination of the import of Freud for philosophy.)
  • Roazen, Paul. Freud and His Followers (New York: Random House, 1975).
  • Szasz, Thomas. Anti-Freud: Karl Kraus's Criticism of Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry, Syracuse University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8156-0247-2.
  • Torrey, E. Fuller (1992). Freudian Fraud: The Malignant Effect of Freud's Theory on American Thought and Culture. New York, NY : HarperCollins.
  • Voloshinov, Valentin. Freudianism: A Marxist critique, Academic Press (1976) ISBN 0-12-723250-8
  • Wollheim, Richard, Freud, 2nd edn. (London: Fontana, 1991). (A good starting point.)

Biographies

The area of biography has been especially contentious in the historiography of psychoanalysis, for two primary reasons: first, following his death, significant portions of his personal papers were for several decades made available only at the permission of his biological and intellectual heirs (his daughter, Anna Freud, was extremely protective of her father's reputation); second, much of the data and theory of Freudian psychoanalysis hinges upon the personal testimony of Freud himself, and so to challenge Freud's legitimacy or honesty has been seen by many as an attack on the roots of his enduring work. Studies on Hysteria (German: Studien über Hysterie) was a book published in 1895 by Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer. ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ... A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Category: ... Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics was a book written by Sigmund Freud published in German as Totem und Tabu: Einige Ãœbereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker in 1913. ... On Narcissism was a 1914 book by Sigmund Freud widely considered an introduction to Freuds theories of narcissism. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ... The Ego and the Id was written by Sigmund Freud in 1923. ... The Future of an Illusion (written 1927) by Sigmund Freud is a book that describes his interpretation of religions origins, development, psychoanalysis, and its future. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. ... Moses and Monotheism is a book by Sigmund Freud. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Jean Laplanche (born June 21, 1924) is a French author, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Lou Andreas-Salome Lou Andreas-Salomé (née Louise von Salomé) (February 12, 1861 – February 5, 1937) was a Russian-born intellectual, author of many books [1], psychoanalyst [2] and companion to many male and some female artists and authors of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Lou Andreas-Salome Lou Andreas-Salomé (née Louise von Salomé) (February 12, 1861 – February 5, 1937) was a Russian-born intellectual, author of many books [1], psychoanalyst [2] and companion to many male and some female artists and authors of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Sabina Spielrein was born 1885 into a family of a Jewish merchant in Rostov na Donu, and died there in 1941 (1942?), murdered by Nazi troops. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 - March 13, 1990) was an Austrian-born American writer and child psychologist. ... André Green (* March 12, 1927 in Cairo) is a French psychoanalyst. ... Elisabeth Young-Bruehl (born 1946 as Elisabeth Young) is an American academic and psychotherapist, currently a practicing psychoanalyst in New York City and on the faculty of the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research. ... Dr. Jeffrey Masson Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson (b. ... The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), founded in 1966, is a university press that is part of State University of New York system. ... Mortimer Adler around 1963 Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American aristotelian philosopher and author. ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was an influential French psychoanalyst as well as a structuralist who based much of his theories on Ferdinand de Saussures theories on language. ... Henri F. Ellenberger was a Swiss medical historian, considered by some to be the founding historiographer of psychiatry. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... Sarah Kofman (September 14, 1934 - October 15, 1994) was a French philosopher, author of numerous books, particularly on Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel (1928 - 2006) (whose surname is alternatively spelled Chasseguet-Smirguel, but generally not in English-language publications) was a leading French psychoanalyst, a training analyst, and Past President of the Société Psychanalytique in Paris. ... Paul RicÅ“ur (February 27, 1913 Valence France – May 20, 2005 Chatenay Malabry France) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... Thomas Szasz. ... Valentin Voloshinov Valentin Nikolaevich Voloshinov (Russian: ) (1895–June 13, 1936) was a Soviet/Russian linguist, whose work has been influential in the field of literary theory and Marxist theory of ideology. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ...


The first biographies of Freud were written by Freud himself: his On the History of the Psychoanalytic Movement (1914) and An Autobiographical Study (1924) provided much of the basis for discussions by later biographers, including "debunkers" (as they contain a number of prominent omissions and potential misrepresentations). A few of the major biographies on Freud to come out over the 20th century were:

