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Encyclopedia > Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum.
For other nobles of the same name, please see Sigismund.

Sigismund (14/15 February, 1368December 9, 1437, Hungarian name as King of Hungary: I. Zsigmond) was Holy Roman Emperor for 4 years from 1433 until 1437. He was also one of the longest ruling Kings of Hungary reigning for 50 years from 1387 to 1437. Like many other rulers of his era, he held a number of other titles. These included: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 441 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (936 × 1,271 pixels, file size: 376 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Date: 1433 Painter: Pisanello Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 441 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (936 × 1,271 pixels, file size: 376 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Date: 1433 Painter: Pisanello Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresien-Platz, Vienna. ... Sigismund is a common name. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ...

Contents

Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum) was a title used by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire before their coronation by the Pope, and later also by the heir designate of the Empire. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...

Biography

Early life

Mary of Hungary
Mary of Hungary

Born in Nuremberg, Sigismund ('Zsigmond' in Hungarian) was a son of the emperor Charles IV and Elizabeth of Pomerania, daughter of Bogislaw V of Pomerania. In 1374 was betrothed to Mary, eldest surviving daughter of king Louis I of Hungary and Poland, who intended Mary to succeed him in the hereditary kingdom of Poland with her future husband as was the custom of the time. Sigismund became margrave of Brandenburg on his father's death in 1378. Sent to the Hungarian court, Sigismund became thoroughly Magyarized and entirely devoted to his adopted country. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,091 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 952 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mária királynő Thuróczy János krónikájában (1488) – – scanned by user:Csanády File historyClick on a date/time... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,091 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 952 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mária királynő Thuróczy János krónikájában (1488) – – scanned by user:Csanády File historyClick on a date/time... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Elizabeth of Pomerania (1347-1393) was the fourth and final wife of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia. ... Bogusław and Elizabeth Piast, his first wife. ... Mary of Hungary (c. ... Louis the Great. ... Historically the Margrave of Brandenburg was one of the most powerful titles in the Holy Roman Empire in being one of the 4 temporal electors and so being one of only 7 lords in the empire with a say in who became the next emperor. ...


In 1381, the then 13-year-old Sigismund was sent to Krakow by his eldest brother and guardian king Venceslaus IV of Bohemia, to learn Polish and to become acquainted with the land and its people. King Venceslaus also gave him Neumark to facilitate communication between Brandenburg and Poland. This article needs cleanup. ... Wenceslaus, King of the Romans by Max Barack from 1888 Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the House of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman... Neumark can refer to a region in western Poland, see Neumark (region) a city in Thuringia, see Neumark, Thuringia a municipality in Saxony, see Neumark, Saxony the former German name of Nowe Miasto Lubawskie, Poland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might...


Because of his intrigues, Sigismund was expelled from Poland, which was then given to Mary's younger sister Jadwiga I of Poland, who married Jogaila of Lithuania. When an opposing candidate for the Árpád throne appeared, Sigismund fled, leaving his wife Mary and her mother, widow of King Louis, Elisabeth of Bosnia (Elizabeta Kotromanić) at the mercy of conspirators. Years of civil war followed. This article is about 14th century queen and saint. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca. ... Elisabeth of Bosnia (1340-1387) was a Queen consort of the Kingdom of Hungary and Poland, and regent of Hungary. ...


King of Hungary

At the death of her father in 1382, his betrothed, Mary, became Queen of Hungary, and Sigismund married her in 1385 in Zvolen. She was however captured by the rebellious Horvathys, Bishop Paul of Machva, his brother Ivanish and younger brother Ladislaus. This was done in the following year (as an elaborate plan by Sigismund himself), together with his mother-in-law, who was strangled by Sigismund's men in January 1387. Mary was only rescued with the aid of the Venetians in June 1387. Mary never forgave him for the death of her beloved mother, and subsequently they lived separate lives and had separate households. She died in 1395 in a suspicious horse accident while heavily pregnant. Zvolen (Hungarian: Zólyom, German: Altsohl) is a town in central Slovakia, close to Banská Bystrica, at the Hron river. ...


