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Encyclopedia > Sierra Leone
Republic of Sierra Leone
Flag of Sierra Leone
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto"Unity - Freedom - Justice"
AnthemHigh We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free
Capital Freetown (1,070,200)
8°31′N 13°15′W / 8.517, -13.25
Largest city Freetown
Official languages English
Demonym Sierra Leonean, Sierra Leonian
Government Constitutional republic
 -  President Ernest Bai Koroma
 -  Vice President Samuel Sam-Sumana
Independence
 -  from the United Kingdom April 27, 1961 
 -  Republic declared April 17, 1971 
Area
 -  Total 71,740 km² (119th)
27,699 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.0
Population
 -  UN 2007 estimate 5,900,000 (103rd1)
 -  Density 83/km² (114th1)
199/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $4.921 billion (151st)
 -  Per capita $903 (172nd)
Gini (2003) 62.9 (high
HDI (2007) 0.336 (low) (177th)
Currency Leone (SLL)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Internet TLD .sl
Calling code +232
1 Rank based on 2007 figures.

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea in the north and east, Liberia in the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean in the southwest and west. Sierra Leone covers a total area of 71,740 sq km (27,699 sq mi)[1] and has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests.[2] Freetown is the capital, seat of government, and largest city.[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Sierra Leone was officially hoisted on April 27, 1961. ... bfdbfdbfd ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... High We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free is the national anthem of Sierra Leone. ... Image File history File links LocationSierraLeone. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... This page contains a list of presidents and other heads of state of Sierra Leone since 1971. ... Ernest Bai Koroma (born 2 October 1953 in Makeni, Bombali District, Northern Sierra Leone) is a politician in Sierra Leone. ... The Vice President of Sierra Leone is a position in the executive branch of the Republic of Sierra Leone. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... This article is about the currency. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... GMT redirects here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .sl is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Sierra Leone. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ... Savannah redirects here. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ...


Sierra Leone was first inhabited by the Sherbro, Temne and Limba peoples, and later the Mende,[3] who knew the country as Romarong.[4] In 1462, it was visited by the Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra, who gave it its current designation, meaning 'Lion Mountains'.[5] Sierra Leone became an important centre of the transatlantic slave trade, until 1787 when Freetown was founded by the Sierra Leone Company as a home for formerly enslaved African Americans and West Indians.[6] In 1808, Freetown became a British Crown Colony, and in 1896, the interior of the country became a British Protectorate;[4] in 1961, the two combined and gained independence. Political instability over the following decades eventually led to the Sierra Leone Civil War,[7] which began in 1991 and was resolved in 2002 when the United Nations led by Britain defeated the rebel forces and installed a civillian government. Since then, almost 72,500 former combatants have disarmed[8] and the country has reestablished a functioning democracy.[9] The Special Court for Sierra Leone was set up in 2002 to deal with war crimes and crimes against humanity committed since 1996.[10] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Temne people are the largest ethnic group in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone, and they make up about 29. ... The Limba people are one of the indigenous tribes, or ethnic groups, in the Republic of Sierra Leone in West Africa. ... The Mende are an ethnic group living in Sierra Leone, primarily in the Southern Province. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Pedro da Cintra was a Portuguese explorer. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the capture and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Sierra Leone Company was the organisation involved in founding the first British colony in Africa in 1792 through the resettlement of Black Loyalist African Americans, mostly ex-slaves who had initially been settled in Nova Scotia after the American Revolutionary War. ... Slave redirects here. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Government of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Army Kamajors / South African mercenaries Nigerian-led ECOMOG forces United Kingdom Revolutionary United Front Armed Forces Revolutionary Council West Side Boys Liberia Commanders Ahmad Tejan Kabbah Samuel Hinga Norman Valentine Strasser Solomon Musa David J. Richards Tony Blair Foday Sankoh Johnny Paul Koroma... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Sierra Leone is the lowest ranked country on the Human Development Index and seventh lowest on the Human Poverty Index,[11] suffering from endemic corruption,[12] suppression of the press[13] and the HIV/AIDS pandemic.[14] The Human Poverty Index is an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN). ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech often through a state constitution for its citizens, and associations of individuals extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Sierra Leone

// European contacts with Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa. ...

Early History

A map illustrating the voyage of Hanno the Navigator.
A map illustrating the voyage of Hanno the Navigator.

Archaeological finds show that Sierra Leone has been inhabited continuously for at least 2,500 years,[15] populated by successive movements from other parts of Africa.[16] The use of iron was introduced to Sierra Leone by the 9th century, and by AD 1000 agriculture was being practiced by coastal tribes.[17] Sierra Leone's dense tropical rainforest largely protected it from the influence of any precolonial African empires[18] and from Islamic explorations, which were unable to penetrate through it successfully until the 18th century.[19] Route of Hanno the Navigator Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


European contacts with Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa. In 1462, Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra mapped the hills surrounding what is now Freetown Harbour, naming shaped formation Serra Lyoa (Portuguese for Lion Mountains). Its Italian Spanish? rendering is Sierra Leone, which became the country's name. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Pedro da Cintra was a Portuguese explorer. ...


Slavery

An 1835 illustration of liberated slaves arriving in Sierra Leone.
An 1835 illustration of liberated slaves arriving in Sierra Leone.

In 1787 a plan was implemented to settle some of London's Black Poor in Sierra Leone in what was called the "Province of Freedom". A number of Black Poor and White women arrived off the coast of Sierra Leone on May 15, 1787, accompanied by some English tradesmen. This was organized by the St George's Bay Company, composed of British philanthropists who preferred it as a solution to continuing to financially support them in London. Many of the Black poor were African Americanss,who had been promised their freedom for joining the British Army during the American Revolution, but also included other African and Asian inhabitants of London. | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Black Poor or Black British is an identity of Black people in Sierra Leone who consider themselves British. ... Whites redirects here. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A tradesman is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft. ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ...


Disease and hostility from the indigenous people nearly eliminated the first group of colonists. Through intervention by Thomas Peters, the Sierra Leone Company was established to relocate another group of nearly 1,200 American slaves, originally settled in Nova Scotia. Given the most barren land in Nova Scotia, many had died from the harsh winters there. They established a settlement at Freetown in 1792 led by Peters. It was joined by other groups of freed slaves and became the first Afro-American haven for ex-slaves. Thomas Peters (1738- 25 June 1792 in Freetown) was an African-American slave that fled North Carolina with the British during the American Revolution and later ended up as a leader in Freetown, Sierra Leone. ... The Sierra Leone Company was the organisation involved in founding the first British colony in Africa in 1792 through the resettlement of Black Loyalist African Americans, mostly ex-slaves who had initially been settled in Nova Scotia after the American Revolutionary War. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Though the English abolitionist Granville Sharp originally planned Sierra Leone as a utopian community, the directors of the Sierra Leone Company refused to allow the settlers to take freehold of the land. Knowing how Highland Clearances benefited Scottish landlords but not tenants, the settlers revolted in 1799. The revolt was only put down by the arrival of over 500 Jamaican Maroons, who also arrived via Nova Scotia. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Granville Sharp (10 November 1735 - 6 July 1813) was an British campaigner for the abolition of the slave trade. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Fee simple, also known as fee simple absolute or allodial, is a term of art in common law. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Body of Ndyuka Maroon child brought before a shaman, Suriname 1955 A Maroon (from the word marronage or American/Spanish cimarrón: fugitive, runaway, lit. ...

The colony of Freetown in 1856.
The colony of Freetown in 1856.

Thousands of slaves were returned to or liberated in Freetown. Most chose to remain in Sierra Leone. These returned Africans were from all areas of Africa. They joined the previous settlers and together became known as Creole or Krio people. Cut off from their homes and traditions, they assimilated some aspects of British styles of inhabitnats and built a flourishing trade of flowers and beads on the West African coast. The lingua franca of the colony was Krio, a creole language rooted in 18th century African American English, which quickly spread across the region as a common language of trade and Christian proselytizing. British and American abolitionist movements envisioned Freetown as embodying the possibilities of a post-slave trade Africa. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Krio is a diverse, mainly Christian culture founded by freed African slaves from Britain, Northern America and Jamaica who settled in Freetown in the late 18th century. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... See also the Keriu language and Krio Dayak language of Indonesia. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ...


Britain and British seafarers – including Sir Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Forbisher and Captain Brown — played a major role in the transatlantic trade in captured Africans between 1530 and 1810. Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, which ended the Spanish War of Succession (1701 - 1714), had an additional clause (the Asiento) that granted Britain (among other things) the exclusive rights over the shipment of captured Africans across the Atlantic. Over 10 million captured Africans were shipped to the Caribbean Islands and the Americas and many more died during the raids, the long marches to the coast and due to the inhuman conditions in slave ships. Britain outlawed slavery on 29 March 1807, and the British marine operating from Freetown took active measures to stop the Atlantic slave trade. Sir Francis Drake, c. ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... In the history of slavery, asiento (or assiento, meaning assent ) refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, from the years 1543-1834. ... This is a list of inhabited islands in the Caribbean. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Slave redirects here. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1998 Pope John-Paul II apologized for the role of the catholic church in transatlantic trade. And during their respective trips to Africa, President Bill Clinton (April 1998) and President George W Bush (July 2003) visited the slave fort in the Island Gorée before Dakar, and condemned the slave trade but stopped short of an apology, to avoid providing the basis for compensation claims. But so far neither Britain nor any other European country has so apologized for the crimes of the slave trade. In 2001, on the initiative of left wing groups, members of the European Parliament discussed the possibility of writing off some foreign debts as form of compensation for the slave trade. The suggestion found little or no sympathy among the European parliamentarians. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, officially in Latin , born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001 and re-elected in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Colonial era

In the early 20th century, Freetown served as the residence of the British governor who also ruled the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and the Gambia settlements. Sierra Leone also served as the educational centre of British West Africa. Fourah Bay College, established in 1827, rapidly became a magnet for English-speaking Africans on the West Coast. For more than a century, it was the only European-style university in western Sub-Saharan Africa. Image File history File links Bai_Bureh. ... Image File history File links Bai_Bureh. ... Bai Bureh Bai Bureh (ca. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... The Republic of The Gambia is a country in West Africa. ... Fourah Bay College (founded in 1827 as the first western-style university in West Africa) is a university in Fourah Bay, Freetown, Sierra Leone under the banner of the University of Sierra Leone (from 1966 to 2005) and formerly affiliated with Durham University (from 1876 - 1967). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south...