  • Helen Walker Puner, Freud: His Life and His Mind (1947) — Puner's "facts" were often shaky at best but she was remarkably insightful with regard to Freud's unanalyzed relationship to his mother, Amalia.
  • Ernest Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, 3 vols. (1953–1958) — the first "authorized" biography of Freud, made by one of his former students with the authorization and assistance of Anna Freud, with the hope of "dispelling the myths" from earlier biographies. Though this is the most comprehensive biography of Freud, Jones has been accused of writing more of a hagiography than a history of Freud. Among his questionable assertions, Jones diagnosed his own analyst, Ferenczi, as "psychotic." In the same breath, Jones also maligned Otto Rank, Ferenczi's close friend and Jones's most important rival for leadership of the movement in the 1920s.
  • Henri Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (1970) — was the first book to, in a compelling way, attempt to situate Freud within the context of his time and intellectual thought, arguing that he was the intellectual heir of Franz Mesmer and that the genesis of his theory owed a large amount to the political context of turn of the 19th century Vienna. (Swiss link: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_F._Ellenberger)
  • Frank Sulloway, Freud: Biologist of the Mind (1979) — Sulloway, one of the first professional/academic historians to write a biography of Freud, positioned Freud within the larger context of the history of science, arguing specifically that Freud was, in fact, a biologist in disguise (a "crypto-biologist", in Sulloway's terms), and sought to actively hide this.
  • Peter Gay, Freud: A Life for Our Time (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1988) — Gay's impressively scholarly work was published in part as a response to the anti-Freudian literature and the "Freud Wars" of the 1980s (see below). Gay's book is probably the best pro-Freud biography available, though he is not completely uncritical of his hero. His "Bibliographical Essay" at the end of the volume provides astute evaluations of the voluminous literature on Freud up to the mid-1980s.
  • Breger, Louis. "Freud: Darkness in the Midst of Vision." (New York: Wiley, 2000). Though written from a psychoanalytic point of view (the author is a former President of the Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis), this is a "warts and all" life of Sigmund Freud. It corrects, in the light of historical research of recent decades, many (though not quite all) of several disputed traditional historical accounts of events uncritically recycled by Peter Gay.

The creation of Freud biographies has itself even been written about at some length—see, for example, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, "A History of Freud Biographies," in Discovering the History of Psychiatry, edited by Mark S. Micale and Roy Porter (Oxford University Press, 1994). Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Henri F. Ellenberger was a Swiss medical historian, considered by some to be the founding historiographer of psychiatry. ... Franz Anton Mesmer His Grave Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called animal magnetism and others often called mesmerism. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Peter Gay (June 20, 1923-), a Jewish American historian of the social history of ideas, born in Berlin as Peter Joachim Fröhlich . ... Roy Porter (31 December 1946 to 3 March 2002) was a British historian noted for his work on the history of medicine. ...

Biographical critiques

  • Bakan, David. Sigmund Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition, D. Van Nostrand Company, 1958; New York, Schocken Books, 1965; Dover Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-486-43767-1
  • Crews, F. C. Unauthorized Freud : doubters confront a legend, New York, Viking 1998. ISBN 0-670-87221-0
  • Dolnick, Edward. Madness on the Couch: Blaming the Victim in the Heyday of Psychoanalysis ISBN 0-684-82497-3
  • Dufresne, T. Killing Freud, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003.
  • Esterson, Allen, "Seductive Mirage: An Exploration of the Work of Sigmund Freud." Chicago: Open Court, 1993.
  • Eysenck, H. J. The Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire, Scott-Townsend Publishers, Washington D. C., (1990)
  • Jurjevich, R. M. The Hoax of Freudism: A study of Brainwashing the American Professionals and Laymen Dorrance (1974) ISBN 0-8059-1856-6
  • LaPiere, R. T. The Freudian Ethic: An Analysis of the Subversion of Western Character Greenwood Press (1974) ISBN 0-8371-7543-7
  • Lear, Jonathan. Freud Routledge (2005) ISBN 0-415-31451-8
  • Ludwig, Emil, Doctor Freud, Manor Books, New York, 1973
  • MacDonald, Kevin B. The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements Authorhouse (2002) ISBN 0-7596-7222-9
  • Macmillan, Malcolm. Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc MIT Press, 1996 ISBN 0-262-63171-7 [originally published by New Holland, 1991]
  • Scharnberg, Max. The non-authentic nature of Freud's observations, Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1993 ISBN 91-554-3122-4
  • Stannard, D. E. Shrinking History: On Freud and the Failure of Psychohistory Oxford University Press, Oxford (1980) ISBN 0-19-503044-3
  • Thornton, E. M. Freud and Cocaine: The Freudian Fallacy, Blond & Briggs, London (1983) ISBN 0-85634-139-8
  • Webster, Richard. Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science, and Psychoanalysis BasicBooks, 1995. ISBN 0-465-09579-8
  • Sonia Montero Padilla contributed to this page.