In the meantime, Sigismund had arranged his own coronation as king of Hungary on 31 March 1387, and having raised money by pledging Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia (1388), he was engaged for the next nine years in a ceaseless struggle for the possession of this unstable throne. The bulk of the nation headed by the great Garay family was with him; but in the southern provinces between the Save and the Drave, the Horvathys with the support of the Bosnian king Tvrtko I, Mary's maternal uncle, proclaimed as their king Ladislas, king of Naples, son of the murdered Hungarian king, Charles II. Not until 1395 did Miklos Garay succeed in suppressing them. On a number of occasions, Sigismund was imprisoned by nobles, but skilfully bribed his way out. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Jobst (or Jost) of Moravia was born in 1351 as son of John Henry of Bohemia, margrave of Moravia, the brother of emperor Charles IV. Jobst was margrave of Brandenburg from 1388-1411. ... The Coat-of-Arms of Tvrtko became the standard insignia for the House of Kotromanić; Stephen Tvrtko I (Stefan, sometimes translated as Stjepan, Stevan,...) (1338–1391) was a ruler of medieval Bosnia. ... Coat of Arms of Ladislas, as titular King of Hungary, titular King of Jerusalem, and King of Naples. ... Charles III, King of Naples, also known as Charles II of Hungary and Charles of Durazzo, reigned as King of Naples from 1381 to 1386 and as King of Hungary (under the name of King Károly II the Small) for one year only from 1385 to 1386. ...


In 1396 Sigismund led the combined armies of Christendom against the Turks, who had taken advantage of the temporary helplessness of Hungary to extend their dominion to the banks of the Danube. This crusade, preached by Pope Boniface IX, was very popular in Hungary. The nobles flocked in thousands to the royal standard, and were reinforced by volunteers from nearly every part of Europe, the most important contingent being that of the French led by John, duke of Nevers, son of Philip II, duke of Burgundy. Sigismund set out with 90,000 men and a flotilla of 70 galleys. After capturing Vidin, he camped before the fortress of Nicopolis. Sultan Bayezid I raised the siege of Constantinople and, at the head of 140,000 men, completely defeated the Christian forces in the Battle of Nicopolis fought between 25 and 28 September 1396. He returned across the sea and through the realm of Zeta, where he ordained a local Serb lord Đurađ with the islands of Hvar and Korčula for resistance against the Turks, which were returned to Sigismund after his death in April of 1403. This article is about the Danube River. ... Boniface IX, né Piero Tomacelli (1356 – October 1, 1404), was the second Roman Pope of the Western Schism from November 2, 1389 – until October 1, 1404). ... John, Duke of Burgundy. ... Philip II, Duke of Burgundy Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, known as the Bold (Philippe II de Bourgogne, le Hardi in French) (January 15, 1342, Pontoise – April 27, 1404, Halle), was the fourth son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne (Judith), daughter of the king and... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... A town in North Bulgaria on the Danube river, Nicopolis was the site of the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, France, Wallachia, Poland, England, Kingdom of Scotland, Old Swiss Confederacy, Republic of Venice, Republic of Genoa, Knights of St. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Zeta was the Serbian independent principality that replaced the ancient Kingdom of Duklja (Latin: Doclea) for the Serbian territories roughly encompassing present-day Republic of Montenegro. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... ĐuraÄ‘ II was the 4th ruler of the Independent Principality of Zeta, in accordance to the House of BalÅ¡a. ... Hvar (Croatia) For the acronym, see HVAR. Hvar (Lesina in Italian) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, located off the Dalmatian coast. ... County Dubrovnik–Neretva Area 279 km² (entire island) Location Mayor Mirko Duhović (SDP) Population 3,232 (town); 16,138 (island) Korčula (Italian Curzola, Latin Corcyra Nigra, Greek Korkyra Melaina, Old-Slavic: Krkar) is an island in the Adriatic Sea, in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county of Croatia. ...


Deprived of his authority in Hungary, Sigismund then turned his attention to securing the succession in Germany and Bohemia, and was recognized by his childless step-brother Wenceslaus IV as vicar-general of the whole Empire. He was unable to support Wenceslaus when he was deposed in 1400 and Rupert III, elector Palatine of the Rhine, was elected German king in his stead. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Wenceslaus, King of the Romans by Max Barack from 1888 Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the House of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman... Rupert of the house of Wittelsbach (1352–1410) succeeded his father Rupert II as Rupert III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) and one of the foremost rulers in western Germany in 1398. ...


