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Encyclopedia > Sierra de Guadarrama
Satellite Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama.
Satellite Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama.
Peñalara: The Sierra de Guadarrama's highest peak.
Peñalara: The Sierra de Guadarrama's highest peak.
Peaks of La Pedriza
Peaks of La Pedriza

The Sierra de Guadarrama is a mountain chain spanning half of the Sistema Central (a mountain range in the center of the Iberian Peninsula), located between the Sierra de Gredos in the province of Ávila, and Sierra de Ayllón in the province of Guadalajara. The range spreads in southwest - northeast direction, extending into the province of Madrid to the south, and towards the provinces of Ávila and Segovia to the north. The chain as a whole measures approximately 80 km in length, with its highest peak, Peñalara, reaching 2,430 m above sea level. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 714 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1462 × 1228 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Satellite map of the Sierra de Guadarrama Modified from Image:Satellite image of Spain in January 2003. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 714 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1462 × 1228 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Satellite map of the Sierra de Guadarrama Modified from Image:Satellite image of Spain in January 2003. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Madrid Sierra de... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Madrid Sierra de... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1075 × 806 pixel, file size: 438 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1075 × 806 pixel, file size: 438 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... General view of La Pedriza. ... Map of the major geographic features of the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Himalaya as seen from the International Space Station A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Sierra de Gredos is a mountain range in the centre of the Iberian peninsula, located between Ávila, Cáceres, Madrid and Toledo. ... Ávila province Ávila is a province of western Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... Guadalajara province Guadalajara is a province of central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Segovia province Segovia is a province of central Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... km redirects here. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... The metre or meter is a measure of length. ...


The vegetation of the mountain range is characterized by an abundance of pine forests and copses of oak and Holm oak in its lower slopes, while the summits are dominated by shrub-filled pastures. The mountains abound with a variety of mammal life such as deer, roe deer and fallow deer, wild boar, badger, various types of weasel, European wild cat, fox and hare. There are also a great variety of waterfowl species in the mountain lakes and reservoirs, as well as birds of prey such as the eastern imperial eagle and the Eurasian black vulture. Binomial name L. Image:Scotspine map. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Binomial name Quercus ilex L. The Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), also called Holly Oak or Evergreen Oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. ... Fawn and Stag redirect here. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... For other meanings of Wild Cat and wildcat, see wildcat. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... Binomial name Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 Synonyms Aquila heliacea heliacea The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) is very similar to the Golden Eagle, but a little smaller (length 80 cm, wingspan 200 cm). ... Binomial name Aegypius monachus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) is also known as the Monk Vulture, the Cinereous Vulture, or just the Black Vulture. ...


The mountain range's proximity to Madrid has led to crowded conditions. The area is today crossed by numerous passes and railway routes and sustains a highly developed tourism infrastructure, coupled with provisions for various mountain sports; a state of affairs which is hazardous to the environment of the mountains making up the range. Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...

Contents

Description

North face of Cabezas de Hierro in spring
North face of Cabezas de Hierro in spring
Summer vista of Bola del Mundo and La Maliciosa from Embalse de Navacerrada (Navacerrada dam)
Summer vista of Bola del Mundo and La Maliciosa from Embalse de Navacerrada (Navacerrada dam)
View of the Peñalara peak, the range's highest peak
View of the Peñalara peak, the range's highest peak
Summer view of Siete Picos, as seen from the Valsaín Valley
Summer view of Siete Picos, as seen from the Valsaín Valley
Winter view of holm oaks with Monte Abantos peak in the background
Winter view of holm oaks with Monte Abantos peak in the background

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1434 × 1075 pixel, file size: 494 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Vista de la cara norte de las dos Cabezas de Hierro. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1434 × 1075 pixel, file size: 494 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Vista de la cara norte de las dos Cabezas de Hierro. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Valle_barranca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Valle_barranca. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1478 × 989 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Peak of Peñalara, Sierra de Guadarrama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1478 × 989 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Peak of Peñalara, Sierra de Guadarrama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 449 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Valsaín village (Castilla y León) view of Siete Picos with horses. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 449 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Valsaín village (Castilla y León) view of Siete Picos with horses. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Quercus ilex L. The Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), also called Holly Oak or Evergreen Oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. ...

Etymology of the name

The name, Sierra de Guadarrama (Guadarrama Mountains), is taken from the Guadarrama river and the town of Guadarrama, both of which are located in these mountains. The word Guadarrama itself is derived from the Arabic words for sandy river —— Guad from wadi, meaning river, and arrama from al-rama, meaning sandy. The name was affixed to the river (and the village and the mountains) during the Arab occupation of Spain (722-1492 CE), and the name remained in currency even after the Reconquista. Guadarrama is a town in the Community of Madrid in Spain. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


General information

About eighty kilometres long and extending in a southwest-to-northeast direction, the Guadarramas form a natural division between the North and South mesetas of the Iberian Peninsula; they are part of the so-called Sistema Central. km redirects here. ... Spain is located in southwestern Europe and comprises about 84 percent of the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Map of the major geographic features of the Iberian Peninsula. ...


The mountain bases are located between 900 and the 1,200 metres above sea level, and the principal peaks of the range have an average topographical prominence of 1,000 metres. The range's highest peak, Peñalara, reaches 2,430 metres above sea level. The range begins in the valley of the Alberche river, which divides the Sierra de Gredos into two portions, and finishes at the Somosierra Pass, which serves as the hydrographic boundary between the river basins of the Tagus and Duero rivers. The mountains contribute fluvial material to both rivers through the action of various mountain streams, such as the Jarama, Guadarrama, and Manzanares, which empty into the Tagus, and the Duratón, Cega, and Eresma, which flow into the Duero. The geographical coordinates of the range's northeast terminus lies near 41° 4' North, 3° 44' West, and the southwestern end near 40° 22' North, 4° 18' West. In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... The Sierra de Gredos is a mountain range in the centre of the Iberian peninsula, located between Ávila, Cáceres, Madrid and Toledo. ... Hydrography is the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... View over Tejo River from Almourol Castle in Portugal (May 2005). ... View of the river mouth from Portos Crystal Palace Gardens, facing West Douro (Latin Durius, Spanish Duero, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Portugal and Spain, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... The word fluvial is used in geography and earth science to refer to all topics related to flowing water. ... Jarama River in Titulcia Jarama is a river in central Spain. ... The Manzanares is a river in central Spain which passes through the countrys capital, Madrid. ...


Diverging from its main southwest-to-northeast alignment, the range has a westward-trending branch known as the Cuerda Larga, or Carpetanos Mountains (Montes Carpetanos). (This name is sometimes also applied to the northern part of the main axis of the Guadarramas between Peñalara and Somosierra.) The Carpetanos sub-range begins in the Community of Madrid, in Puerto de Navacerrada, has a length of fifteen kilometres, and is an imposing sight, averaging more than 2,000 metres in elevation all the way to the Morcuera Pass (Puerto de la Morcuera). From there, the Carpetanos slope downward until they reach the confluence of the Lozoya and Jarama rivers. The highest peak of the Cuerda Larga is the Cabezas de Hierro at 2,383 metres. Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... km redirects here. ... Confluence of Rhine and Mosel at Koblenz In geography, a confluence describes the point where two rivers meet and become one, usually when a tributary joins a more major river. ...