Jonathan Lear is the John U. Nef Distinguished Service Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago. ... Emil Ludwig (1881 – 1948) was a German author, known for his biographies. ... Kevin B. MacDonald Kevin B. MacDonald, (born January 24, 1944) is a professor of psychology at California State University, Long Beach, best known for his use of evolutionary psychology to inform his study of Judaism as being what he claims is a group evolutionary strategy. MacDonalds most controversial claim...

See also

Topics

For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... The American Psychoanalytic Association is an organization of psychoanalysts within the United States. ... A Freudian slip, or parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious mind. ... Freudo-Marxism is a loose designation of several twentieth-century critical theory schools of thought that sought to synthesize the philosophy and political economy of Karl Marx with the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. ... The Neo-Freudian psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way. ... For the Crass album, see Penis Envy (album). ... In New Age terminology, energy means various kinds of spiritual forces, often related to the concept of life (compare vitalism). ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... // Hypnotism as a tool for health seems to have originated with the Hindus of India who often took their sick to sleep temples to be cured by hypnotic suggestion as also found to be the case in Egypt and Greece. ... Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism which, in method, concept, theory or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud. ... Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases. ... Sigmund Freud - the central founder of psychodynamics Psychodynamics is the application of the principles of thermodynamics to psychology. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The oral stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the childs development during the first 18 to 24 months of life, in which an infants pleasure centers are in the mouth. ... The Anal Stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the development during the second year of life, in which an childs pleasure and conflict centers are in the anal area. ... The phallic stage is the third of Freuds psychosexual stages, when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure. ... The genital stage is a stage of child development in one of the theories postulated by Sigmund Freud and elaborated by his followers. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... It has been suggested that the section Shame campaign from the article Smear campaign be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

People

Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ... Edward Bernays (November 22, 1891 - March 9, 1995) is regarded by many as the father of public relations, although some people believe that title properly belongs to some other early PR practitioner, such as Ivy Lee. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Wilhelm Fliess (1858–1928) was a German otorhinolaryngologist who practiced in Berlin. ... Alix Strachey (4 June 1892–28 April 1973), née Sargant-Florence, was an American-born British psychoanalyst and with her husband the translator into English of the works of Sigmund Freud. ... James Strachey (1887 – 1967) was a British psychoanalyst, and, with his wife Alix, a translator of Sigmund Freud into English. ... Adrian Stephen (1883-1948) was a member of the Bloomsbury Group, an author and psychoanalyst, and the brother of Virginia Woolf. ... Viktor Emil Frankl, M.D., Ph. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... Georg Groddeck (October 13, 1866 Bad Kösen – June 10, 1934 Knonau, near Zurich) was a physician and writer. ... Boris Sidis, Ph. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney [horn-eye], born Danielsen (September 16, 1885, – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... Dr. Jeffrey Masson Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson (b. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... Herbert Silberer (February 28, 1882 – January 12, 1923) was a Viennese psychologist involved with the professional circle surrounding Sigmund Freud which included other pioneers of psychological study as Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and others. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...

External links

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Sigmund Freud
  • Freud Museum, Maresfield Gardens, London
  • Freud Museum, Berggasse 19, Vienna
  • Sigmund Freud Life and Work
  • On Sigmund Freud
  • Scientific Method in the Interpretation of Dreams
  • International Psychoanalytical Association, founded by Freud in 1910
  • Scientist or storyteller?
  • International Network of Freud Critics
  • One Hundred Years of Sigmund Freud
  • Sigmund Freud Biography and Quotations
  • Sigmund Freud's article on Psychoanalysis from the 1926 (Thirteenth) edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Sigmund-Freud-Institut
  • Freud Archives at Library of Congress
  • Freud's Unwritten Case: The Patient "E." by Douglas A. Davis
  • The Darwin of the Mind
  • Works by Sigmund Freud at Project Gutenberg
  • Website of leading Freud-Jungian scholar/ author, Dr. Robert Aziz
  • (Spanish) Nietzsche y Freud; la ficcion del sujeto y las seducciones de la gramatica by Adolfo Vasquez Rocca PhD
  • (Spanish) La influencia de Nietzsche sobre Freud by Adolfo Vasquez Rocca PhD
  • Essays by Freud at Quotidiana.org
  • Works by Sigmund Freud at eBooks-Library
Persondata
NAME Freud, Sigismund Schlomo
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Freud, Sigmund
SHORT DESCRIPTION Psychologist
DATE OF BIRTH May 6, 1856
PLACE OF BIRTH Freiberg (Příbor), Moravia, Slezsko,Czech Republic
DATE OF DEATH September 23, 1939
PLACE OF DEATH London, England