During these years he was also involved in domestic difficulties, out of which sprang a second war with Ladislas of Naples; on his return to Hungary in 1401 he was once imprisoned and twice deposed. This struggle in its turn led to a war with the Republic of Venice, as Ladislas before departing to his own land had sold the Dalmatian cities to the Venetians for 100,000 ducats. In 1401 Sigismund assisted a rising against Wenceslaus, during the course of which the German and Bohemian king was made a prisoner, and Sigismund ruled Bohemia for nineteen months. He released Wenceslas in 1403. Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


In 1404 he introduced the placetum regium. According to this decree papal bulls couldn't be pronounced in Hungary without the consent of the king. Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


In about 1406 he remarried Mary's cousin Barbara of Celje(Barbara Celjska, nicknamed the "Messalina of Germany"), daughter of Hermann II of Celje. Hermann's mother Katarina Kotromanić and Mary's mother Queen Elizabeta were sisters, or cousins who were adopted sisters. Tvrtko I was their first cousin and adopted brother, and perhaps even became heir apparent to Queen Mary. Tvrtko may have been murdered in 1391 on Sigismund's order. Barbara of Celje (Slovenian Barbara Celjska) or Barbara of Cilli (about 1390/1395 - 11 July 1451) was Holy Roman Empress. ... Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ... Hermann II, Count of Celje (Count of Cilli, Slovene Herman II. Celjski) (about 1365 - 13 October 1435), Ban of Croatia, Slovenia and Dalmatia, was son of Hermann I, Count of Celje and his wife Katerina of Bosnia. ... Area: 94,9 km² Population  - males  - females 48. ... July 18 - Battle of the Kondurcha River - Timur defeats Tokhtamysh in the Volga. ...


Sigismund personally lead an army of almost 50,000 "crusaders" against the Croats and Bosnians, which culminated in 1408 with the Battle of Dobor, and a massacre of about 200 noble families, many of them victors of numerous battles against the Ottomans. He founded the Order of the Dragon after this victory. Members of the order were mostly his political allies and supporters. Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... This article is about the year. ... The Order of the Dragon (Latin Societas Draconistrarum, German Der Drachenorden, Hungarian Sárkány Lovagrend, Romanian Ordinul Dragonului, Serbian Витешки ред Змаја) was an order of selected nobles modeled on the Order of Saint George of Hungary. ...


Roman-German King

After the death of German king Rupert in 1410, Sigismund - ignoring the claims of his step-brother Wenceslas - was elected as successor three of the electors on 10 September 1410, but he was opposed by his cousin Jobst of Moravia, who had been elected by four electors in a different election on 1 October. Jobst's death 18 January, 1411 removed this conflict and Sigismund was again elected King on 21 July 1411. His coronation was deferred until 8 November 1414, when it took place at Aix-la-Chapelle. is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Jobst (or Jost) of Moravia was born in 1351 as son of John Henry of Bohemia, margrave of Moravia, the brother of emperor Charles IV. Jobst was margrave of Brandenburg from 1388-1411. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Map of Germany showing Aachen Aachen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany, at 50°46 N, 6°6 E. Population: 256,605 (2003). ...


Anti-Polish alliances

On a number of occasions, and in 1410 in particular, Sigismund allied himself with the Teutonic Knights against Jogaila of Poland. However, he was opposed by most of his noblemen and was prevented to participate in the alliance of twenty-two western states against Poland in the decisive Battle of Grünwald in July of that year. For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Jan Sokol of Lamberk Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured...

Sigismund and Barbara of Celje at the Council of Constance.
Sigismund and Barbara of Celje at the Council of Constance.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2955, 823 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2955, 823 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor ...