During Sierra Leone's colonial history, indigenous people mounted several unsuccessful revolts against British rule and Krio domination. The most notable was the Bai Bureh rebellion against British rule in 1898. Bai Bureh was a man who refused to recognise the hut tax imposed by the British in 1893 in Sierra Leone. He did not believe Sierra Leoneans had a duty to pay taxes to foreigners, and he wanted all British to return to Britain and let the Sierra Leoneans solve their own problems. After he refused to pay his taxes on several occasions, the British issued a warrant to arrest him. In 1896 Bureh declared war on Brits in Sierra Leone. He brought fighters from several Temne villages under his command, and from Limba, Loko, Soso, Kissi, and Mandinka villages. He had the advantage over the vastly more powerful British for several months of the war. Hundreds of British troops and hundreds of Bureh's fighters were killed.[1] Bai Bureh was finally captured on November 11, 1898 and sent into exile to the Gold Coast (now Ghana). The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. ... Bai Bureh Bai Bureh (ca. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ...


Most of the 20th century history of the colony was peaceful. One notable event in 1935 was the granting of a monopoly on mineral mining to the Sierra Leone Selection Trust run by De Beers, which was scheduled to last 99 years. The 1951 constitution provided a framework for decolonization. Local ministerial responsibility was introduced in 1953, when Sir Milton Margai was appointed Chief Minister. He became Prime Minister after successful completion of constitutional talks in London in 1960. Independence came in April 1961, and Sierra Leone opted for a parliamentary system within the Commonwealth of Nations. This article is about the economic term. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... The Sierra Leone Selection Trust was a subsidiary of De Beers corporation which had exclusive mineral mining rights in Sierra Leone beginning in 1935 which was scheduled to last for 99 years. ... De Beers, founded in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes, comprises companies involved in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... Sir Milton Augustus Strieby Margai (December 7, 1895-April 28, 1964) was the first prime minister of independent Sierra Leone. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


An Independence Nation

On April 27, 1961, Sir Milton Margai led Sierra Leone to independence from the United Kingdom. The date was significant because the 27th April 1898 marked the start of the first independence war - the "Hut Tax War of 1898" - against British rule. The uprising was led by various chiefs in the protectorate regions of the country - Bai Bureh (1840 - 1908), Kai Londo (1845 - 1898) and Bai Sherbro Kpana Lewis (1830 - 1912). A number of rebellions followed until after World War 2. After a gradual transition independence was peacefully negotiated at the Malbourough House, London in 1961. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sir Milton Augustus Strieby Margai (December 7, 1895-April 28, 1964) was the first prime minister of independent Sierra Leone. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up sir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir Milton Augustus Strieby Margai (December 7, 1895-April 28, 1964) was the first prime minister of independent Sierra Leone. ... The Hut Tax War of 1898 was a war initiated by Temne chief Bai Bureh against the British in 1898. ... Chief can refer to : Paramount chief is the highest political leader in a region or country typically administered with a chief-based system. ... Bai Bureh Bai Bureh (ca. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


The country's first prime minister became Milton Margai, the veteran medical doctor who had been appointed Chief Minister after the Colonial Legislative Council and the Protectorate Assembly were unified in 1951. His political party, Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), had won by large margins in the nation's first general election under universal adult suffrage in May 1962. It also won majority of seat in parliament. Upon his death in 1964, his brother, Sir Albert Margai succeeded him as prime minister. Albert Margai was highly criticized during his three-year rule as prime minister. He was accused of corruption and of a policy of affirmative action in favour of the Mende ethnic group. He also tried to establish a one-party state but met fierce resistance from the opposition All People's Congress (APC) and ultimately abandoned the idea. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Former crewmembers of the battleship Missouri pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony, held aboard the famous ship. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... SLPP symbol, the palm-tree The Sierra Leone Peoples Party is the ruling political party in Sierra Leone. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Look up Brother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Brother may have the following meanings, in addition to and derived from its main one of male sibling; see Family. a male friend or acquaintance, in some cultures shortened to Bro or Brah a peer, male or female (though such usage is... Albert Margai (10 October, 1910-1990) followed his brother Milton Margai as Prime Minister of Sierra Leone. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... The Mende are an ethnic group living in Sierra Leone, primarily in the Southern Province. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... The All Peoples Congress is a political party in Sierra Leone. ...


In a closely contested general elections in March 1967, Sierra Leone Governor General Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston declared the new prime minister to be Siaka Stevens, candidate of the All People's Congress (APC) and Mayor of Freetown. Hours after taking office, Stevens was ousted in a bloodless coup led by Brigadier David Lansana, the Commander of the Armed Forces, on grounds that the determination of office should await the election of the tribal representatives to the house. Stevens was placed under house arrest and Martial law was declared. But a group of senior military officers overrode this action by seizing control of the government on March 23, 1968, arresting Lansana and suspending the constitution. The group constituted itself as the National Reformation Council (NRC) with Brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith as its chairman. In April 1968, the NRC was overthrown by a group of military officers who called themselves the Anti-Corruption Revolutionary Movement (ACRM), led by Brigadier John Amadu Bangura. The ACRM imprisoned senior NRC members, restored the constitution and reinstated Stevens as Prime Minister. A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ... Sir Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston (1898 - 1969) was a British diplomat and Governor-General of Sierra Leone from 7 July 1962 to 26 March 1967. ... Siaka Probyn Stevens (August 24, 1905–May 29, 1988) was the President of Sierra Leone from 1971 to 1985. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... Brigadier David Lansana was the army commander of Sierra Leone in 1967. ... Military branches:Army (RSLAF) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,228,664 (2003 est. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... Brigadier Andrew Terence Juxon-Smith (1933-1996) was a politician and military official in Sierra Leone. ... Brigadier John Amadu Bangura was the acting Governor-General of Sierra Leone from 18 April 1968 until 22 April 1968. ...


The return to civilian rule led to by-elections beginning in fall 1968 and the appointment of an all-APC cabinet. Calm was not completely restored. In November 1968, Stevens declared a state of emergency after provincial disturbances. In March 1971 the government survived an unsuccessful military coup and in July 1974 it uncovered an alleged military coup plot. The leaders of both plots were tried and executed. In 1977, student demonstrations against the government disrupted Sierra Leone politics. For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ...

Siaka Probyn Stevens
Siaka Probyn Stevens

On April 19, 1971, parliament declared Sierra Leone a Republic, Siaka Stevens, then prime minister, became the first president. Guinean troops requested by Stevens to support his government were in the country from 1971 to 1973. An alleged plot to overthrow Stevens failed in 1974, its leaders were executed, and in March 1976 he was elected without opposition for a second five-year term as president. In the national parliamentary election of May 1977, the APC won 74 seats and the opposition SLPP won 15. In 1978, a referendum approved a new constitution making the country a one-party state; the APC was the only legal political party. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ...


In August 1985, the APC named a new presidential candidate to succeed Stevens. He was the commander of the armed forces, Major General Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' own choice. Stevens retired in November after being President for 14 years, but continued to be chairman of the APC. Momoh was elected President in a one-party referendum on October 1, 1985. An inauguration was held in January 1986, and parliamentary elections were held in May. After an alleged attempt to overthrow Momoh in March 1987, more than 60 senior government officials were arrested, including Vice-President Francis Minah, who was removed from office, convicted for plotting the coup, and executed by hanging in 1989, along with 5 others. Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Joseph Saidu Momoh (January 26, 1937–August 3, 2003) was President of the Republic of Sierra Leone. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Francis Minah was a vice president of Sierra Leone under former president Joseph Saidu Momoh administration. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Multi-party constitution and RUF rebellion

See also: Sierra Leone Civil War

In October 1990, President Momoh set up a constitutional review commission to review the 1978 one-party constitution with a view to broadening the existing political process, guaranteeing fundamental human rights and the rule of law, and strengthening and consolidating the democratic foundation and structure of the nation. The commission, in its report presented January 1991, recommended re-establishment of a multi-party system of government. Based on that recommendation, a constitution was approved by Parliament in July 1991 and ratified in September; it became effective on October 1, 1991. But there was great suspicion that Momoh was not serious, and APC rule was increasingly marked by abuses of power. Combatants Government of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Army Kamajors / South African mercenaries Nigerian-led ECOMOG forces United Kingdom Revolutionary United Front Armed Forces Revolutionary Council West Side Boys Liberia Commanders Ahmad Tejan Kabbah Samuel Hinga Norman Valentine Strasser Solomon Musa David J. Richards Tony Blair Foday Sankoh Johnny Paul Koroma... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Civil war broke out, mainly due to government corruption and mismanagement of diamond resources. With the breakdown of state structures and the effective suppression of civilian opposition, wide corridors were opened for trafficking of arms, ammunition and drugs, all of which eroded national and regional security and facilitated crime in the country and with Liberia and Guinea. World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


