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Encyclopedia > Sigismund von Herberstein

Siegmund (Sigismund) Freiherr von Herberstein[1], (or Baron Sigismund von Herberstein), (August 23, 1486March 28, 1566), Austrian diplomat, writer and historian. He was most noted for his extensive writing on the geography, history and customs of Russia and contributed greatly to early Western European knowledge of that area. August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ...

Contents

Early life

Herberstein was born in 1486 in Vipava (German Wippach) in the region of Carniola, South Austria (now Slovenia) to Leonhard von Herberstein and Barbara von Lueg, members of the prominent German family which had already resided in Herberstein Castle for nearly 200 years. Little is known of his early life apart from the fact that he became familiar with the Slovene language spoken in the region. This knowledge became significant later in his life. Area: 107. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ...


In 1499 he entered the University of Vienna to study philosophy and law. In 1506 he entered the army as an officer and served in a number of campaigns. In 1508 he was knighted by the Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor personally. In 1515 he entered the Imperial council, or Parliament, and began a long and illustrious diplomatic career. 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Diplomatic career

Between 1515 and 1553, Herberstein carried out approximately 69 missions abroad, travelling throughout much of Europe, including Turkey. He was feted by the ruling Habsburgs and rewarded with titles and estates. He was twice sent to Russia as the Austrian ambassador, in 1517 to attempt to arrange a truce between Russia and Lithuania, and in 1526 to renew a treaty between the two signed in 1522. These extended visits (nine months in his 1517 visit) provided him with the opportunity to study a hitherto largely unknown Russian society. 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... // 1517 Nothing Actuall 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 151== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ...


Writing on Russia

Herberstein's knowledge of Slovene, acquired in his youth, allowed him to communicate freely with Russians, as Slovene and Russian both belong to the Slavic languages. He used this ability to question a variety of people in Russia on a wide range of topics. This gave him an insight into Russia and Russians unavailable to the few previous visitors to Russia.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


He probably wrote his first account of life in Russia between 1517 and 1527, but no copy of this survives. In 1526 he was asked to produce a formal report on his experiences in Russia, but this remained relatively unnoticed in the archives until he was able to find time to revise and expand it, which he possibly started in the 1530s. Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Decades: 1480s 1490s 1500s 1510s 1520s - 1530s - 1540s 1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s Years: 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 Events and Trends Spanish conquest of Peru Beginning of colonization of Brazil Categories: 1530s ...


The evidence suggests that Herberstein was an energetic and capable ethnographer. He investigated in depth both by questioning locals and by critically examining the scarce existing literature on Russia. The result was his major work, a book written in Latin titled Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs), published in 1549. This became the main early source of knowledge in Western Europe on Russia. Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (1549) (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) was a book in Latin by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state). ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ...


Although he contributed a great deal to European knowledge of Russia, he also contributed to a spelling confusion which did not emerge until the end of the 19th century and still causes disagreement: he recorded the spelling of tsar as czar. This cz spelling is against the usage of all Slavonic languages; although the spelling varies, Slavonic languages use the ts pronunciation, and usually that spelling in the Romanised form. English and French moved from the cz spelling to the ts spelling in the 19th century. Note that cz was as good a spelling as any at the time Herberstein recorded it. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Note regarding personal names: Freiherr is a title, translated as Baron, not a first or middle name. The female forms are Freifrau and Freiin.

Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ... Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ...

External links and references

  • the primary source of material on Herberstein is Marshall Poe's publications, particularly 'A People Born To Slavery': Russia in Early Modern European Ethnography (Cornell UP). This is not available online, but he has several books at http://www.amazon.com
  • for the Russian text of Herberstein's book, see http://stepanov01.narod.ru/library/herb/herb00.htm
  • Internet searches yield some other sites with fragmentary information, although a lot is derived from Poe's works, and most of the rest from Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii - but since this was the major work of the time in that field, this is not surprising.
  • for the derivation of tsar and Herberstein's contribution of czar, see the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, entry on tsar.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sigismund von Herberstein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (730 words)
Siegmund (Sigismund) Freiherr von Herberstein, (or Baron Sigismund von Herberstein), (August 23, 1486—March 28, 1566), Austrian diplomat, writer and historian.
Herberstein was born in 1486 in Vipava (German Wippach) in the region of Carniola, South Austria (now Slovenia) to Leonhard von Herberstein and Barbara von Lueg, members of the prominent German family which had already resided in Herberstein Castle for nearly 200 years.
Herberstein's knowledge of Slovene, acquired in his youth, allowed him to communicate freely with Russians, as Slovene and Russian both belong to the Slavic languages.
Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1050 words)
Herberstein was an Austrian diplomat who was twice sent to Russia as Austrian ambassador, in 1517 and 1526.
As a result, Herberstein was able to produce the first detailed eyewitness ethnography of Russia, encyclopedic in its scope, providing an accurate (very accurate for the time) view of trade, religion, customs, politics, history, even a theory of Russian political culture.
One final thing for which Herberstein and his book was noted, though not widely understood, was his contribution to a spelling confusion which did not emerge until the end of the 19th century and still causes disagreement: he recorded the spelling of tsar as czar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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