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Encyclopedia > Siena
Comune di Siena
Coat of arms of Comune di Siena
Municipal coat of arms
Country Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Siena (SI)
Mayor Maurizio Cenni (since May 13, 2005)
Elevation 322 m (1,056 ft)
Area 118 km² (46 sq mi)
Population (as of December 25, 2004)
 - Total 54,498
 - Density 462/km² (1,197/sq mi)
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 43°20′N, 11°20′E
Gentilic Senesi
Dialing code 0577
Postal code 53100, 53010
Frazioni Costalpino, Isola d'Arbia, Taverne d'Arbia, San Miniato
Patron St. Ansanus
 - Day December 1
Website: www.comune.siena.it
Historic Centre of Siena*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Siena
State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 717
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1995  (19th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Siena (traditionally Sienna in English) is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena. Siena College is a nationally recognized independent Catholic Liberal Arts College situated on US 9 in the suburban community of Loudonville, New York, two miles (3. ... The Fiat Palio is Fiats world car, aimed at developing countries, although some models are sold in Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x730, 54 KB) Summary it: Stemma del Comune di Siena (Provincia di Siena) be: Сіена de: Siena el: Σιένα en: Siena eo: Sieno es: Siena fi: Siena fr: Sienne シエーナ nl: Siena no: Siena pl: Siena pt: Siena ru: Сиена Licensing File links The following... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Siena (Italian: Provincia di Siena) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Saint Ansanus ( SantAnsano) (d. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Siena (Italian: Provincia di Siena) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. ...


The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Contents

History

Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans (c. 900 BC to 400 BC) when it was inhabited by a tribe called the Saina. The Etruscans were an advanced people who changed the face of central Italy through their use of irrigation to reclaim previously unfarmable land, and their custom of building their settlements in well-defended hill-forts. Then, at the time of the Emperor Augustus, a Roman town called Saena Julia was founded in the site. The first document mentioning it dates from 70 AD. Some archaeologists assert it was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Saenones. For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Look up BC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 70. ... The Senones were a Gallic people of Gallia Celtica, who in the time of Julius Caesar inhabited the district which now includes the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Loiret and Yonne. ...


The Roman origin accounts for the town's emblem – a she-wolf suckling the infants Romulus and Remus. According to legend, Siena was founded by Senius, son of Remus, who was in turn the brother of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. Statues and other artwork depicting a she-wolf suckling the young twins Romulus and Remus can be seen all over the city of Siena. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name "Saina", the Roman family name of the "Saenii", or the Latin word "senex" ("old") or the derived form "seneo", "to be old". This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome in Roman mythology, were the supposed sons of the god Mars and the priestess Rhea Silvia. ... Romulus may refer to any of these articles: Romulus is a mythical founder of Rome, brother of Remus. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It was not sited near any major roads and therefore missed out on the resulting opportunities for trade. Its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the fourth century AD, and it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. Their occupation and the fact that the old Roman roads of Aurelia and the Cassia passed through areas exposed to Byzantine raids, caused the roads between the Lombards' northern possessions and Rome to be re-routed through Siena. The inevitable consequence of this was that Siena prospered as a trading post, and the constant streams of pilgrims passing to and from Rome were to prove a valuable source of income in the centuries to come. The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


The oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards' surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. At this point the city was inundated with a swarm of Frankish overseers who married into the existing Sienese nobility, and left a legacy that can be seen in the abbeys they founded throughout Sienese territory. Feudal power waned however, and by the death of Countess Matilda in 1115 the Mark of Tuscia which had been under the control of her family – the Canossa – broke up into several autonomous regions. Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Matilda of Tuscany from (1115) Matilda, countess of Tuscany (1046 – July 24, 1115), called La Gran Contessa, was the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the investiture controversy, and is one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ...


Siena prospered under the new arrangements, becoming a major centre of money lending and an important player in the wool trade. It was governed at first directly by its Bishop, but episcopal power declined during the 1100s. The bishop was forced to concede a greater say in the running of the city to the nobility in exchange for their help during a territorial dispute with Arezzo, and this started a process which culminated in 1167 when the commune of Siena declared its independence from episcopal control. By 1179, it had a written constitution. Arezzo (Latin Arretium) is an old city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ...


This period was also crucial in shaping the Siena we know today. It was during the 1100s that the majority of the construction of the Duomo, Siena's cathedral, was completed. It was also during this period that the Piazza del Campo, now regarded as one of the most beautiful civic spaces in Europe, grew in importance as the centre of secular life. New streets were constructed leading to it and it served as the site of the market, and the location of various sporting events (perhaps better thought of as riots, in the fashion of the Florentine football matches that are still practised to this day). A wall was constructed in 1194 at the current site of the Palazzo Pubblico to stop soil erosion, an indication of how important the area was becoming as a civic space. Piazza del Campo is in the center of Siena and Sienas premier square. ... Palazzo Pubblico The Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) is a palace in the city of Siena, Italy. ...

Medieval coin from Siena (12th century).
Medieval coin from Siena (12th century).