Besides the internal ripeness, the brutal civil war going on in neighbouring Liberia played an undeniable role for the outbreak of fighting in Sierra Leone. Charles Taylor - then leader of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia - reportedly helped form the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) under the command of former Sierra Leone army corporal Foday Sankoh. In return, Taylor received diamonds from Sierra Leone. The RUF, led by Foday Sankoh and backed by Taylor, launched its first attack in villages in Kailahun District in the diamond-rich Eastern Province of Sierra Leone on March 23, 1991. The government of Sierra Leone, overwhelmed by a crumbling economy and corruption, was unable to put up significant resistance. Within a month of entering Sierra Leone from Liberia, the RUF controlled much of the Eastern Province. Forced recruitment of child soldiers was also an early feature of the rebel strategy. Charles Taylor may refer to: // Charles Taylor (Liberia) (born 1948), a former president of Liberia, accused war criminal, and Bentley College graduate Charles Taylor (Texas) (1805–1865), signer of Texas Declaration of Independence [1] Charles John Taylor, New Zealand politician of the 1850s Charles Taylor (UK politician) (1910–1989), British... The National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) was a rebel group that initiated and participated in the Liberian Civil War. ... The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone, starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. ... This article is about the military rank. ... Foday Sankoh (October 17, 1937 - July 29, 2003) was a leader of the Sierra Leone rebel faction Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in the 10-year-long Sierra Leonean civil war, which ended in 2002. ... Location of Kailahun District in Sierra Leone Kailahun District is a district in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... A Chinese soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division boarding planes in Myitkyina (Burma) bound for China, May 1944. ...


On April 29, 1992, a group of seven young soldiers in the Sierra Leonean army, apparently frustrated by the government's failure to deal with rebels, launched a military coup which sent president Momoh into exile in Guinea. They were 25 year old Captain Valentine Strasser, Sergeant Solomon Musa, Brigadier-General Julius Maada Bio, Lieutenant Colonel Tom Nyuma, Colonel Yahya Kanu, Lieutenant Colonel Komba Mondeh, and Captain Samuel Komba Kambo. They established the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) with Kanu as its chairman and Head of State of the country. But Kanu was assassinated by fellow NPRC members, who accused him of trying to negotiate with the toppled APC administration. On May 1, Strasser took over as chairman and Head of State. Musa, one of the leaders of the coup and a best friend of Strasser took over as Vice-Chaiman of the NPRC. Many Sierra Leoneans nationwide rushed into the streets to welcome the NPRC Administration from the 23 year dictatorial APC regime, which was perceived as corrupt. The NPRC junta immediately suspended the 1991 Constitution, declared a state of emergency, limited freedom of speech, and freedom of the press and enacted a rule-by-decree policy. The army and police officers were granted unlimited powers of administrative detention without charge or trial, and challenges against such detentions in court were precluded. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... A Captain in armies, air forces and marine forces, is a rank with a NATO rank code of OF-2. ... Valentine Esegragbo Melvine Strasser (born 1967) is a former head of state of Sierra Leone. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... Solomon Anthony James Musa (1966 - January 1999) was an important military and political figure in the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... Brigadier General (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) is the lowest rank of general officer in some countries, usually ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio (born 1964 in Bo District, Sierra Leone) led a coup in Sierra Leone on January 16, 1996 ousting president Valentine Strasser. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Tom Nyuma (born in Bo, Sierra Leone) is a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the Sierra Leonean army. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... History remembers Colonel Yahya Kanu (death in 1992) as the chairman of the National Provisional Ruling Council in Sierra Leone from 30 April 1992 until 1 May 1992. ... Komba Mondeh (born in Koidu Town, Kono District, Sierra Leone) is a former Chief of the Defence Staff of the National Provisional Ruling Council, a military government that ruled Sierra Leone from 1992-1996. ... Samuel Komba Kambo is a retired captain in the The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... This is an incomplete list of persons that were assassinated for political and other reasons, and who have individual entries. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...


The NPRC proved to be nearly as ineffectual as the Momoh-led APC government in repelling the RUF. More and more of the country fell to RUF fighters, and by 1995 they held much of the diamond-rich Eastern Province and were at the edge of Freetown. In response, the NPRC hired several hundred mercenaries from the private firm Executive Outcomes. Within a month they had driven RUF fighters back to enclaves along Sierra Leone’s borders. During this time corruption had erupted within senior NPRC members. On July 5, Strasser dismissed his childhood friend Musa as deputy and appointed Bio to succeed him. Some senior NPRC members, including Bio, Nyuma and Mondeh, were unhappy with Strasser's handling of the peace process. In January 1996, after nearly four years in power, Strasser was ousted in a coup by fellow NPRC members led by his deputy Bio. Bio reinstated the Constitution and called for general elections. In the second round of presidential elections in early 1996, Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of the Sierra Leone People's party (SLPP) defeated John Karefa-Smart of the United National People's Party (UNPP). Bio fulfilled promises of a return to civilian rule, and handed power to Kabbah. Kabbah's SLPP party also won majority of the seats in Parliament. Executive Outcomes logo. ... Deputy may mean: A member of a Chamber of Deputies, National Assembly, etc. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Deputy may mean: A member of a Chamber of Deputies, National Assembly, etc. ... Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (born February 16, 1932) is the President of Sierra Leone (1996–1997, 1998–present). ... John Albert Musselman Karefa-Smart is a politician from Sierra Leone and current leader of the United National Peoples Party. ... The United National Peoples Party is a political party in Sierra Leone. ...


In 1996, Major General Johnny Paul Koroma was allegedly involved in an attempt to overthrow the government of President Kabbah. He was arrested, tried, convicted, and imprisoned at Freetown's Pademba Road Prison. But some top rank Army officers were unhappy with this decision, and on May 25, 1997, a group of soldiers who called themselves the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) overthrew him. The AFRC released Koroma from prison and installed him as their chairman and Head of State of the country. Koroma suspended the constitution, banned demonstrations, shut down all private radio stations and invited the RUF to join his government. After 10 months in office, the junta was ousted by the Nigeria-led ECOMOG forces, and the democratically elected government of President Kabbah was reinstated in March 1998. Hundreds of civilians who had been accused of helping the AFRC government were illegally detained. Courts-martial were held for soldiers accused of assisting the AFRC government. 24 of these were found guilty and were executed without appeal in October 1998. On January 6, 1999, AFRC made another unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the government, causing many deaths and much destruction of property in and around Freetown. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Johnny Paul Koroma (1960 - June 1, 2003) was the head of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council of Sierra Leone from May 1997 to February 1998. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) was the former military of Sierra Leone that merged into the rebel Revolutionary United Front in the late 1990s. ... For other uses, see Demonstration. ... ECOMOG is a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


In October, the United Nations agreed to send peacekeepers to help restore order and disarm the rebels. The first of the 6,000-member force began arriving in December, and the UN Security Council voted in February 2000 to increase the force to 11,000, and later to 13,000. But in May, when nearly all Nigerian forces had left and UN forces were trying to disarm the RUF in eastern Sierra Leone, Sankoh's forces clashed with the UN troops, and some 500 peacekeepers were taken hostage as the peace accord effectively collapsed. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Peacekeeper (or PeaceKeeper, Peace Keeper or Peace-Keeper) has many meanings: // A peacekeeper can be a person involved in peacekeeping. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in February, 2000. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ...


Geography and climate

Satellite image of Sierra Leone, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Satellite image of Sierra Leone, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
The road from Kenema to Kailahun.
The road from Kenema to Kailahun.

Sierra Leone is located on the west coast of Africa, north of the equator. With a land area of 71,740 square kilometers (27,699 square miles). Sierra Leone is bordered by Guinea to the north and northeast, Liberia to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia Geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W Map references: Africa Area: total: 71,740 km² land: 71,620 km² water: 120 km² Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina Land boundaries: total: 958 km border countries: Guinea... Image File history File links Sierra_Leone_sat. ... Image File history File links Sierra_Leone_sat. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Satellite image of Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library. ... Kenema is a city in eastern Sierra Leone. ... Kailahun is a district that lies in the east of Sierra Leone, bordering Liberia. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


There are a wide variety of ecological and agricultural zones to which people have adapted. Starting in the west, Sierra Leone has some 400 kilometres (250 miles) of coastline, giving it both bountiful marine resources and attractive tourist potential. This is followed by low-lying mangrove swamps, rain-forested plains and farmland, and finally a mountainous plateau in the east, where Mount Bintumani rises to 1,948 meters (6,390 ft). The climate is tropical, with two seasons determining the agricultural cycle: the rainy season from May to November, followed by the dry season from December to May, which includes harmattan, when cool, dry winds blow in off the Sahara Desert. The national capital Freetown sits on a coastal peninsula, situated next to the Sierra Leone Harbor, the world's third largest natural harbour. This prime location historically made Sierra Leone the centre of trade and colonial administration in the region. Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... A coastal image featured on a United States postal stamp. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... The wet season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Harmattan is a dry and dusty wind blowing northeast and west off the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea between November and March (winter). ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ...