Between Cuerda Larga and the main extent of the Sierra de Guadarrama lies the Lozoya valley, one of the most picturesque mountain valleys of the Sistema Central, which attracts numerous tourists in the winter for skiing, as well as in the summer for other diversions. Another western branch of the Guadarramas, La Mujer Muerta (The Dead Woman), or Sierra del Quintanar (Quintanar Mountains), begins at the Fuenfría Pass (Puerto de la Fuenfría}, and is located entirely in the province of Segovia. It has a length of eleven kilometres and has several summits surpassing 2,000 metres, among them, the Montón de Trigo (Wheat Pile). A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... Alpine skier carving a turn on piste Members of the U.S. Air Force skiing (and snowboarding) at Keystone Resorts 14th Annual SnoFest Downhill Ski Racing This article is about snow skiing. ... Summer is one of the four seasons of the year. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ...


In addition to the Cuerda Larga and the La Mujer Muerta, a series of small mountains or foothills are located on the periphery of the main range. Notably, in the Segovia area, there are: the Cerro (hill) de las Cardosillas (1,635 m), the Cerro de Matabueyes (1,485 m), the Cerro del Caloco (1,565 m), and the Sierra de Ojos Albos (1,662 m); and, in the Madrid area (from north to south), there are the Cerro de San Pedro (1,423 m), the Sierra del Hoyo (1,404 m), the Cerro Cañal (1,331 m), and Las Machotas (1,466 m). Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a mountain range. ... Location Location of Segovia in Spain Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Segovia (Spanish) Spanish name Segovia Postal code 40001-40006 Website http://www. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


Notable peaks

The peaks of Guadarrama have a relatively soft silhouette, with few standing out as exceptionally larger than others in the chain: (The most important mountain peaks are set forth in boldface.)

  • Monte Abantos (1,753 m)
  • Bola del Mundo (2,265 m)
  • Cabezas de Hierro (2,383 m), highest of the Cuerda Larga
  • Dos Hermanas (2,285 m)
  • Flecha (2,078 m)
  • La Maliciosa (2,227 m)
  • La Najarra (2,108 m)
  • El Nevero (2,209 m); one of the most northern peaks in the mountain range
  • Pandasco (2,238 m)
  • Peña del Águila (2,010 m)
  • Peñalara (2,430 m), the highest mountain of the Guadarramas
  • La Peñota (1,945 m)
  • Risco de los Claveles (2,387 m)
  • Risco de los Pájaros (2,334 m)
  • Siete Picos (2,138 m)
  • Montón de Trigo (2,161 m)
  • Cerro de Valdemartín (2,280 m)
  • El Yelmo (1,717 m), the most important peak of La Pedriza

Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... General view of La Pedriza. ...

Geology

Winter view of La Maliciosa peak
Winter view of La Maliciosa peak
A small, natural pool of the Eresma river
A small, natural pool of the Eresma river
Typical mountain pine grove in winter
Typical mountain pine grove in winter
Peñalara cirque
Peñalara cirque

The Sierra de Guadarrama is the result of a clash between tectonic plates belonging to the South sub-plateau and the North sub-plateau, both part of the Iberian Peninsula's larger Meseta Central; (Central Plateau). The mountain range was formed during the Cenozoic era (starting 65.5 million years ago (mya)), although the predominant material of which the mountains are composed (granite shelf tableland) was preexisting, having been laid down during the Variscan orogeny during the Paleozoic era when the continental collision between Laurasia and Gondwana occurred to form Pangea. The mountains have undergone significant erosion since their formation, which is the reason why many peaks, especially in the northern and southern sections, have flattened summits (referred to by mountaineers as "cuerdas"). For these reasons, the material making up the Sierra de Guadarrama is of more ancient origin than many other well known mountain systems such as the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Andes and the Himalayas. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 982 pixel, file size: 391 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Cara oeste del pico de La Maliciosa. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 982 pixel, file size: 391 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Cara oeste del pico de La Maliciosa. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 274 pixelsFull resolution (1629 × 558 pixel, file size: 317 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Pequeña presa situada en el río Eresma, a la altura del valle de Valsaín (Sierra de Guadarrama), España. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 274 pixelsFull resolution (1629 × 558 pixel, file size: 317 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Pequeña presa situada en el río Eresma, a la altura del valle de Valsaín (Sierra de Guadarrama), España. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1474 × 1106 pixel, file size: 678 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1474 × 1106 pixel, file size: 678 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era (in the United Kingdom), meaning new life (Greek (kainos), new, and (zoe), life), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of our solid Earth. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ... Pangea may refer to: a common alternative spelling of the name Pangaea given to the supercontinent that is believed to have existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras Pangea, a geology equipment supplier/developer of mineralogical testing equipment Pangea (cable system), a submarine telecommunications cable system connecting the Netherlands and... Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...


Formation detail

In the mid Paleozoic era (between 360 and 290 mya), an initial substratum of ancient granites and sediments started bending and metamorphizing, forming gneiss. Thereafter, approximately 290 and 250 mya during the Carboniferous period, the gneiss fractured, allowed a mass of magma to reach the surface which ultimately hardened into a granite shelf tableland. In the final phase of the Paleozoic era, during the Permian period, the tectonic plate collision causing the whole mountain range to rise. Finally, during the end of the Paleozoic through the Mesozoic era (between 250 and 65 mya) and up to the present, ongoing erosion processes reduced the size and smoothed and rounded the profile of the mountains of the Guadarramas. Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement...


It was also during this geologic era that an ocean shift took place causing the present day location of the mountains to be part of the ocean for a time (it is possible, in fact, that the then peak formations were only small islands barely rising above the level of the ocean). This accounts for the presences of limestone (a sedimentary rock formed predominantly from calcite derived from marine organisms) found in the rims of Guadaramma mountain peaks and in some of their interior caves. Limestone formations are evident at a number of the peaks— notably El Vellón, La Pinilla and Patones. A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that is a separate classification that divides the Phanerozoic Eon into three parts timeframes. ... -1... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Marine biology is the scientific study of the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the ocean or any other body of water. ... Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter. ...


Other processes were at play during the Cenozoic era that shaped the present form of the Guadarammas. The erosion of the rocky massif provoked sedimentation which filled the mountain basins with sandstone. The action of glaciers during the Quaternary Period (1.8 mya up to the present) shaped several mountain profiles with small cirques, carved glacial lakes and left behind moraines. All three features can be found on Peñalara. Additionally, some traces of glacial passage are found in El Nevero and La Maliciosa in the form of sheepback-grooved rocks and small cirques. Finally, in the last million years, the action of glaciers caused consolidation of the network of rivers crisscrossing the mountain slopes, carved valleys and terraces resulting in the current appearance of the landscape. In geology, a massif is a section of a planets crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley of glacial origin, formed by glacial erosion at the head of the glacier. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ... Moraine is the general term for debris of all sorts originally transported by glaciers or ice sheets that have since melted away. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... In glaciology, a roche moutonnée (or sheepback) is a rock formation created by the passing of a glacier. ...