Council of Constance

In 1412 – 23 he campaigned against the Venetians in Italy. The king took advantage of the difficulties of Antipope John XXIII to obtain a promise that a council should be called to Constance in 1414 to settle the Western Schism. He took a leading part in the deliberations of this assembly, and during the sittings made a journey into France, England and Burgundy in a vain attempt to secure the abdication of the three rival popes. The council ended in 1418, solving the Schism and — of great consequence to Sigismund's future career — having the Czech religious reformer, Jan Hus, burned at the stake for heresy in July 1415. The complicity of Sigismund in the death of Hus is a matter of controversy. He had granted him a safe-conduct and protested against his imprisonment; and the reformer was burned during his absence. Antipope John XXIII Baldassare Cossa, (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), also known as John XXIII,was Pope or antipope during the Western Schism (1410–1415) and is now officially regarded by the Catholic Church as an antipope. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Constance (CON-stents) is a female given name most often used in the English or French-speaking worlds. ... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy // Kings of the Burgundians The Burgundians had left Bornholm, ca 300, and settled near the Vistula. ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ...


It was also at this Council that a cardinal ventured to correct Sigismund’s Latin (he had construed the word schisma as feminine rather than neuter). To this Sigismund famously replied: Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ...

Ego sum rex Romanus et super grammaticam ("I am king of the Romans and above grammar")[1]

An alliance with England against France, and an attempt to secure peace in Germany by a league of the towns, which failed owing to the hostility of the princes, were his main acts of these years. Also, Sigismund granted control of the Margrave of Brandenburg (which he had received back after Jobst's death) to Frederick I of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg (1415). This step made the Hohenzollern family one of the most important in Germany. Frederick (German: Friedrich) I (1371–1440), Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ...

Non contemporary portrait by Albrecht Dürer.
Non contemporary portrait by Albrecht Dürer.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 321 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,256 × 2,346 pixels, file size: 383 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 321 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,256 × 2,346 pixels, file size: 383 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ...

Hussite Wars

In 1419 the death of Wenceslaus IV left Sigismund titular king of Bohemia, but he had to wait for seventeen years before the Czechs would acknowledge him. But although the two dignities of king of the Romans and king of Bohemia added considerably to his importance, and indeed made him the nominal head of Christendom, they conferred no increase of power and financially embarrassed him. It was only as king of Hungary that he had succeeded in establishing his authority and in doing anything for the order and good government of the land. Entrusting the government of Bohemia to Sophia, the widow of Wenceslaus, he hastened into Hungary. Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - Sudomĕř – Vítkov – Vyšehrad – Nebovidy - Německý Brod – Hořice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Look up Sophia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Bohemians, who distrusted him as the betrayer of Hus, were soon in arms; and the flame was fanned when Sigismund declared his intention of prosecuting the war against heretics. Three campaigns against the Hussites ended in disaster. The Turks were again attacking Hungary. The king, unable to obtain support from the German princes, was powerless in Bohemia. His attempts at the diet of Nuremberg in 1422 to raise a mercenary army were foiled by the resistance of the towns; and in 1424 the electors, among whom was Sigismund's former ally, Frederick I of Hohenzollern, sought to strengthen their own authority at the expense of the king. Although the scheme failed, the danger to Germany from the Hussites led to the Union of Bingen, which virtually deprived Sigismund of the leadership of the war and the headship of Germany.

Iron Crown of Lombardy, kept in the Cathedral of Monza.
Iron Crown of Lombardy, kept in the Cathedral of Monza.

In 1428 he led another campaign against the Turks, but again with few results. In 1431 he went to Milan where on 25 November he received the Iron Crown; after which he remained for some time at Siena, negotiating for his coronation as emperor and for the recognition of the Council of Basel by Pope Eugenius IV. He was crowned emperor at Rome on 31 May 1433, and after obtaining his demands from the Pope returned to Bohemia, where he was recognized as king in 1436, though his power was little more than nominal. Image File history File links Iron Crown of Lombardy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Iron Crown of Lombardy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Eugenius IV, né Gabriel Condulmer (1383 - February 23, 1447) was pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1433 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


He died in December 1437 at Znaim, and was buried at Nagyvárad. By his second wife, Barbara of Cilli, he left an only daughter, Elisabeth, who was married to Albert V, duke of Austria (later German king as Albert II) whom Sigismund named as his successor. As he left no sons the house of Luxembourg became extinct on his death. Coat of Arms Znojmo (German: Znaim) is a city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, near the border with Lower Austria. ... Oradea (Hungarian: Nagyvárad, German: Großwardein) is a city located in Romania, in the county of Bihor (BH), in Transylvania. ... Empress and Queen Elisabeth (1409 – 25 December 1442) was the only daughter of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, king of Bohemia and Hungary, by his second wife Barbara of Celje. ... Albert II of Habsburg Albert II of Habsburg (August 10, 1397 – October 27, 1439), German ruler, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and (as Albert V) duke of Austria, was born on August 10, 1397, the son of Albert IV of Habsburg, duke of Austria. ...