Government and politics

Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. The current system of government in Sierra Leone, established under the 1991 Constitution, is modeled on the following structure of government: the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...


Within the confines of the 1991 Constitution, supreme legislative powers are vested in Parliament, which is the law making body of the nation. Supreme executive authority rests in the president and members of his cabinet and judicial power with the judiciary of which the Chief Justice is head. The unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone is the countrys legislative body. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme...


The president is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces and the Sierra Leone Police. The president appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers (including the vice president), which must be approved by the Parliament. The president is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two five-year terms. The State House located in the capital city of Freetown serves as the official resident of the president. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Military branches:Army (RSLAF) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,228,664 (2003 est. ... This article is about the political process. ... A state house is the meeting place, in a U.S. state capital, of the state legislature. ...


To be elected president, a candidate must gain at least 55% of the vote. If no candidate gets 55%, there is to be a second-round runoff between the top two candidates with the most votes in the first round. Presidential candidates must be Sierra Leonean citizens by birth; must be at least 40 years old; must be able to speak and read English; must not have a criminal record; and must be a member of a political party. The current president is Ernest Bai Koroma, who was sworn in on September 17, 2007, shortly after being declared the winner of a tense run-off election.[20] An example of runoff voting. ... This article is about the crime term. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Ernest Bai Koroma (born 2 October 1953 in Makeni, Bombali District, Northern Sierra Leone) is a politician in Sierra Leone. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The Parliament of Sierra Leone is unicameral, with 124 seats. Each of the country's 14 districts is represented in parliament. 112 members are elected concurrently with the presidential elections; the other 12 seats are filled by Paramount chief from each of the country's 12 administrative districts. All members serve five-year terms. Candidates must be a Sierra Leonean citizens; be at least 21 years old; be a member of a political party; and be able to speak and read English. The most recent parliamentary elections were held on August 11, 2007. The All People's Congress (APC), won 59 of 112 parliamentary seats; the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) won 43; and the People's Movement for Democratic Change (PMDC) won 10. The unicameral Parliament of Sierra Leone is the countrys legislative body. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal) chief or political leader in a region or country typically administered politically with a chief-based system. ... Sierra Leone is divided into 12 districts, the secondary administative division of government (after provinces). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The All Peoples Congress is a political party in Sierra Leone. ... SLPP symbol, the palm-tree The Sierra Leone Peoples Party is the ruling political party in Sierra Leone. ... The Peoples Movement for Democratic Change (PMDC) is a newly formed political party in Sierra Leone. ...


The judicial power of Sierra Leone is vested in the judiciary, headed by the Chief Justice and comprising the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal and the High Court. These constitute the Superior Court of Jurisdiction. The inferior courts comprise the Magistrates courts and the Local courts. The Magistrates Courts exist in each district. Local courts administer customary law. The president appoints and parliament approves justices for the three courts. The current Chief Justice is Ade Renner Thomas. He was appointed to the position by former president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... In law, custom, or customary law consists of established patterns of behaviour that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ... Ade Renner Thomas is the current Chief Justice of Sierra Leone. ... Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (born February 16, 1932) is the President of Sierra Leone (1996–1997, 1998–present). ...


Administrative districts

The 14 districts of Sierra Leone.
The 14 districts of Sierra Leone.

The Republic of Sierra Leone is composed of 3 provinces and one area called the Western Area; the provinces are further divided into 12 districts. The Western Area is also divided into 2 districts. Sierra Leone is divided into four provinces - Eastern Province Northern Province Southern Province Western Area - including Freetown the capital Categories: Sierra Leone | Lists of subnational entities ... Sierra Leone is divided into 12 districts, the secondary administative division of government (after provinces). ...

District Capital Area km² Province Population

(2004 census)

Bombali District Makeni 7,895 Northern Province 408,390
Koinadugu District Kabala 12,121 265,765
Tonkolili District Magburaka 7,003 347,197
Port Loko District Port Loko 5,719 455,746
Kambia District Kambia 3,108 270,460
Kenema District Kenema 6,053 Eastern Province 497,948
Kono District Koidu Town 5,641 355,401
Kailahun District Kailahun 3,859 358,190
Bo District Bo 7,003 Southern Province 463,668
Bonthe District Bonthe 3,468 139,687
Moyamba District Moyamba 6,902 260,910
Pujehun District Pujehun 4,105 228,392

Figures are taken from Sierra Leone Encyclopedia Bombali District is one of the five Districts that make up the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Makeni Makeni is a city located in Bombali District in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Northern Province is one of the four provinces of Sierra Leone. ... Location of Koinadugu District in Sierra Leone The Koinadugu District is one of the 14 Districts of Sierra Leone. ... Kabala is a town in northern Sierra Leone, mostly inhabited by Koranke and Limba people. ... Location of Tonkolili District in Sierra Leone Tonkolili District is a district in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Magburaka is a town in the Northern Province, Sierra Leone. ... Location of Port Loko District in Sierra Leone Port Loko District is one of the 14 Districts of Sierra Leone. ... Port Loko is the capital and largest city of Port Loko District, in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Location of Kambia District in Sierra Leone Kambia District is a district in the Northern Province. ... Kambia is the capital and largest city of Kambia District, in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Location of Kenema District in Sierra Leone Kenema District is a district in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Kenema is a city in eastern Sierra Leone. ... Eastern Province is one of the four provinces of Sierra Leone. ... Location of Kono District in Sierra Leone Kono District is a district in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Koidu-Sefadu is the second largest city in Sierra Leone, lying in the east of the nation. ... Location of Kailahun District in Sierra Leone Kailahun District is a district in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Kailahun is a district that lies in the east of Sierra Leone, bordering Liberia. ... // Bo District is a district in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Bo, Sierra Leone Satelite view of Bo (Landsat image viewed using NASA World Wind software) Bo, is the second largest city in Sierra Leone, with an estimated population of 472,919. ... The Southern Province is one of four provinces of Sierra Leone. ... // Bonthe District lies in the south of Sierra Leone. ... Bonthe is a port town on the Sherbro Island, Sierra Leone. ... Location of Moyamba District in Sierra Leone Moyamba District lies in the south of Sierra Leone. ... Location of Moyamba District in Sierra Leone Moyamba District lies in the south of Sierra Leone. ... Location of Pujehun District in Sierra Leone Pujehun District lies in the south of Sierra Leone. ... Pujehun is the capital and second largest city of Pujehun District in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. ...

Districts Capital Area km² Region Population
Western Area Urban District Freetown 557 km² Western Area 1,230,022
Western Area Rural District Waterloo 267 km² Western Area 279,602

The Western Area comprises Freetown, the nation's capital, and its surrounding countryside. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... The Western Area is one of four principal divisions of Sierra Leone. ... Location of Western Area Rural District in Sierra Leone The Western Area Rural District is one of the 14 Districts of Sierra Leone. ... Waterloo is a city in the Western Area and a suburb of Freetown, the capital city of Sierra Leone. ... The Western Area is one of four principal divisions of Sierra Leone. ... The Western Area is one of four principal divisions of Sierra Leone. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ...


Sierra Leone major cities

Sierra Leone's cities with a population over 100,000.

City Population
Freetown 1,070,200 [1]
Bo 174,354 [2]
Kenema 143,137 [[3]]
Koidu Town 111,800 [4]
Makeni 105,900 [5]
Magburaka 103,482 [6]
  • The populations quoted above for the six largest town are estimates from the sources cited. Different sources give different estimates.

For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... Bo, Sierra Leone Satelite view of Bo (Landsat image viewed using NASA World Wind software) Bo, is the second largest city in Sierra Leone, with an estimated population of 472,919. ... Kenema is a city in eastern Sierra Leone. ... Koidu-Sefadu is the second largest city in Sierra Leone, lying in the east of the nation. ... Makeni Makeni is a city located in Bombali District in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. ... Magburaka is a town in the Northern Province, Sierra Leone. ...

Foreign relations

Sierra Leone has maintained cordial relations with the West, in particular with the former colonizer United Kingdom. It also maintains diplomatic relations with China, Libya, Iran, United States and Cuba. Former President Siaka Stevens' government had sought closer relations with other West African countries under the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The present government is continuing this effort. The West is a generic term for western regions for many countries and regions: The Western United States Western Australia Western Canada Canada West The term can also mean: The West Australian, a newspaper The Western world, or Western culture or civilization The West: the phenomenon of westernism, the book... Siaka Probyn Stevens (August 24, 1905–May 29, 1988) was the President of Sierra Leone from 1971 to 1985. ... West African refers to: West Africa An airline: West African Airlines [1] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Headquarters Abuja, Nigeria Largest city Lagos, Nigeria Official languages French, English, Portuguese Membership 15 Leaders  -  President Tandja Mamadou Establishment  -  Treaty of Lagos May 28, 1975  Area  -  Total 5,112,903 km² (7th) 1,5,352,86 sq mi  Population  -  2006 estimate 251,646,263 (4th)  -  Density 115. ...


Sierra Leone is a member of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, the Commonwealth, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Development Bank (AFDB), the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... The African Development Bank (ADB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of States dollar|$]]47. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


Sierra Leone, along with Liberia, and Guinea formed the Mano River Union (MRU). This is primarily designed to implement development projects and promote regional economic integration between the three countries. The Mano River Union (MRU) is a society established in 1973 between Liberia and Sierra Leone. ...