Principal cities and towns

The Sierra de Guadarrama is surrounded by prominent population centers which feature many second residences, occupied during holiday periods. The population pressure on and nearby the southeast slopes of the mountains near the Community of Madrid is very high, motivated partly by the large quantity of people who wish to live near the mountains. The most important cities are San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Guadarrama, Navacerrada, Cercedilla, Manzanares el Real, Miraflores de la Sierra and Rascafría in the Community of Madrid, and Los Ángeles de San Rafael and San Ildefonso in the province of Segovia. These towns are departure points for accessing the nearby mountain slopes and function as a center of the tourism trade providing lodgings, restaurants and stores for visitors. Although these municipalities are located at the feet of the mountains, they are situated below 1,200 meters. The Sierra de Guadarrama serves as backdrop for the cities of Madrid and Segovia, although Segovia is located closer to the peaks than is Madrid. Capital Madrid Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  8,030. ... Guadarrama is a town in the Community of Madrid in Spain. ... San Ildefonso, or La Granja is a town in the province of Segovia, Spain, situated 34 miles (54 km) NW of Madrid. ... Tourists on Oahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ...


Places of interest

Valle de la Fuenfría, as seen from Siete Picos
Valle de la Fuenfría, as seen from Siete Picos
Valle de Valsaín, as seen from Siete Picos
Valle de Valsaín, as seen from Siete Picos
View of La Pedriza
View of La Pedriza
Peñalara's Laguna grande
Peñalara's Laguna grande
Valle del Lozoya, as seen from Peñalara
Valle del Lozoya, as seen from Peñalara

The Sierra de Guadarrama has a series of valleys and zones which are of special interest from both an aesthetic and ecological viewpoint. Due to the proximity of Madrid's metropolitan area to the Guadarramas, many such special interest zones are host to a large number of mountain climbers and general interest tourists the year round. The most heavily visited areas are the Parque Natural de Peñalara (Peñalara Nature Reserve) and La Pedriza, an unusual mountain formation. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 308 pixelsFull resolution (1843 × 710 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fuenfría valley (Madrid), Spain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 308 pixelsFull resolution (1843 × 710 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fuenfría valley (Madrid), Spain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1310 × 878 pixel, file size: 333 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Valsaín valley (Segovia), Spain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1310 × 878 pixel, file size: 333 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Valsaín valley (Segovia), Spain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (1075 × 635 pixel, file size: 341 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (1075 × 635 pixel, file size: 341 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... General view of La Pedriza. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 373 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 956 pixel, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Valle del Lozoya File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 373 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 956 pixel, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Valle del Lozoya File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Locator map of the Parque Natural de Peñalara. ... It has been suggested that Reserve design be merged into this article or section. ... General view of La Pedriza. ...

Valle (valley) de la Fuenfría
An eastern valley situated nearby the City of Cercedilla (Community of Madrid) featuring one of the better preserved wild pine forests of the mountains. The valleys faces in a north to south direction, has a length of approximately 5 km, a width of approximately 2 km and is located between Siete Picos and the edge of the province of Segovia. The valley's dense forest features a deep creek and a well-preserved, ancient Roman road that crosses the mountain running toward the Fuenfría Pass . On weekends and holidays the valley is flooded with tourists and mountain climbers who debark at a recreation area with a car park found at the valley's lower edge.
Valle de Valsaín
Like the Fuenfría, the Valsaín valley is also covered by a well-preserved pine tree woodland, considered the best of the Guadarramas. It is a wide, sloped valley running in a north to south direction, having a length of approximately 10 km, an average width of 5 km, and is located between the mountains, Mujer Muerta and the bulk of Peñalara. On its lower slopes is the municipality of Valsain, named after the valley. In the heart of the valley, amidst the pine and oak groves, there are three separate recreation centers, each with areas for parking. Nearby these areas are a number of man-made Eresma river dams that create small pools perfect for bathing in the summer. Several paths begin in the recreation area that crisscross the whole of the woodsy valley.
La Pedriza
The Pedriza is one of the more exceptional areas of the mountain range. It is located on the south slope of the Cuerda Larga, in the municipal area of Manzanares el Real (part of the province of Madrid) and inside the Parque Regional (Regional Park) de la Cuenca Alta del Manzanares. The Pedriza's landscape is noted for its enormous rock formations and walls of granite displaying unusual and eye-catching configurations. Below the high rocky areas is an underbrush made up of rockroses and savin junipers which become a pine thicket farther way from the rock face. At the heart of the small valleys that make up La Pedriza runs the Manzanares river at the high river basin of its course. In the low part of the area is a recreational area with parking accommodations which allows visitors several routes to cross the territory. The most esteemed and sensational peak of La Pedriza, as well as its largest, is El Yelmo (The Helmet), a gigantic granite rockface towering over the surrounding peaks, rising to 1,700 m in elevation. El Yelmo's south face presents a massive stone wall that is highly-prized by advanced mountain climbers. Throughout its history, La Pedriza's complex of caves was used as a hideout by exiles and by those seeking shelter during times of war.
Peñalara's cirques and lakes
On the south slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama's highest peak, Peñalara (2,430 m), is a protected area considered to be of exceptional beauty and which has been declared a nature reserve under the title Parque Natural de Peñalara; the only area of the Guadarramas to receive such official designation. In the reserve are found, three cirques and a series of lakes, all the handiwork of ancient glacial action. Peñalara's cirques take the form of walls rising more than 300 meters in the shape of a "U". Several small lakes are found in the areas surrounding the cirques, up to a height of approximately 2,000 m, which give rise to streams and small waterfalls during spring thaws. Most outstanding of these are the Laguna Grande(Great lake), the Laguna Chica (Small lake), the Lagunas de los Claveles (Lake of the Claveles) and the Laguna de los Pájaros (Lagoon of the Birds). Below 2,000 m, wild pine forests are also found in the designated zone. In the heights of the nature reserve are prairies in which high mountain shrubs dominate the terrain. The reserve is accessed by three routes feeding to and from the Puerto de Cotos.
Valle del Lozoya
The Valle del Lozoya is the most extensive valley of the Sierra de Guadarrama range and one of the best conserved. It is located entirely within the Community of Madrid, between the Cuerda Larga and the main alignment of the mountain system, running in a southwest to northeast direction, and located, with respect the range as a whole, at its northeast stretch. The valley is more than 25 km in length and 6 km in average width. The slopes of the valley are covered with wild pine, oak and chestnut forests. By contrast, the lower valley area is dominated by grass pastures and farm crops. In the heart of the valley are two towns: Rascafría and Lozoya, both of which lend their names to the two rivers that run through the valley.

Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley A valley or a low area between two hills dale (in Scotland, a glen) is a landform, which can range from a few square kilometres to hundreds or even thousands of square kilometres in area. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded area set aside for hunting). ... Segovia province Segovia is a province of central Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... General view of La Pedriza. ... Capital Madrid Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  8,030. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Genera Cistus(rock roses) Fumana X Halimiocistus Halimium Helianthemum Hudsonia Lechea Tuberaria Reference: Kew (2004) The Cistaceae (or rock rose family) is a rather small family of plants known for its beautiful shrubs, vastly covered by flowers at the time of blossom. ... Binomial name Juniperus sabina L. Juniperus sabina (Savin Juniper or Savin) is a shrubby juniper, very variable in shape, reaching 1-4 m tall. ... The Manzanares is a river in central Spain which passes through the countrys capital, Madrid. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... It has been suggested that Reserve design be merged into this article or section. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Politics and policy Ethical Conservation, Moral or legislative progress toward freedom through advanced conduct - socially, fiscally or otherwise; based on governments and ideas Conservation movement, movement seeking to protect plant and animal species as well as the habitats they live in Conservation ethic in... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut (Castanea), including... Natural vegetation dominated by grasses Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae. ... Agriculture (encompasses farming, ranching, and the tending of orchards and vineyards) is the production of food, feed, fiber, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ...

Hydrography

Dam of Navacerrada.
Dam of Navacerrada.

The climate of the Sierra de Guadarrama is marked by heavy precipitation which gives birth the territory's numerous streams and rivers. There are several rivers of special relevance. The range's Segovia facing slopes give rise to the Moros and Eresma rivers, with the latter flowing through the City of Segovia. The Madrid facing slopes give rise to the Guadarrama river (from which the range and the town of Guadarrama takes their names), the Manzanares river, that passes by Madrid, and the Lozoya river, that passes by its namesake valley. On the South slope of the peak of Peñalara, at 2,200 m of elevation, there is a series of small, protected lakes of glacial origin. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Location Location of Segovia in Spain Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Segovia (Spanish) Spanish name Segovia Postal code 40001-40006 Website http://www. ... Guadarrama is a town in the Community of Madrid in Spain. ... The Manzanares is a river in central Spain which passes through the countrys capital, Madrid. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ...


Although the mountain range proper features a great number of dams, they are all of small volume. In the Segovia facing slopes, the more prominent dams are Peces, Revenga, Pontón and Pirón, while on the Madrid facing slopes are found the Tobar, Jarosa, Navacerrada and Pinilla. Outside the boundaries of the mountain range, in the Community of Madrid, there are three dams of much greater size: the Valmayor, Santillana and Pardo. DAMS is a racing team from France, involved in many areas of motorsports. ...


Flora and fauna

Wild pine Forest with fern ground cover.
Wild pine Forest with fern ground cover.
Flowers growing in the high mountain areas of the Parque Natural de Peñalara. Left: Crocus sp. Right: Narcissus cf. bulbicoides
Flowers growing in the high mountain areas of the Parque Natural de Peñalara. Left: Crocus sp. Right: Narcissus cf. bulbicoides

The flora and fauna of the Sierra de Guadarrama is made up of a great diversity of species that represent something of a synthesis between those that are common to the mediterranean landscape and climate of Spain's Centeal Plateau, and more specialized plants and animals native to in the high altitude climate and mountainous terrain of the Pyrenees and Alps. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 323 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pinus sylvestris (Pino Silvestre) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 323 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pinus sylvestris (Pino Silvestre) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (1903 × 823 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Flores de la sierra de Guadarrama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (1903 × 823 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Flores de la sierra de Guadarrama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Flora

The high slopes of the mountains are covered in Alpine grasses which are extensively used as grazing land for cattle. The meat that these cattle produce is of excellent quality and is specially denominated and certified as Ternera de Guadarrama ("Veal of Guadarrama"). Below the high mountain pastures, in the subalpine and mountainous flats, are some of the best natural scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) groves that exist in Spain. Binomial name L. Image:Scotspine map. ...


Below the pine groves, the middle elevations are covered by groves of Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica), which sometimes encroach on the higher pine groves; this is problematic as Pyrenean oak have a protected conservation status and cannot be felled without dispensation from national park authorities. Nevertheless, controlled logging as allowed every year with the felled trees used to supply firewood to local mountain villages. Wood burning is the largest current use of biomass derived energy. ...


The westernmost area of the mountain range, show a change in species distribution and variety, with a predominance of stone pine (Pinus pinea) in place of scots-pine, and Portuguese oak and Holm oak in place of Pyrenean oak due to the lower elevations and higher precipitation of the region. Binomial name Pinus pinea L. The Stone Pine (Pinus pinea; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native of southern Europe, primarily the Iberian Peninsula. ... Binomial name Lam. ...


List of plant species

Trees
European Black Pine, Maritime Pine, Scots Pine and Mountain Pine; Holly, Alder, Maple, Hazel, Boxwood, Beech, Holm Oak, Portuguese oak, Pyrenean oak, Savin Junipers, Rowan and Yew.
Shrubs
Tree heath, French Lavender, Common Juniper, Bearberry, Fern, rockroses, Common Hawthorn, Fabaceae, Boiss, Rosemary and Thyme.
Prevalent pine grove fungi
Morel, Saffron milk cap, Lepiota, chanterelle and King trumpet mushroom.

Binomial name Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold The European Black Pine Pinus nigra (generally called Black Pine in Europe), is a variable species of pine, occurring across southern Europe from Spain to the Crimea, and also in Asia Minor, Cyprus, and locally in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa. ... Binomial name Pinus pinaster Aiton The Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) is a pine native to the western Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name L. Image:Scotspine map. ... Binomial name Pinus mugo Turra Mountain Pine or Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo) is a high altitude European pine, found in the Pyrenees, Alps, Erzgebirge, Carpathians, northern Appennines and Balkan Peninsula mountains from (mostly) 1,000 m to 2,200 m, occasionally as low as 200 m in the north of... Species Ilex ambigua—Sand Holly Ilex amelanchier—Swamp Holly Ilex aquifolium—European Holly Ilex bioritsensis Ilex buergeri Ilex canariensis—Small-leaved Holly Ilex cassine—Dahoon Holly Ilex centrochinensis Ilex ciliospinosa Ilex colchica Ilex collina Ilex corallina Ilex coriacea—Gallberry Ilex cornuta—Chinese Holly Ilex crenata—Japanese Holly Ilex cyrtura Ilex... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... Species About 70 species; see text Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. ... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Nothofagus - Southern beeches Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to... Binomial name Quercus ilex L. The Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), also called Holly Oak or Evergreen Oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Lam. ... Binomial name Juniperus sabina L. Juniperus sabina (Savin Juniper or Savin) is a shrubby juniper, very variable in shape, reaching 1-4 m tall. ... Species Sorbus subgenus Sorbus Sorbus aucuparia - European Rowan Sorbus americana - American mountain ash Sorbus cashmeriana - Kashmir Rowan Sorbus commixta - Japanese Rowan Sorbus decora - Showy mountain ash Sorbus glabrescens - White-fruited Rowan Sorbus hupehensis - Hubei Rowan Sorbus matsumurana Sorbus sargentiana - Sargents Rowan Sorbus scalaris - Ladder Rowan Sorbus sitchensis - Sitka mountain... Binomial name Taxus baccata L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... Binomial nomenclature Erica arborea Ref: ITIS 505949 The Tree Heath is a shrub or small evergreen tree with a height of 1-4 (-7) m. ... Binomial name Lavandula stoechas L. Lavandula stoechas (French Lavender, Stoechas Lavender, or Topped Lavender) occurs naturally in the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Juniperus communis L. Juniperus communis, the Common Juniper, is a shrub or small tree, very variable and often a low spreading shrub, but occasionally reaching 10 m tall. ... {{Taxobox this plant is sooo ugly it shoud be killed!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Genera Cistus(rock roses) Fumana X Halimiocistus Halimium Helianthemum Hudsonia Lechea Tuberaria Reference: Kew (2004) The Cistaceae (or rock rose family) is a rather small family of plants known for its beautiful shrubs, vastly covered by flowers at the time of blossom. ... Binomial name Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosmarinus officinalis Wikispecies has information related to: Rosmarinus officinalis Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Rosemary Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Species Morchella angusticeps Morchella conica Morchella costata Morchella crassipes Morchella elata Morchella esculenta Morchella gigas Morchella semilibera Morchella spongiola Morchella spongiola var. ... Binomial name Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr. ... Lepiota is a genus of gilled mushrooms, in the order Agaricales. ... Species Cantharellus is a genus with many delicious and popular edible mushrooms. ... Binomial name Pleurotus eryngii (De Cand. ...