Names in other languages

  • German: Sigismund (von Luxemburg)
  • Hungarian: (Luxemburgi) Zsigmond
  • Italian: Sigismondo (del Lussemburgo)
  • Czech: Zikmund (Lucemburský)
  • Slovak: Žigmund (Luxemburský)
  • Croatian and Serbian: Žigmund (Luksemburški)/Жигмунд (Луксембуршки)
  • Slovene: Sigismund (Luksemburški)
  • Romanian: Sigismund de Luxemburg

Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

Ancestors

Sigismund's ancestors in three generations
Sigismund Father:
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Paternal Grandfather:
John I of Bohemia
Paternal Great-Grandfather:
Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Margaret of Brabant
Paternal Grandmother:
Elisabeth I of Bohemia
Paternal Great-Grandfather:
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
Paternal Great-Grandmother:
Judith of Habsburg
Mother:
Elizabeth of Pomerania
Maternal Grandfather:
Bogislaw V
Maternal Great-Grandfather:
Wartislaw IV
Maternal Great-Grandmother:
Elisabeth of Lindau-Ruppin
Maternal Grandmother:
Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Casimir III of Poland
Maternal Great-Grandmother:
Aldona of Lithuania
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Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor

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References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • H. Horváth: Zsigmond király és kora (English: King Sigismund and his age; Budapest, 1937)
  • B. Kéry: Kaiser Sigismund Ikonographie (Vienna and Munich, 1972)
  • E. Mályusz: Zsigmond király uralma Magyarországon, 1387 – 1437 (English: King Sigismund’s reign in Hungary, 1387 – 1437; Budapest, 1984)
  • E. Marosi (ed), Művészet Zsigmond király korában, 1387 – 1437 (English: Art in the age of King Sigismund, 1387 – 1437, 2 vols, exh. cat.; Budapest, Hist. Mus., 1987)
  • J. Hoensch, Kaiser Sigismund: Herrscher an der Schwelle zur Neuzeit, 1368 – 1437 (Munich, 1996)
  • M. Pauly und F. Reinert, eds.: "Sigismund von Luxemburg: ein Kaiser in Europa". Tagungsband des internationalen historischen und kunsthistorischen Kongresses in Luxemburg, 8 June to 10 June 2005(Mainz, 2006)
  • I. Takacs: Sigismundus rex et imperator: Kunst und Kultur zur Zeit Sigismunds von Luxemburg 1387 – 1437 (English: Sigismund, king and emperor: Art and culture in the age of Sigisumd of Luxembourg 1387 – 1437; exh. cat.; Mainz, 2006)

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Thomas Carlyle (1858): History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great (Volume II). [1]

External links

    • Art, images, maps connected to Sigismund



Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 15 February 1368 Died: 9 December 1437
Preceded by
Mary of Hungary
King of Hungary and Croatia

13871437
Succeeded by
Albert II of Germany
Preceded by
Rupert of Germany
Roman-German King
14101437
Preceded by
Wenceslas
King of Bohemia
14191437
Preceded by
Charles IV
Holy Roman Emperor
14331437
Succeeded by
Frederick III
Preceded by
Wenceslas
Elector of Brandenburg
13781388
Succeeded by
Jobst of Moravia
Preceded by
Jobst of Moravia
Elector of Brandenburg
14111417
Succeeded by
Frederick I of Hohenzollern

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (560 words)
Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437.
In 1410, in a disputed election, Sigismund was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
As emperor, Sigismund was instrumental in helping convene the Council of Constance (1414 - 1418), which ended the Papal schism and — of great consequence to Sigismund's future career — burned the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus at the stake for heresy in July 1415.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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