Sierra Leone is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US military (as covered under Article 98). The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ...


The government maintains 16 embassies and high commissioners across the world including in Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, People's Republic of China, Iran, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia, United Nations, and the United States.[21] A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... The Republic of The Gambia is a country in West Africa. ...


Economy

A rice farmer in Sierra Leone.
A rice farmer in Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone is emerging from a protracted civil war and is showing signs of a successful transition. Investor and consumer confidence continue to rise, adding impetus to the country’s economic recovery. There is greater freedom of movement and the successful re-habitation and resettlement of residential areas. In 2001, Sierra Leone attracted US$4 million in foreign direct investment. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... An investor is any party that makes an investment. ... The Index of Consumer Confidence is issued periodically by The Conference Board, an independent economic research organization. ... This article is about economics. ...


Rich in minerals, Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. In the 1970s and early 1980s, economic growth rate slowed because of a decline in the mining sector and increasing corruption among government officials. By the 1990s economic activity was declining and economic infrastructure had become seriously degraded. Over the next decade much of the formal economy was destroyed in the country’s civil war. Since the end of hostilities in January 2002, massive infusions of outside assistance have helped Sierra Leone begin to recover. Much of the recovery will depend on the success of the government's efforts to limit corruption by officials, which many feel was the chief cause for the civil war. A key indicator of success will be the effectiveness of government management of its diamond sector. Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...


Mineral exports remain the main foreign currency earner. Sierra Leone is a major producer of gem-quality diamonds. Though rich in diamonds, it has historically struggled to manage their exploitation and export. Annual production estimates range between $250-300 million. Some of that is smuggled, where it is possibly used for money laundering or financing illicit activities. But formal exports have dramatically improved since the civil war. Efforts to improve the management of exports have had some success. In October 2000, a UN-approved certification system for exporting diamonds from the country was put in place and led to a dramatic increase in legal exports. In 2001, the government created a mining community development fund, which returns a portion of diamond export taxes to diamond mining communities. The fund was created to raise local communities' stake in the legal diamond trade. // A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Laundering can refer to: Money laundering, disguising the origin of illegally gained wealth Clothes laundering, washing clothes or other textilles. ... October 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events October 1 - 2 - Nine Israeli-Arabs are killed by Israeli security forces after a riot/violent demonstration of solidarity with Palestinians under military rule in the West Bank and Gaza. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Sierra Leone has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile, a titanium ore used as paint pigment and welding rod coatings. Sierra Rutile Limited, owned by a consortium of United States and European investors, began commercial mining operations near the city of Bonthe, in the Southern Province, in early 1979. It was then the largest non-petroleum US investment in West Africa. The export of 88,000 tons realized $75 million in export earnings in 1990. In 1990, the company and the government made a new agreement on the terms of the company's concession in Sierra Leone. Rutile and bauxite mining operations were suspended when rebels invaded the mining sites in 1995, but exports resumed in 2005. Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Bonthe is a port town on the Sherbro Island, Sierra Leone. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article is about the ore. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


About two-thirds of the population engages in subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 52.5% of national income. The government is trying to increase food and cash crop production and upgrade small farmer skills. The government works with several foreign donors to operate integrated rural development and agricultural projects. Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ...


Despite its successes and development, the Sierra Leone economy still faces significant challenges. There is high unemployment, particularly among the youth and ex-combatants. Authorities have been slow to implement reforms in the civil service, and the pace of the privatisation programme is also slacking and donors have urged its advancement. CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ...


Currency

Sierra Leone’s currency is the Leone. The central bank of the country is the Bank of Sierra Leone which is located in the capital, Freetown. The bank is run by the bank Governor, Dr. Samura Kamara, and directors. The bank is a 100% state-owned corporate body and its objectives include: The leone is the currency of Sierra Leone, a country on the West African coast. ... Prior to the establishment of the Bank of Sierra Leone,the West Africa currencey Board was responsible for the issue of currency in Sierra Leone. ...

  • promotion of monetary stability and sound financial structure
  • maintenance of the internal and external values of the Leone
  • promotion of credit and exchange conditions
  • issuance and distribution of notes and currency in the country
  • conducive to balanced economy growth
  • formulation and implementation of monetary policy
  • banker and advisor to the Government in financial and economic matters
  • management of domestic and foreign debt
  • acting as custodian of the country’s reserve approved foreign exchange
  • acting as banker to the Commercial Banks
  • supervision and regulation of activities of commercial banks and other financial institutions
  • administration of the operations of structural adjustment programmes where the bank has specific responsibilities
  • diamond certification

Sierra Leone operates a floating exchange rate system, and foreign currencies can be exchanged at any of the commercial banks, recognised foreign exchange bureaux and most hotels. Look up bureau in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ...


Credit card use is limited in Sierra Leone, though they may be used at some hotels and restaurants. Visitors should check in advance with local managements. Sierra Leone does not have internationally linked automated teller machine (ATM) machines. This article is about the payment system. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... Cash machine redirects here. ...


Demographics

The 2007 United Nation estimate of Sierra Leone's population is at 5.9 million. [7] Freetown, with an estimated population of 1,070,200, is the capital, largest city and the hub of the economy, commercial, educational and cultural centre of the country. Bo is the second city with a population of 269,000.[citation needed] Other cities with a population of over 100,000 are Kenema, Koidu Town and Makeni and Magburaka. This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... For the North American comedy troupe, see The Second City. ...


Although English is the official language spoken at schools and government administration, Krio (language derived from English and several African languages and is native to the Sierra Leone Krio people) is the lingua franca spoken throughout the country. The Krio language unites all the different ethnic groups, especially in their trade and interaction with each other. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... See also the Keriu language and Krio Dayak language of Indonesia. ... Krio is a diverse, mainly Christian culture founded by freed African slaves from Britain, Northern America and Jamaica who settled in Freetown in the late 18th century. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...

A Mende woman in the village of Njama in Kailahun District in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone.
A Mende woman in the village of Njama in Kailahun District in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone.

The population of Sierra Leone is comprised of 15 ethnic groups, each with its own language and costume. The two largest are the Mende and Temne, each comprises about 30% of the population. The Mende predominate in the South and Eastern Province; the Temne predominate in the Northern Province. The third largest are the Limba, represent about 9.2%. like their allies the Temne, the Limba live mostly in the Northern Province. The fourth largest are the Kono, they make up about 8.3%, and live mostly in the Eastern Province, particularly in the diamond-rich Kono District. The fifth largest are the Mandingo, they make up about 6% and they predominate in Kabala, the capital and largest city of Koinadugu District in the Northern Province. The Mandingo population is also largely concentrated in the Kono District in the Eastern province. The Krio (descendants of freed slaves from the West Indies, the United States, and Britain which landed in Freetown between 1787 and about 1885) make up 3% of the population and they live mostly in the capital city of Freetown and its surrounding suburbs. Other minority ethnic groups are the Sherbro, Kissi, Kuranko, Loko, Fula, Susu, Yalunka, Vai and the Sierra Leonean-Lebanese (descendants of Lebanese settlers who settled in Sierra Leone during the late 19th century). The Mende are an ethnic group living in Sierra Leone, primarily in the Southern Province. ... Location of Kailahun District in Sierra Leone Kailahun District is a district in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. ... The East Province (French Province de lEst) occupies the southeastern portion of the Republic of Cameroon. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The Mende are an ethnic group living in Sierra Leone, primarily in the Southern Province. ... The Temne people are the largest ethnic group in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone, and they make up about 29. ... The Limba people are one of the indigenous tribes, or ethnic groups, in the Republic of Sierra Leone in West Africa. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Kono are an ethnic group living in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, particularly in the diamond-rich Kono District. ... This article is about the mineral. ... The Mandinka (also known as Mandingo) are a Mande people of West Africa, all descend physically or culturally from the ancient Mali Empire. ... Kabala is a town in northern Sierra Leone, mostly inhabited by Koranke and Limba people. ... Location of Koinadugu District in Sierra Leone The Koinadugu District is one of the 14 Districts of Sierra Leone. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Kuranko, also known as the Koranko, are an ethnic group that immigrated into Sierra Leone from Guinea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... The Susu (Soso in their language; Soussou in French) are major ethnic group of Guinea (West Africa), also present in northern Sierra Leone and into Guinea Bissau. ... The Yalunka are a Malinke people who were one of the original inhabitants of the Futa Jallon (or Fouta Djalon), a mountainous region in Guinea, West Africa. ... The Vai are an ethnic group living in Liberia and Sierra Leone. ... Sierra Leonean-Lebanese is an ethnic group in Sierra Leone who are of Lebanese descent or mixed with Lebanese and indigenous Sierra Leonean descents. ... Of lesser importance than religious belonging, ethnic background is still a factor in Lebanon. ... Settlers are people who have travelled of their own choice, from the land of their birth to live in new lands or colonies. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the past, Sierra Leoneans were noted for their educational achievements, trading activity, entrepreneurial skills, and arts and crafts work, particularly wood carving. Many are part of larger ethnic networks extending into several countries, which link West African states in the area. But the level of education and infrastructure has declined sharply over the last 30 years.[22] This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... Carved wooden cranes Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the ornamentation of a wooden object. ...