Fauna

As to be expected in such an unspoiled ecosystem, there is a great quantity and variety of animal life, with mammals such as deer, roe deer and fallow deer, wild boar, badger, various types of weasel, European wild cat, fox and hare among others; waterfowl, especially in the Embalse de Santillana (Reservoir of Santillana), and other reservoirs and among the mountain lakes, as well as birds of prey such as the Eastern Imperial Eagle and the Eurasian Black Vulture. In fact, the animal species inhabiting the Guadarramas represent 45% of the fauna of Spain and 18% of those in all of Europe. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 735 pixel, file size: 269 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Be careful. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 735 pixel, file size: 269 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Be careful. ... Binomial name Aegypius monachus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) is also known as the Monk Vulture, the Cinereous Vulture, or just the Black Vulture. ... Fawn and Stag redirect here. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... For other meanings of Wild Cat and wildcat, see wildcat. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... Binomial name Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 Synonyms Aquila heliacea heliacea The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) is very similar to the Golden Eagle, but a little smaller (length 80 cm, wingspan 200 cm). ... Binomial name Aegypius monachus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) is also known as the Monk Vulture, the Cinereous Vulture, or just the Black Vulture. ...


The Guadarramas are also a migratory nesting ground for bird species. cranes summer in the range and migrate to North Africa during winters, while the reverse is true of storks and various birds of prey. Endangered species that inhabit the range include the eastern imperial eagle, the black stork and the Eurasian wolf. Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. ... Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Genera See text. ... If you are looking for other meanings of the term, refer to Bird of prey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 Synonyms Aquila heliacea heliacea The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) is very similar to the Golden Eagle, but a little smaller (length 80 cm, wingspan 200 cm). ... Binomial name Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, 1758 Black Stork range (in color) The Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus lupus (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian wolf range The Eurasian Wolf (Canis lupus lupus), also known as the Common Wolf, European Wolf, Carpathian Wolf and Steppes Wolf is a subspecies of the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus). ...


List of animal species

Reptiles and amphibians
Various snakes both smooth and viperous, lizards such as Lacerta lepida and others in the Lacerta genus, salamanders and toads.
Mammals
Squirrel, least weasel, goat, rabbit, roe deer, genets, boar, hare, garden dormouse, Eurasian wolf, badger and fox.
Birds
European bee-eater, hoopoe, short-toed treecreeper, jay, great tit, pheasant, cuckoo, Eurasian woodcock, wren, chough, crested tit and blue tit, kingfisher, white-throated Dipper, blackbird, various kinglet, golden oriole, European Robin and woodpecker.
Birds of prey
Golden eagle, booted eagle and short-toed eagle, owl and shrike, Eurasian black vulture and griffon vulture, tawny owl and Little Owl, falcon, kite and common buzzard.
Waterfowl
Mallard, red-knobbed coot, grey heron, scaup, great northern diver and grebe.