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Human development is the process of growing to maturity. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... “Adolescent” redirects here. ... See Adult. ... According to Erik Eriksons stages of human development, first enumerated in Childhood and Society (1950) a young adult is a person between the ages of 19 and 40, whereas an adolescent is a person between the ages of 12 and 21. ... Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... Paul Kruger in his old age. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The effects of ageing on a human face Elderly woman Ageing or aging is the process of systems deterioration with time. ... It has been suggested that Longevity genes be merged into this article or section. ... In Developmental psychology, a stage is a distinct phase in an individuals development. ... John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ... Mother and child. ... Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemologic view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and... // Although there is no general theory of cognitive development, one of the most historically influential theories was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist (1896–1980). ... Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) was born in Bronxville, New York. ... Kohlbergs stages of moral development are planes of moral adequacy conceived by Lawrence Kohlberg to explain the development of moral reasoning. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... // Psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson describes eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... A psychologist is a scientist or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Quantitative psychological research is psychological research which performs statistical estimation or statistical inference. ... In the broadest sense qualitative research is research which uses only dichotomous data — that is, data which can take only the values 0 (zero) and 1 (one). ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad sense, refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Physiological psychology is sometimes related to psychiatry, and in fact may end up becoming the parent branch which contains psychiatry. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... Psychological testing or psychological assessment is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Counseling psychology is an application of the basic professional skills in psychology to a population that has been more located in schools rather than hospitals and clinics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Relationship counseling is the process of counseling the parties of a relationship in an effort to recognize and to better manage or reconcile troublesome differences. ... Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... Existential psychotherapy is partly based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, and earlier generally referred to as marriage therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... Feminist Therapy Code of Ethics* (Revised, 1999) Preamble Feminist therapy evolved from feminist philosophy, psychological theory and practice, and political theory. ... Gestalt Therapy is a psychotherapy which focuses on here-and-now experience and personal responsibility. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... It has been suggested that Psychodynamic psychology be merged into this article or section. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ... Burrhus Frederic Fred Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), Ph. ... Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemologic view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Albert Bandura (born 4 20 1925 in Mundare, Canada), a Ball Licker, is best known for his work on nut sack and on self-efficacy. ... Leon Festinger Leon Festinger (May 8, 1919 – February 11, 1989) was a social psychologist from New York City who became famous for his Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger, 1957). ... Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist, who, along with Abraham Maslow, was the founder of the humanist approach to psychology. ... Stanley Schachter was born on April 15, 1922, to Nathan and Anna Schachter in Flushing, New York. ... Neal E Miller was born in Milwaukee in 1909. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, 1897 - October 9, 1967) was an American psychologist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... David McClelland (1917-1998). ... Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 - 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist who theorized the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligences to explain human cognitive ability. ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. ... Kurt Zadek Lewin (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German psychologist and one of the pioneers of social psychology. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... George A. Miller (born February 3 1920) is a famous professor of psychology at Princeton University, whose most famous work was The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information, which was published in 1956 in In the linguistics community, Miller is well... Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952) was an influential American psychologist and behaviorist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior. ... Jerome Kagan (born 1929) was one of the key pioneers of developmental psychology. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... These are some of the sub-fields within the field of psychology: Abnormal psychology Activity theory Analytical psychology Applied psychology Asian Psychology Behavior analysis Behavioural medicine Behavioural psychology Biobehavioural health Biological psychology Biopsychology Cognitive neuropsychology Cognitive psychology Cognitive neuroscience Community psychology Comparative psychology Clinical psychology Counselling psychology Critical psychology Developmental... This is a list of psychiatric drugs used by psychiatrists to treat mental illness or distress. ... This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e. ... List of organizations and societies in psychology. ... A very wide range of research methods are used in psychology. ... The psychological schools are the great classical theories of psychology. ... This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ... This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... This is a timeline of psychology. ... This is an List of counseling topics is incomplete list. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Location of Příbor in the Czech Republic Příbor (Freiberg in German) is a town in the Czech Republic in Moravian-Silesian Region. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
TIME 100: Sigmund Freud (482 words)
A psychoanalyst who is currently trying to enshrine Freud in the pantheon of cultural heroes must contend with a relentless critic who devotes his days to exposing Freud as a charlatan.
His fundamental idea — that all humans are endowed with an unconscious in which potent sexual and aggressive drives, and defenses against them, struggle for supremacy, as it were, behind a person's back — has struck many as a romantic, scientifically unprovable notion.
Freud first used the term psychoanalysis in 1896, when he was already 40.
Sigmund Freud and the Freud Archives (376 words)
The Sigmund Freud Archives and the Cancellation of the LOC Exhibit (memo from Dr.
Freud Pilot Project at the Center for Electronic Text in the Humanities.
Freud, Sigmund: The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement, trans.
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