List of Sierra Leoneans


Education

Sierra Leone has an education system with six years of primary school (Class 1-6), and six years of secondary school (Form 1-6); secondary schools are divided into junior secondary school (Form 1-3) and senior secondary school (Form 4-6). Students at primary schools are usually 6 to 12 years old, and in secondary schools 13 to 18. Primary education is free and compulsory in government-sponsored public schools. A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...


The country's two main Universities are the Fourah Bay College, the oldest university in West Africa, founded in 1827, and Njala University in Njala, Moyamba District and Bo, founded in 1963. Teacher training colleges and religious seminaries are found in many parts of the country. Fourah Bay College (founded in 1827 as the first western-style university in West Africa) is a university in Fourah Bay, Freetown, Sierra Leone under the banner of the University of Sierra Leone (from 1966 to 2005) and formerly affiliated with Durham University (from 1876 - 1967). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Njala University college (NUC) is a university in the cities of Njala and Bo, Sierra Leone. ... Njala means several things: Njáls saga, a well-known Icelandic saga, Njala, Sierra Leone, a city in Sierra Leone Category: ... Location of Moyamba District in Sierra Leone Moyamba District lies in the south of Sierra Leone. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


Notable schools

Notable Secondary Schools in Sierra Leone include: CMS / Sierra Leone Grammar School, founded ca. 1845 in Murray Town, Freetown; Annie Walsh Memorialk Secondary School, ca. 1848, Kissy Road, Freetown; St. Edwards Secondary School, ca. 1866, Kingtom, Freetown; Prince of Wales Secondary School, ca. 1874, Kingtom, Freetown; Methodist Boys High School, ca. 1874, Kissy, Freetown; Methodist Girls High School, ca. 1880, Kissy, Freetown; Harford School for Girls, ca. 1897, Moyamba Town, Moyamba District; Albert Academy ca. 1904, Berry Street, Freetown; Bo Government Secondary School, ca. 1906, Bo Town, Bo District; West African Collegiate School, ca. 1911, Wilkinson Road, Freetown; Government Model School ca. 1925, Circular Road, Freetown; Magburaka Government Secondary School, ca. 1950, Magburaka, Tonkolili District; Freetown Secondary School for Girls, ca. 1955, Brookfields, Freetown; Kenema Government Secondary School, ca. 1955, Kenema Town, Kenema District; St. Francis Secondary School, ca. 1949, Makeni Town, Bombali District; Benevolent Islamic Secondary School, ca. 1979, Makeni Town, Bombali District; St. Joseph Secondary School, ca. 1954, Makeni Town, Bombali District.


Religion

Further information: Islam in Sierra Leone

There is no clear information about the religious make up of the country. The CIA World Factbook estimates Muslim 60%, Christian 10%, indigenous religions 30%;[8] the US Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor estimates 60 percent Muslim, 30 percent Christian, and 10 percent practitioners of traditional indigenous religions.[9]. This same report states that up to 20 percent of the population practise a mixture of Islam and traditional indigenous religions or Christianity and traditional indigenous religions, and that in the past most Muslims lived in the north and Christians in the south; however this is no longer the case as the civil war led to movement of the population. One BBC report states that the country is almost evenly split between Christianity and Islam.[10] Statistics for Islam in Sierra Leone estimate a Muslim population of 3,610,585, representing around 60 percent of the countrys total population. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The Sierra Leone constitution provides freedom of religion and the government generally protects this right, and does not tolerate its abuse. Unlike many other African countries, the religious and ethnic mix of Sierra Leone rarely cause any tensions. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


Media

Main article: Media in Sierra Leone

The Sierra Leone constitution guarantees freedom of speech and freedom of the press; However, the government at times restricts these rights in practice. Dozens of newspapers are published in the country, most of them are privately run and are often critical of the government. Under legislation enacted in 1980, all newspapers must register with the Ministry of Information and pay a sizable registration fee. This article concerns the media in and of Sierra Leone. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina. ...


All major cities in the country run their own radio stations. Inaugurated in 1963, The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS) is the state-run national station in charge of television and radio broadcasting in the country. The UN Mission in Sierra Leone (Unomsil) operates radio services, broadcasting news of UN activities and human rights information, as well as music and news. FM relays of BBC World Service and Radio France Internationale are aired in major cities. Radio Sierra Leone, the oldest broadcasting service in English-speaking West Africa, broadcasts mainly in English, with regular news and discussion programs on several topics. A radio station is a site configured for broadcasting sound. ... Radio broadcasting can be done via cable FM, local wire networks, satellite and the Internet. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ... Radio France Internationale logo Radio France Internationale (RFI) was created in 1975 as part of Radio France by the Government of France to serve as a broadcast vehicle for French Equatorial Africa. ...


Transportation

There are a number of systems of transport in Sierra Leone, which has a road, air and water infrastructure, including a network of highways and several airports. A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ...


Air

There are ten Regional airports in Sierra Leone, and two international airports. The Lungi International Airport located in the coastal town of Lungi in the northern province of Sierra Leone and is the primary airport for domestic and international travel to or from Sierra Leone. Passengers cross the river to Aberdeen Heliports in Freetown by hovercraft, ferry or a helicopter. Helicopters are also available from the airport to other major cities in the country. The other international airport is the newly constructed Sherbro International Airport located in coastal town of Sherbro Island in the Southern province of Sierra Leone. The airport has paved runways longer than 3,047m. The other airports have unpaved runways, and seven have runways 914 to 1,523 metres long; the remaining two have shorter runways. A regional airport is an airport serving traffic within a relatively small geographical area. ... ... Lungi International Airport (IATA: FNA, ICAO: GFLL) also known as Freetown-Lungi International Airport is an airport located in Lungi, Sierra Leone. ... A coastal image featured on a United States postal stamp. ... Lungi is a city in Port Loko District, in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. ... For the band, see Hovercraft (band). ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Sherbro Island, officially Bonthe Island, lies in the Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Sierra Leone, west of Turners Peninsula. ... This article is about the American English usage of pavement as the durable surfacing of roads and walkways. ... A runway is a strip of land on an airport, on which aircraft can take off and land. ...


Water

Sierra Leone has the third largest natural harbour in the world, where shipping from all over Earth berth at the famous Queen Elizabeth II Quay in Government Wharf in central Freetown. There are 800 km of waterways in Sierra Leone, of which 600 km are navigable year-round. Major port cities are Bonthe, Freetown, Sherbro Island and Pepel. A natural harbor is a landform where a body of water forms a harbor. ... Bonthe is a port town on the Sherbro Island, Sierra Leone. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... Sherbro Island, officially Bonthe Island, lies in the Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Sierra Leone, west of Turners Peninsula. ... Pepel town is located on Pepel Island in western Sierra Leone. ...


Highways

There are 11,700 kilometres of highways in Sierra Leone, of which 936 km are paved. Sierra Leone highways are linked to Conakry, Guinea, and Monrovia, Liberia. A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ... Conakry or Konakry (Malinké: Kɔnakiri) is the capital and largest city of Guinea. ... For alternate meanings, see Monrovia (disambiguation). ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in Sierra Leone

Sports are an important part of Sierra Leonean society and Football is the most played sport in the country. ...

Football

Football (soccer) is by far the most popular sport in Sierra Leone. The national football team, popularly known as the Leone Stars, represents the country in international competitions. It has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup but participated in the 1994 and 1996 African Cup of Nations. The country's national television network, The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS) broadcasts the live match, along with several radio stations throughout the country. Football is by far the most popular sport in Sierra Leone. ... Soccer redirects here. ... First international Nigeria 2 - 0 Sierra Leone (Lagos, Nigeria; 8 October 1949) Biggest win Sierra Leone 5 - 1 Niger (Freetown, Sierra Leone; March 7, 1976) Sierra Leone 5 - 1 Niger (Freetown, Sierra Leone; June 3, 1995) Sierra Leone 4 - 0 São Tomé and Príncipe (Freetown, Sierra Leone; April... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football (soccer) competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA... The 1994 African Cup of Nations was the 19th edition of the African Cup of Nations, the soccer championship of Africa (CAF). ... The 1996 African Cup of Nations was the 20th edition of the African Cup of Nations, the soccer championship of Africa (CAF). ...


The Sierra Leone National Premier League is the top football league, controlled by the Sierra Leone Football Association. The two biggest and most successful football clubs are East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool, but Kallon F.C. is closing in on them. Kallon F.C. won the Premier League and the Sierra Leonean FA Cup in 2006, and eliminated 2006 Nigerian Premier League Champions Ocean Boys FC in the 2007 CAF Champions League first qualifying round, but later lost to ASEC Mimosas of Ivory Coast in the second qualifying round for the group stage. Sierra Leone National Premier League is the top football league in Sierra Leone. ... The Sierra Leone Football Association (SLAFA) is the governing body of football in Sierra Leone. ... East End Lions is a Sierra Leonean professional football club based in the capital Freetown. ... Mighty Blackpool is a Sierra Leonean football (soccer) club from the the capital Freetown, Sierra Leone. ... Kallon F.C., formerly Real Republicans, is a Sierra Leonean football club from the capital Freetown, Sierra Leone. ... Sierra Leonean FA Cup is the national knockout cup competition in Sierra Leone. ... The Nigerian Premier League (NPL) is the highest level of domestic Nigerian soccer. ... Ocean Boys Football Club is a Nigerian football club based in Yenagoa. ... The CAF Champions League is an annual international club football competition run by the Confederation of African Football (CAF). ... The Académie Sportive des Employés de Commerce (ASEC) Mimosas is an Ivorian football club. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ...