blue: sea snakes, black: land snakes Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae A snake is a scaly, limbless, elongate reptile from the order Squamata. ... Lacerta, being Latin for Lizard, is one of the 88 official constellations acknowledged by the International Astronomical Union. ... Suborders Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 species of amphibians with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails. ... Families At least 9, see article. ... Genera Many, see the article Sciuridae. ... Binomial name Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Least Weasel, Mustela nivalis, is the smallest member of the weasel genus, Mustela and indeed the smallest living carnivore. ... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Genera Genetta Osbornictis Genets are Old World carnivores of the family Viverridae, related to civets and linsangs. ... // Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ... Binomial name Eliomys quercinus Linnaeus, 1766 The garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus) is a rodent in the dormouse family. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus lupus (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian wolf range The Eurasian Wolf (Canis lupus lupus), also known as the Common Wolf, European Wolf, Carpathian Wolf and Steppes Wolf is a subspecies of the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus). ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Binomial name Merops apiaster Linnaeus, 1758 The European Bee-eater, Merops apiaster is a near passerine bird in the bee-eater family Meropidae. ... Binomial name Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758 The Hoopoe Upupa epops is in the same order of often colourful near passerine birds as the kingfishers, bee-eaters, and rollers. ... Binomial name Certhia brachydactyla Brehm, 1820 The Short-toed Treecreeper, Certhia brachydactyla, is a small passerine bird found through much of warmer temperate Europe and into north Africa. ... Genera Garrulus Podoces Ptilostomus Perisoreus Aphelocoma Gymnorhinus Cyanocitta Calocitta Cyanocorax Cyanolyca The jays are several species of medium-sized, usually colorful and noisy passerine birds in the crow family Corvidae. ... Binomial name Parus major Linnaeus, 1758 The Great Tit, Parus major, is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Scolopax rusticola (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eurasian Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola is a medium-small wader. ... Genera Donacobius Campylorhynchus Odontorchilus Salpinctes Catherpes Hylorchilus Cinnycerthia Thryomanes Ferminia Troglodytes Cistothorus Uropsila Thryorchilus Thryothorus Henicorhina Microcerculus Cyphorhinus Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) Stamp FR 345 of Postverk Føroya, Faroe Islands Issued: 22 February 1999 Artist: Astrid Andreasen The true wrens are members of a mainly New World passerine bird family... Binomial name Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-billed Chough, or just Chough (pronounced ), Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax is a member of the crow family, Corvidae. ... Binomial name Lophophanes cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 The Crested Tit, Lophophanes cristatus (formerly Parus cristatus), is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. ... Binomial name Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758 The Blue Tit Parus caeruleus (syn. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). ... Binomial name Cinclus cinclus (Linnaeus, 1758) The White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) is an aquatic passerine bird found in Europe and the Middle East, also known as the European Dipper or just Dipper. ... Binomial name Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758 The Blackbird or Common Blackbird (Turdus merula) is a European member of the thrush family Turdidae. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Oriolus oriolus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Golden Oriole, Oriolus oriolus, is the only member of the oriole family of passerine birds to breed in northern hemisphere temperate regions. ... Binomial name Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies 7-10, see text. ... Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aquila chrysaetos Linnaeus, 1758 World distribution of the golden eagle Light green = Nesting area Blue = Wintering area Dark green = All year distribution The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin,, 1788) The Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) is a large bird of prey. ... Binomial name ( Gmelin, 1788) Light Green: nesting area Blue: wintering area Dark Green: resident all year The Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, buzzards and harriers. ... Families Strigidae Tytonidae Ogygoptyngidae (fossil) Palaeoglaucidae (fossil) Protostrigidae (fossil) Sophiornithidae (fossil) Synonyms Strigidae sensu Sibley & Ahlquist Owls are a group of birds of prey. ... Genera Lanius Eurocephalus Corvinella A shrike is a passerine bird of the family Laniidae which is known for its habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns, so that it can tear them into smaller, more conveniently-sized fragments. ... Binomial name Aegypius monachus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) is also known as the Monk Vulture, the Cinereous Vulture, or just the Black Vulture. ... Binomial name Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783 The Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus is an Old World vulture in the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, kites, buzzards and hawks. ... Binomial name Strix aluco Linnaeus, 1758 The Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) is a species of owl resident in much of Europe and southern Russia. ... Binomial name Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) The Little Owl (Athene noctua) is a species of owl resident in much of temperate Europe. ... Species About 37; see text. ... Genera Milvinae Harpagus Ictinia Rostrhamus Haliastur Milvus Lophoictinia Hamirostra Elaninae Elanus Chelictinia Machaerhamphus Gampsonyx Elanoides Kites are raptors with long wings and weak legs which spend a great deal of time soaring. ... Binomial name Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) is a bird of prey from the Old World. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies See Mexican Duck, Anas, and article text The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos[1]), also known as the wild duck, is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. ... Binomial name Fulica cristata (Gmelin, 1789) The Red-knobbed Coot or Crested Coot, (Fulica cristata), is a member of the rail and crake bird family, the Rallidae. ... Binomial name Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 The Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae. ... Binomial name Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) The Greater Scaup (Aythya marila), or just Scaup in Europe, is a small diving duck. ... Binomial name Gavia immer (Brunnich, 1764) The Great Northern Diver, known in North America as the Common Loon (Gavia immer), is a large member of the loon, or diver, family. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ...

Climate

Satellite photo showing the snow-capped peaks of the Guadarramas.
Satellite photo showing the snow-capped peaks of the Guadarramas.

The Guadarramas are part of the Mediterranean and share its climatic features, characterized by considerable temperatures changes between summer and winter and a very dry summer. But, as in any mountainous zone, the climate on the mountains proper changes markedly with increases in height, and for that reason it is necessary to differentiate discrete climatic zones. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Between 800 and 1,400 m, the average, annual temperature is between 10 and 11 °C, with a high summer temperature of 28 °C and a low in winter of -6 °C. Average, annual precipitation is between 700 and 800 mm, a large portion of which accumulates in non-summer months. At this elevation, much of the precipitation is in the form of snow, falling between December and February, although there are always exceptions, and the snow rarely remains unmelted for more than three days. It is in this region that all cities and the majority of people live; this also means that of all distinguished elevations, it is the most susceptible to damage from human traffic and intrusion.


Between 1,400 and 2,000 meters, the average, annual temperature is between 8 and 9 °C, with a high summer temperature of 25 °C and a low in winter of -8 °C. Average, annual precipitation climbs with the height to between 900 and 1,000 mm, much of which is likewise laid down during the non-summer season and is in the form of snow, but laid down between December and April. Much of the snow remains on the ground for the duration of the winter—especially on the range's north slope.

Ice-covered pine tree; the result of an ice fog.
Ice-covered pine tree; the result of an ice fog.

Between 2,000 and 2,430 meters, the average, annual temperature is between 6 and 7 °C, with a high summer temperature of 22 °C and a frosty low in winter of -12 °C. Average, annual precipitation is between 1,200 and 2,500 mm, mostly in the form of snow laid down between November and May which remains the winterlong and into the spring. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 516 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1457 × 1693 pixel, file size: 463 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Pino silvestre en una niebla de hielo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 516 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1457 × 1693 pixel, file size: 463 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Pino silvestre en una niebla de hielo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ...


In summary, the climate of the Guadarramas is quite humid, more so than that of the rest of the Meseta Central (Central Plateau), and generally cold, which increases with altitude. In the peaks the wind is usually very intense and thunderstorms in the mountains are more frequent than in the plateau.


Average temperatures by altitude

Altitude Temperature
in winter
(day/night)
Temperature
in spring
and autumn
(day/night)
Temperature
in summer
(day/night)
2,430 m - 2,000 m -1 °C / -9 °C 8 °C / -3 °C 20 °C / 5 °C
2,000 m - 1,400 m 3 °C / -3 °C 11 °C / 5 °C 23 °C / 7 °C
1,400 m - 800 m 3 °C / -3 °C 15 °C / 7 °C 25 °C / 11 °C

Routes of passage

Mountain railway pass with the Siete Picos (Seven Peaks mountain) in the background.
Mountain railway pass with the Siete Picos (Seven Peaks mountain) in the background.

As a result of its condition as a natural border, the Guadarramas are crossed by important routes of passage between the north and the south of the Iberian Peninsula. The routes date back to Roman times with the construction of their famous roads, one of which starts in the town of Cercedilla, crosses the mountains and terminates at the Fuenfría Pass. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ...


Although the road is still present with some original stone, it was rendered obsolete by a number of roads blazed during the mid-1700s: the Guadarrama Pass, or "del León" route, serviced by national highway six, running from Madrid to Coruña (although another freeway, AP-6, which tunnels through the mountains, can also be used); the Navacerrada Pass highway passage between Madrid and Segovia; and the Somosierra passage, which is serviced by the divided highway, Autovía del Norte, along which a Madrid to Irun railroad also runs. A Coruña , (in English Corunna, in Spanish La Coruña, and in Galician A Coruña) is a Galician city, in north-western Spain. ... For the Basque name of Pamplona, see Iruñea. ...


The mountains are crossed by a number of separate railway routes running between Madrid and Ávila, Segovia and Burgos, thus providing connection between the capital and the whole north of the country. These lines are already considered antiquated, and will be partially replaced with the new high speed Alta Velocidad Española (literally, "Spanish High Speed") railroad, and its attendant tunnels between Miraflores de la Sierra and Segovia, that is in the midst of construction. The AVE can achieve speeds of up to 300 km/h on dedicated tracks and is expected to be completed in 2007. Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Complete name of this city: Ávila de los Caballeros Ávila is a town in the south of Old Castile, the capital of the province of the same name, now part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. ... Location Location of Segovia in Spain Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Segovia (Spanish) Spanish name Segovia Postal code 40001-40006 Website http://www. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... AVE Alstom trainsets at Seville. ...


History

Roman roadway transecting the Fuenfría valley
Roman roadway transecting the Fuenfría valley
Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama, circa 1760.
Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama, circa 1760.

For much of its history the central part of the range, including the forests and grasslands of both sides of the mountains, was associated with the city of Segovia, at least as far back as its Roman control under the name of Segóbriga. Nevertheless, after the creation of the province of Madrid to meet the requirements of the Spanish Court, the political designation of the mountains was distributed between the two provinces. Today the range is more often associated with Madrid given that city's prominence as Spain's capital. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (680x1024, 221 KB) Roman road that leads to Segovia through Fuenfría. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (680x1024, 221 KB) Roman road that leads to Segovia through Fuenfría. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Capital Madrid Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  8,030. ... The Royal Family of the Kingdom of Spain consists of the direct descendants of the current king, Juan Carlos. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


The Guadarramas' role as a natural barrier has been of importance in many of the armed conflicts that have afflicted Spain. For centuries the range constituted a border between the Christian kingdoms to the north and Muslims kingdoms to the south, during the times of Reconquest. The legacy of that epoch can be seen in the splendid medieval walled cities occupying both sides of the mountains, such as Buitrago de Lozoya and Manzanares el Real in Madrid, and the castillo de Pedraza in Segovia. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


In 1808, during the Peninsular War fought by Spain against invaders from France, the Battle of Somosierra took place at the range's Somosierra Pass, where the Spanish were defeated by Napoleonic troops composed principally of Polish lancers. Likewise, during the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, the range comprised an important front, with skirmishes fought in the mountain passes for the duration. Today, trenches and casemates still survive along the line of the mountains' summits. Combatants Kingdom of Spain, United Kingdom, Kingdom of Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española) was a war in the Iberian Peninsula. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Napoleon I of France Benito de San Juan Strength 45,000 20,000 infantry 16 guns Casualties Unknown 250 dead or wounded The Battle of Somosierra was a battle of the Peninsular War that took place on November 30, 1808 at the Somosierra pass in the... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... A Casemate is a heavy duty structure originally a vaulted chamber in a fortress. ...


The Guadarammas, as a result of their proximity to high population centers of cultural and educational importance, was one of the first areas of Spain where natural resources and the study of nature came to be valued, both from an economic point as an educational resource. This culminated in the establishment of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Free Institution of Education) in 1876, which advocated an assimilation of Madrid cultural values which esteemed the nearby mountain range's natural beauty. By the 1920s, there was a call the declare the entire range a protected national park; a notion that is still unrealized but has support today. Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ...


Monuments and structures of interest

San Lorenzo de El Escorial.
San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

The magnificent scenery, the balmy summer climate and, especially, the proximity to Madrid and Segovia have resulted in the erection of many striking buildings and monuments on the hillsides of the Sierra de Guadarrama. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2760x1464, 1370 KB) Monastery San Lorenzo de El Escorial in a distant view. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2760x1464, 1370 KB) Monastery San Lorenzo de El Escorial in a distant view. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Valle de los Caidos, rear view of the Cross and the monastery The Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos (Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen) constitutes the most colossal architecture work built in Europe in the 20th century. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1414 × 1069 pixel, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Palacio del Real Sitio de La Granja (Segovia), España. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1414 × 1069 pixel, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) es: Palacio del Real Sitio de La Granja (Segovia), España. ... The Palacio Real de La Granja de San Ildefonso is a palace in the Spanish province of Segovia. ...


The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, is an immense palace, Augustinian monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Designed by the architects Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera in an austere classical style, and built from 1563 to 1584, it is shaped as a grid in memory of the martyrdom of Saint Lawrence. The complex has an enormous store of art, including masterworks by Titian, Tintoretto, El Greco, Velázquez, Roger van der Weyden, Paolo Veronese, Alonso Cano, José de Ribera, Claudio Coello and others; its library containing thousands of priceless ancient manuscripts; and the complex has been designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site. // El Escorial, the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real (also known as the Monasterio de El Escorial or simply El Escorial) is located about 45 kilometres (28 miles) northwest of the Spanish capital, Madrid. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... Juan Bautista de Toledo (d. ... El Escorial Juan de Herrera (b. ... Saint Lawrence (225 – 258) (Latin Laurentius, laurelled) was one of the seven deacons of Rome who were martyred under the persecution of Roman Emperor Valerian in 258. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... Deposition by Rogier van der Weyden (c. ... The Feast in the House of Levi (1573), one of the largest canvases of the 16th century. ... Alonzo Cano (1601 - 1667) was a Spanish painter, architect and sculptor born in Granada. ... Giuseppe Ribera (January 12, 1591 - 1652), commonly called Lo Spagnoletto, or the Little Spaniard, a leading painter of the Neapolitan or partly of the Spanish school, was born near Valencia in Spain, at Xátiva, now named San Felipe. ... Claudio Coello (1642—1693) was a Spanish Baroque painter. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


In the north face of Monte Abantos, surrounded by thick pine groves, is the Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos ("Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen"). Conceived by General Francisco Franco to honor those killed during the Spanish Civil War, the monument contains beneath it the remains of 40,000 fallen soldiers, as well as a basilica in which Franco himself is interred. Above rises a massive granite cross—150 meters high—which is visible from as far away as 50 kilometers. Valle de los Caidos, rear view of the Cross and the monastery The Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos (Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen) constitutes the most colossal architecture work built in Europe in the 20th century. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ...


In Rascafría, in the center of the Lozoya valley, lies the Monasterio de Santa María de El Paular ("Monastery of Santa María of Paular"). Surrounded by scenic mountainscapes, the monastery features a large cloister and dates to the late 1300s. It was constructed at the behest of king Henry II of Castile and in 1876 was declared a Spanish National Monument. Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is a part of cathedral, monastic and abbey architecture. ... Henry of Trastamara (January 13, 1334 Sevilla - May 29, 1379 Santo Domingo de la Calzada) (Enrique de Trastámara), was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Leonora de Guzman, and half brother to Pedro I the Cruel (or the Lawful, depending on who wrote the history). ...


The castillo de Manzanares ("Castle of Manzanares"), is a medieval fort in the municipality of Manzanares el Real, at the foot of La Pedriza. It is composed of several cylindrical towers and dates to the 15th century. General view of La Pedriza. ...


In the town of Pedraza, is a namesake medieval castle, castillo de Pedraza. The citadel rises on a hill protecting the town. It dates to the 14th century and an expansion during the 16th century. Although at one time in disrepair, the castle was restored in modern times and is in a good state of preservation. The structure is protected on all sides by its original, ancient walls, lending a medieval ambience to the surroundings. This article is about a type of fortification. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ...