The Sierra Leone U-17 football team, nicknamed the Sierra Stars, finished as runner-up at the 2003 African U-17 Championship in Swaziland, but came in last place in their group at the 2003 FIFA U-17 World Championship in Finland. EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... The FIFA U-17 World Championship 2003 was held in the cities of Helsinki, Tampere, Lahti, and Turku in Finland between 13 August and 30 August 2003. ...


Many Sierra Leoneans follow the major European football leagues, particularly the English Premier League, Italian Serie A, and Spain La Liga. Cinema are often overcrowed as fans gather to watch the likes of Manchester United, Arsenal, Barcelona, AC Milan, Real Madrid, Chelsea, Liverpool, and Inter Milan matches being shown live on television. Many Sierra Leoneans follow the UEFA Champions League more than the CAF Champions League. It is common to find local children nicknamed Zinedine Zidane, Ronaldo, Thierry Henry, Francesco Totti, Ronaldinho, Steven Gerrard, Patrick Vieira, Lionel Messi and Filippo Inzaghi.[citation needed] For other sports leagues which may be referred to by this name, see List of professional sports leagues. ... This article is about the Italian football league. ... (Professional Football League), commonly known as La Liga and also known as Primera División, is the professional football league in Spain. ... Manchester Uniteds emblem Manchester United F.C. (often abbreviated to Man United or just Man U, pronounced man-yoo) is an English football club based at Old Trafford in Greater Manchester. ... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in Holloway, north London. ... Fútbol Club Barcelona, known familiarly as Barça (pronounced ), is a Spanish sports club based in Barcelona. ... AC Milan is an Italian football club. ... Real Madrid Club de Fútbol is a Spanish sports club most widely known for its professional football team based in Madrid. ... Chelsea Football Club (also known as The Blues or previously The Pensioners) are an English professional football club based in west London. ... Liverpool Football Club are an English professional football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside, who play in the Premier League; they are historically the most successful club in the history of English football, having won more trophies than any other English club. ... Football Club Internazionale Milano (commonly, but incorrectly, known as Inter Milan) is an Italian football club, playing in the Serie A (first division). ... European Cup redirects here. ... The CAF Champions League is an annual international club football competition run by the Confederation of African Football (CAF). ... Zidane redirects here. ... Ronaldo Luis Nazário de Lima (born September 22, 1976), is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Brazil and the Italian Serie A club AC Milan. ... Thierry Daniel Henry, born 17 August 1977 in Paris, France, is a French football player. ... Francesco Totti, Cavaliere Ufficiale OMRI,[1][2] (born 27 September 1976 in Rome) is an Italian World Cup-winning footballer. ... For other persons named Ronaldinho, see Ronaldinho (disambiguation). ... Steven George Gerrard MBE (IPA: []) (born 30 May 1980, Whiston, Merseyside) is an English football player. ... Patrick Donalé Vieira (born June 23, 1976 in Dakar, Senegal)[1] is a French football midfielder who currently plays for Internazionale Milano. ... Lionel Andrés Messi (born 24 June 1987 in Rosario) is an Argentine international footballer who currently plays for FC Barcelona in the Primera División, and for the Argentine national team. ... Inzaghi redirects here. ...


Cricket

The Sierra Leone cricket team represents Sierra Leone in international cricket competitions, and is among the best in West Africa. It became an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council in 2002.[1] It made its international debut at the 2004 African Affiliates Championship, where it finished last of eight teams. But at the equivalent tournament in 2006, Division Three of the African region of the World Cricket League, it finished as runner-up to Mozambique, and just missed a promotion to Division Two. The Sierra Leone cricket team is the team that represents the country of Sierra Leone in international cricket matches. ... The Sierra Leone cricket team is the team that represents the country of Sierra Leone in international cricket matches. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... ICC logo The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the governing body for international Test match and One-day International cricket. ... Runner-up is a term used to denote a participant which finishes in second place in any of a variety of competitive endeavors, most notably sporting events and beauty pageants; in the latter instance, the term is applied to more than one of the highest-ranked non-winning contestants, the...


Basketball

The Sierra Leone national basketball team represents Sierra Leone in international men's basketball competitions and is controlled by the Sierra Leone Basketball Federation. The squad is mostly home-based, with a few foreign players. The Sierra Leone national basketball team represents Sierra Leone in international mens basketball competitions and is controlled by the Sierra Leone Basketball Federation. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Environment

Logging, mining, slash and burn, and deforestation for alternative land use - such as cattle grazing - have dramatically decreased forested land in Sierra Leone since the 1980s. Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ...


Until 2002, Sierra Leone lacked a forest management system due to a brutal civil war that caused tens of thousands of deaths. Deforestation rates have increased 7.3% since the end of the civil war. On paper, 55 protected areas covered 4.5% of Sierra Leone as of 2003. The country has 2,090 known species of higher plants, 147 mammals, 626 birds, 67 reptiles, 35 amphibians, and 99 fish species. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


In June 2005, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and Bird Life International agreed to support a conservation-sustainable development project in the Gola Forest in southeastern Sierra Leone, the most important surviving fragment of rain forest in Sierra Leone. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is Europes largest wildlife conservation charity. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ...


In literature and film

Two major Hollywood films have been produced that relate to Sierra Leone. Steven Spielberg’s film Amistad (1997, with Morgan Freeman, Sir Anthony Hopkins, Mathew McCounaghey) is about an 1839 mutiny aboard a slave ship travelling towards the Northeast Coast of America. But much of the plot revolves around the court-room drama that lead to the historic supreme court decision recognizing the captives rights to freedom. The heroic role of Sengbe Pieh (Cinque), who organized and led the revolt, was virtually marginalized. Edward Zwick’s film Blood Diamond (2006, Leonardo DiCaprio, Jennifer Connelly and Djimon Hounsou) is about conflict diamonds mined in Sierra Leone, Angola and Congo and sold in major diamond cutting centers – Antwerp, Tel Aviv and Mumbai – to finance (and prolong) armed conflicts in Africa. The film is centered in Sierra Leone and portrays many of the atrocities, including the practice of cutting off people's limbs to spread fear and insecurity in the country side and to gain control over the diamond, gold, bauxite and rutile mining areas. But the action is focused mostly on Danny Archer (Leonardo DiCaprio), a white mercenary from Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), who trades arms for diamonds with an RUF commander (Corporal Foday Sankoh), and Maddy Bowen (Jennifer Connelly), an American journalist covering the war and investigating the illegal diamond trade. The role of De Beers Group, which is the major player in the diamond trade, was bracketed out. It has been suggested that the company pressured the producers of the film to include a disclaimer saying the events are fictional and in the past - De Beers has denied this. This film and the Nollywood Video films (Nigerian Productions) on blood diamonds have established Sierra Leone as the blood diamond country in the minds of people all over the world. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... This article is about the film dramatization. ... Dawsons Creek director, see Morgan J. Freeman. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Joseph Cinqué. Portrait by Nathaniel Jocelyn, 1839 Sengbe Pieh (1815 – ca. ... Edward Zwick (born October 8, 1952 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American film director and film producer. ... Blood Diamond is an Academy Award-nominated 2006 adventure/drama/thriller film. ... http://www. ... Jennifer Lynn Connelly (born December 12, 1970) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress and former child model. ... Djimon Gaston Hounsou (born April 24, 1964) is a two-time Academy Award-nominated Beninois actor, dancer and fashion model. ... A conflict diamond (also called a blood diamond) is a diamond mined in a war zone and sold, usually clandestinely, in order to finance an insurgent or invading armys war efforts. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the ore. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Ruf is an automobile company located in Germany that bases its vehicle designs on Porsche sports cars, namely the 911 and the Boxster. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... The De Beers Group is a Johannesburg-based diamond mining and trading corporation. ... For the film, see Blood Diamond (film). ...


Another film relating to Sierra Leone entitled "The Language You Cry In", is a documentary detailing the multi-generational connection between an African American family on the coast of Georgia and a small Mende village in Sierra Leone. The film focuses on the Georgia woman's knowledge of an old funeral hymn in the Mende language. A trio of an anthropologist, an ethnomusicologist, and an African linguist worked with this woman to discover the African roots of the song. They found that the song originated in a small village in southern Sierra Leone. A trip is organized for the Georgia woman and her family to travel to this village and meet with the people of that community who may be her long-lost family in Africa. The film's main point is to show how one specific "Africanism" has survived through hundreds of years and thousands of miles.