In the municipality of San Ildefonso in Castile-León lies the Baroque style Palacio Real de la Granja de San Ildefonso, a royal residence actually used in summer by Spanish nobility. It was commissioned by Philip V of Spain in 1724. The palace's extensive gardens feature numerous sculptures of mythological beings which are highly prized for their artistic value. The gardens were based on those King Philip V had known during his childhood in the French royal court. San Ildefonso, or La Granja is a town in the province of Segovia, Spain, situated 34 miles (54 km) NW of Madrid. ... Capital no official capital of the community is defined; Valladolid however is the seat of the Regional Executive, and the Regional Parliament. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Palacio Real de La Granja de San Ildefonso is a palace in the Spanish province of Segovia. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... This is the Kings of France family tree, including all kings, from Charles Magne to the advent of the Republic. ...


Protected zones

Today two high traffic areas of the Guadaramma mountains have achieved protected nature reserve status:

  • The Parque Regional de la Cuenca Alta del Manzanares ("High River basin Regional Park of the Manzanares"), located in the Community of Madrid; the first Sierra de Guadarrama zone to receive protected status. When the designation was first granted it included only La Pedriza (an area including a number of peaks, valleys and rivers in the Guadarramas), but later it was extended to cover the Monte de El Pardo—a densely forested area to the north of Madrid, covering more than 470 square kilometres (181 mile²).
  • The Parque Natural de la Cumbre, Circo y Lagunas de Peñalara ( Peñalara's Summit, Cirques and Lakes Nature Reserve"). The reserve is much smaller and more recent in origin than the preceding one, only covering the tallest part of the massif of Peñalara (at 2,430 m the highest mountain in the Sierra de Guadarrama) and one of few glaciers formations of the whole Sistema Central, with three small cirques, two moraines, and almost twenty glacial lakes.
Castillo de Pedraza.
Castillo de Pedraza.

Proposed National Park As of 2007, a proposal to have the summits of the entire range designated a national park (Parque Nacional de Guadarrama) is under consideration by Spain's Central Government. This would help protect the range from degradation caused by the heavy human traffic to which it is subject as a result of its proximity to large cities such as Madrid. At the time of writing, the proposal has yet to be agreed, reportedly because of objections from the authorities in Castile and Leon, who are concerned about population decline in their autonomous community. Capital Madrid Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  8,030. ... This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ... Locator map of the Parque Natural de Peñalara. ... In geology, a massif is a section of a planets crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chief of State King Juan Carlos I, since November 22, 1975. ... Bold textEnvironmental degradation is related to the deterioration of the environment both in terms of quantity and extinction of some wildlife species and quality like air, water or land pollution. ... Capital Valladolid Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ...


Myths and legends

Over the centuries the mountains and surrounding areas have been inhabited several myths and legends specific to the region have developed:

The Shepherd's Chasm
It is believed that in the mountains nearby San Lorenzo de El Escorial a secret treasure cache lies buried. Many have prospected in the region searching for this illusive trove.
This legend holds that a certain Rafael Corraliza who managed the rich financial affairs of the Monastery of San Lorenzo, was lured by devilish greed to plunder the monastery's treasury of Doubloons. Corraliza then absconded, heading for sanctuary in Portugal. He stole out at night taking a mountain footpath that led to the nearest village, Robledondo. However, upon attempted to traverse the mountain area known as the Shepherd's Chasm, named for a deep mountain crevasse, a saint overwatching the monastery, caused him to fall into the chasm, thus swallowing up both him and the stolen gold. In the course of time, the abyss was covered with branches and stones for fear that cattle or any poor devil could suffer the same fate as Corraliza.
Illustration of the Boulder of the Dead legend.
The Boulder of the Dead
The name of this legend comes from a namesake peculiar rock formation in La Pedriza. The story is that a group of three brigands kidnap a young woman of a rich and powerful Madrid family. While the chief of the band is temporarily away, the two remaining bandits decide to rape the young woman. Upon the chief's unexpected return, he attempts to throw each of them over the cliff above the namesake boulder as quick justice. The first is done successfully but the second grabs the leg of the ringleader as they struggle at the brink of the precipice, and they both plummet to their deaths on the rocks below. According to local people, for a time the corpses of the three bandits could be seen in a crack of the rocks.

The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... The term doubloon (from Spanish doblón, meaning double) refers to a gold coin minted in Spain, Mexico, Peru, or Nueva Granada. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... General view of La Pedriza. ...

References

  • Sierra de Guadarrama. From the Spanish-language Wikipedia. Retrieved May 6 - still in flux, 2006, and containing the internal references:
  • Fidalgo García, Pablo & Martín Espinosa, Agustín (2005). Atlas Estadístico de la Comunidad de Madrid 2005. Instituto de Estadística de la Comunidad de Madrid. ISBN 84-451-2786-1
  • Pliego Vega, Domingo (2005). Guadarrama. 50 excursiones fáciles. Ediciones Desnivel. ISBN 84-96192-83-0
  • Rincón, Manuel (1987). Caminar por la Sierra de Guadarrama. Editorial Barrabes. ISBN 84-95744-38-4
  • Sánchez Martínez, Javier & Martínez de Pisón, Eduardo (2004). La Sierra de Guadarrama:La Imagen de una Montaña. Ediciones La Librería. ISBN 84-95889-84-6
  • Vías, Julio (2004). La Sierra de Guadarrama. Biograrfía de un paisaje. Ediciones La Librería. ISBN 84-95889-73-0
  • Zarzuela Aragón, Javier (2003). Excursiones para niños por la Sierra de Madrid. Ediciones La Librería. ISBN 84-95889-41-2

See also

Map of the major geographic features of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Locator map of the Parque Natural de Peñalara. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Peñalara and its reflection in a glacier lake. ... General view of La Pedriza. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sierra de Guadarrama

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Information

Routes and climbs

Miscellaneous


  Results from FactBites:
 
A gudie to the Sistema Central (1967 words)
Almanzor : Almanzor (2,592m) in the Sierra de Gredos is the highest mountain in Sistema Central and the province of Ávila.
The Sierra de Guadarrama is a mountain chain spanning half of the Sistema Central (a mountain system in the center of the Iberian Peninsula), located between the Sierra de Gredos in the province of Ávila, and Sierra de Ayllón in the province of Guadalajara.
The Sierra de Guadarrama is the result of a clash between tectonic plates belonging to the South sub-plateau and the North sub-plateau, both part of the Iberian Peninsula's larger Meseta Central; (Central Plateau).
Sierra de Guadarrama - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4946 words)
The Sierra de Guadarrama is a mountain chain spanning half of the Sistema Central (a mountain system in the center of the Iberian Peninsula), located between the Sierra de Gredos in the province of Ávila, and Sierra de Ayllón in the province of Guadalajara.
The Sierra de Guadarrama's name is taken from the Guadarrama river and of the town of Guadarrama, both of which are in located on the mountains.
The Sierra de Guadarrama has a series of valleys and zones which are of special interest from both an aesthetic and ecological viewpoint.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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