In literature, Sierra Leone is the setting for Graham Greene's classic novel The Heart of the Matter, which deals with diamond smuggling during World War II. Since the rebel incursion in the early 1990s a number of books have written about the trade in diamonds or minerals for weapons. These include Hugh Paxton's horror/action novel; Amadou Kourouma's posthumously published book about roving rebel war soldiers, such the late Sam Bockarie, who fought in Liberia and Sierra Leone and was killed fighting in Côte d’Ivoire; and Ishmael Beah's book A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. Hugh Paxton's novel Homunculus[23] juxtaposes the realities of the war in Sierra Leone with a fantasy of the exploitation of the war for the trade in blood diamonds and for the testing, demonstration and sale by auction of bio-weapons to a select clientele of international arms dealers and mercenaries. Trial by Rebellion by retired Captain Francis Ken Josiah was recently published in United States. This article is about the writer. ... The Heart of the Matter is also a song by Don Henley, from the album The End of the Innocence. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up Côte dIvoire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government Embassy of Côte dIvoire in Japan government information and links News allAfrica - Côte dIvoirenews headline links Overviews BBC News - Country Profile: Ivory Coast CIA World Factbook - Cote dIvoire Library of Congress Country Study... Cover of Beahs book, A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier Ishmael Beah (b. ... The concept of a homunculus (Latin for little man, sometimes spelled homonculus, plural homunculi) is often used to illustrate the functioning of a system. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


Noteworthy Sierra Leone writersinclude Abioseh Nicol (The Truly Married Woman And Other Stories), Robert Wellesley Cole (Kossoh Town Boy), Syl Cheney-Coker (The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar), William Conton (Kissimi Kamara), Amadu Yullisa Maddy (No Past, No Present, No Future), Sheikh Gibril Kamara (The Spirit of Badenia) and Aminata Fornah (Ancestor's Stones).


Notes

  1. ^ a b Encarta Encyclopedia. "Sierra Leone". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  2. ^ The World Guide. "Sierra Leone Geography". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  3. ^ Kup (1961), p. 116
  4. ^ a b Classic Encyclopedia. "Sierra Leone". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  5. ^ Room (1995), p. 346-7
  6. ^ History World. "History of Sierra Leone". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  7. ^ Sillinger (2003), p. 104
  8. ^ Keen (2005), p. 268
  9. ^ Sierra Leone. The World Factbook. CIA (15 May 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  10. ^ The Special Court for Sierra Leone. "About the Special Court for Sierra Leone". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  11. ^ Human Development Reports. "Sierra Leone - The Human Development Index". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  12. ^ David Tam-Baryoh, Worldpress.org. "Corruption in Sierra Leone". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  13. ^ Reporters without Borders. "Media body curbs press freedom". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  14. ^ Refugees International. "HIV/AIDS: Sierra Leone’s Newest Crisis". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  15. ^ Countries and Their Cultures. "Culture of Sierra Leone". Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
  16. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Sierra Leone History". Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  17. ^ Encyclopedia of the Nations. "Sierra Leone - History". Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
  18. ^ Utting (1931), p. 33
  19. ^ Utting (1931), p. 8
  20. ^ BBC country profile
  21. ^ http://www.slhc-uk.org.uk/envoys.htm
  22. ^ "Sierra Leone (02/08)". "U.S. Department of State". Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  23. ^ first published in hardback ISBN 978-0230000490 by Macmillan UK in October 2006 and now available in paperback (March 2007), ISBN 978-0230007369

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... CIA redirects here. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Book references

Primary sources

  • Keen, David (2005). Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-883-X.
  • Kup, Alexander Peter (1961). A History of Sierra Leone, 1400-1787. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0786418141. 
  • Sillinger, Brett (2003). Sierra Leone: Current Issues and Background. New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 1590336623. 
  • Utting, Francis A (1931). The Story of Sierra Leone. Ayer Company Publishers. ISBN 0836967046. 

Secondary sources

  • Room, Adrian (1995). Placenames of the World. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 0786418141. 
  • Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Phoenix: Oryx Press. ISBN 1573560197. 

Further reading

  • Abraham, Arthur (1978). Mende Government and Politics under Colonial Rule. 
  • Abraham, Arthur (1978). Cultural Policy in Sierra Leone. UNESCO. 
  • Abraham, Arthur (1978). "Sengbe Pieh: A Neglected Hero?". Journal of the Historical Society of Sierra Leone II (2). 
  • Abraham, Arthur (c. 1976). Topics in Sierra Leone History: A Counter-Colonial Interpretation. Sierra Leone: Leone Publishers. 
  • Bah, M. Alpha (1998). Fulbe Migration in Sierra Leone: A Case History of Twentieth-Century Migration and Settlement Among the Kissi of Koindu. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 
  • Berger, Daniel (2003). In the Land of Magic Soldiers: A Story of White and Black in West Africa. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 
  • Blyden, Nemata Amelia. 'In Her Majesty' Service: West Indians in British Colonial Government, Sierra Leone, 1808-1880: Race, Class and Ethnicity in a British West African Colony. 
  • Clarke, J.I., Nelson, S.J.A. and Swindell, K. (1966). Sierra Leone in Maps. 
  • Cole, Bernadette (1995). Mass Media, Freedom and Democracy in Sierra Leone. 
  • Conteh-Morgan, Earl and Dixon-Fyle, Mac (1999). Sierra Leone at the End of the Twentieth Century: History, Politics and Society. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 
  • Cox-George, N. A. (1961). Finance and Development in West Africa: The Sierra Leone Experience. London: D. Dobson. 
  • Foray, Cyril P. (1977). Historical Dictionary of Sierra Leone. Metuchen and London: The Scarecrow Press. 
  • Forna, Aminatta (2002). The Devil that danced on the Water: A daughter’s memoir. 
  • Fyfe, Christopher (1962). A History of Sierra Leone. Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press. 
  • Fyle, Christopher (1964). Sierra Leone Inheritance. 
  • Fyfe, Christopher (1992). Africanus Horton, 1835-1883 : West African Scientist and Patriot. 
  • Gberie, Lansana, Smillie, Ian and Hazleton, Ralph (January 2000). The Heart of the Matter: Sierra Leone, Diamonds and Human Society. Partnership Africa Canada. 
  • Global Witness (June 2000). Conflict Diamonds, Possibilities for the Identification, Certification and Control of Diamonds. 
  • Hirsch; John L. (2000). Sierra Leone: Diamonds and the Struggle for Democracy. Lynne Rienner Pub. 
  • Jalloh, Alusine (1999). "African Entrepreneurship: Muslim Fula Merchants in Sierra Leone". Monographs in International Studies, Africa Series (71). Ohio University Center for International Studies. 
  • Jalloh, S. Balimo (1991). Sierra Leone. Länderbericht, Bergisch Gladbach. 
  • Jalloh, S. Balimo (February 2001). "Conflicts, Resources and Social Instability in Subsahara Africa – The Sierra Leone Case". Internationasles Afrikaforum (37): 166-180. 
  • Jalloh, S. Balimo (April 1995). "Subsahara Africa – Trade Expansion Through Countertrade". Internationales Afrikaforum: 365–374. 
  • Jones, Durosimi Eldred (1965). Othellos Countrymen. Oxford University Press. 
  • Jones, Durosimi Eldred and Eustace Palmer (1995). African Literature Today Africa World Press. 
  • Jones, Howard (1986). Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and its Impact on American Abolition, Law and Diplomacy. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Kabba, Muctaru, (Editor) (1988). Sierra Leonean Heroes, Fifty Great Men and Women Who Helped to Build Our Nation. 
  • Koroma, Abdul K. (1996). Sierra Leone – The Agony of a Nation. Freetown: Andromeda Publications. 
  • Kpundeh, Sahr John. Politics and Corruption in Africa: A Case Study of Sierra Leone. Lanham: University Press of America. 
  • Lewis, Damien (2005). Operation Certain Death - The Inside Story of the SAS'S Greatest Battle. Arrow Books. 
  • Nicol, Davidson, Regionalism and the New International Economic Order; UNITAR-CEESTEM-Club of Rome conference at the United Nations, Pergamon Press, 1981.
  • Opala, Joseph (1987). The Gullah: Rice, Slavery, and the Sierra Leone-American Connection. U.S. Information Service. 
  • William Reno (1995). Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Paul Richards (1996). Fighting for the Rain Forest – War Youth & Resources in Sierra Leone. London: James Currey Publishers. 
  • Sawyerr, Harry (1970). God, Ancestor or Creator? Aspects of Traditional Belief in Ghana, Nigeria & Sierra Leone. Harlow: Longmans. 
  • Turay, Harry (1980). 'Land Tenure Systems in Sierra Leone. Njala University College: unpublished project report. 
  • H.L. van der Laan (1965). The Sierra Leone Diamonds, An Economic Study covering the years 1952-1961. 
  • Wyse, Akintola J.G. and Deveneaux, Gustav H.K. (1993). The Sierra Leone-German connection, 1787-1987, An Overview. Freetown: The German Embassy. 
  • Wyse, Akintola J. G. (1990). H. C. Bankole-Bright and Politics in Colonial Sierra Leone, 1919-1958. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2001). The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Chapter Two: Anarchy and Mercenaries in Sierra Leone: The Powerless African State, pp. 19 - 72. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York; Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties, Chapter Twelve: Sierra Leone, pp. 183 - 196, Nova Science Publishers, 2001.

External links

Government and Diplomacy

Tourism and Travel

Economy and Business Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

News Media and Discussion

Other Resources


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sierra Leone News, on the Sierra Leone Web (86 words)
After more than seven years of reporting and publishing news on Sierra Leone, the news page of the Sierra Leone Web was discontinued as of 10 September 2003, due to a job conflict in Freetown.
The Sierra Leone Web has not been discontinued - only the news section.
New features are being added, such as the Laws of Sierra Leone Online and, from the beginning of January 2006, the "Photo of the Day" on the home (index) page.
Sierra Leone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1480 words)
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Much of Sierra Leone's coastline consists of mangrove swamps, with the exception of the peninsula on which the capital city Freetown is located.
Sierra Leone is the worst nation in the world for childbirth, having the highest Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), or risk of maternal death, of any country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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