In the early 12th century a self-governing commune replaced the earlier aristocratic government. The consuls who governed the republic slowly became more inclusive of the poblani, or common people, and the Commune increased its territory as the surrounding feudal nobles in their fortified castles submitted to the urban power. Siena's republic, struggling internally between nobles and the popular party, usually worked in political opposition to its great rival, Florence, and was in the 13th century predominantly Ghibelline in opposition to Florence's Guelph position (this conflict formed the backdrop for some of Dante's Commedia). Image File history File links Denaro_siena. ... Image File history File links Denaro_siena. ... Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in Italy during the 12th century and 13th century. ... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Dante redirects here. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ...

Church of San Domenico.

On September 4, 1260 the Sienese Ghibellines, supported by the forces of King Manfred of Sicily, defeated the Florentine Guelphs in the Battle of Montaperti. Before the battle, the Sienese army of around 20,000 faced a much larger Florentine army of around 33,000. Prior to the battle, the entire city was dedicated to the Virgin Mary (this was done several times in the city's history, most recently in 1944 to guard the city from Allied bombs). The man given command of Siena for the duration of the war, Bonaguida Lucari, walked barefoot and bareheaded, a halter around his neck, to the Duomo. Leading a procession composed of all the city's residents, he was met by all the clergy. Lucari and the Bishop embraced, to show the unity of church and state, then Luceri formally gave the city and contrade to the Virgin. Legend has it that a thick white cloud descended on the battlefield, giving the Sienese cover and aiding their attack. The reality was that the Florentine army launched several fruitless attacks against the Sienese army during the day, then when the Sienese army countered with their own offensive, traitors within the Florentine army killed the standard bearer and in the resulting chaos, the Florentine army broke up and fled the battlefield. Almost half the Florentine army (some 15,000 men) were killed as a result. So crushing was the defeat that even today if the two cities meet in any sporting event, the Sienese supporters are likely to exhort their Florentine counterparts to “Remember Montaperti!”. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 650 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 650 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in Italy during the 12th century and 13th century. ... Manfred (c. ... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in Italy during the 12th century and 13th century. ... The Battle of Montaperti was fought on September 4, 1260, between Florence and Siena in Tuscany as part of the conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Siena's university, founded in 1203 and famed for its faculties of law and medicine, is still among the most important Italian universities. Siena rivalled Florence in the arts through the 13th and 14th centuries: the important late medieval painter Duccio di Buoninsegna (1253–1319) was a Sienese, but worked across the peninsula, and the mural of "Good Government" by Ambrogio Lorenzetti in the Palazzo Pubblico, or town hall, is a magnificent example of late-Medieval/early Renaissance art as well as a representation of the utopia of urban society as conceived during that period. Siena was devastated by the Black Death of 1348, and also suffered from ill-fated financial enterprises. In 1355, with the arrival of Charles IV of Luxembourg in the city, the population rose and suppressed the government of the Nove (Nine), establishing that Dodici (Twelve) nobles assisted by a council with a popular majority. This was also short-lived, being replaced by the Quindici (Fifteen) reformers in 1385, the Dieci (Ten, 1386-1387), Undici (Eleven, 1388-1398) and Twelve Priors (1398-1399) who, in the end, gave the city's seigniory to Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan in order to defend it from the Florentine expansionism. The University of Siena (Università di Siena, UNISI) in Tuscany is one of the older universities of Italy, founded in the 13th century, initially as a Studium. ... Categories: Art stubs | Italian painters ... Ambrogio Lorenzetti (or Ambruogio Laurati) (c. ... Palazzo Pubblico The Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) is a palace in the city of Siena, Italy. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Portrait attributed to Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis, reputed to be of Gian Galeazzo Visconti Gian Galeazzo Visconti (November 1351 – September 3, 1402), son of Galeazzo II Visconti and Bianca di Savoia, was the first Duke of Milan (1395)[1] and ruled the late-medieval city just before the dawn of... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ...


In 1404 the Visconti were expelled and a government of Ten Priors established, in alliance with Florence against King Ladislas of Naples. With the election of the Sienese Pius II as Pope, the Piccolomini and other noble families were allowed to return to the government, but after his death the control returned into popular hands. In 1472 the Republic founded the Monte dei Paschi, a bank that is still active today and is the oldest surviving bank in the world. The noble factions returned in the city under Pandolfo Petrucci in 1487, with the support of Florence and of Alfonso of Calabria; Petrucci exerted an effective rule on the city until his death in 1512, favouring arts and sciences, and defending it from Cesare Borgia. Pandolfo was succeeded by his son Borghese, who was ousted by his cousin Raffaello, helped by the Medici Pope Leo X. The last Petrucci was Fabio, exiled in 1523 by the Sienese people. Internal strife resumed, with the popular faction ousting the Noveschi party supported by Clement VII: the latter sent an army, but was defeated at Camollia in 1526. Emperor Charles V took advantage of the chaotic situation to put a Spanish garrison in Siena. This citizen expelled it in 1552, allying with France: this was unacceptable for Charles, who sent his general Gian Giacomo Medici to lay siege to it with a Florentine-Imperial army. Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Coat of Arms of Ladislas, as titular King of Hungary, titular King of Jerusalem, and King of Naples. ... Pope Pius II. Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 - August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. ... Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SPA is perhaps the oldest surviving bank in the world. ... Pandolfo Petrucci (c. ... Cesare Borgia. ... Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Stub | Medici ...


The Sienese government entrusted its defence to Piero Strozzi. When the latter was defeated at the Battle of Marciano (August 1554), any hope of relief was lost. After 18 months of resistance, it surrendered to Florence on April 17, 1555, marking the end of the Republic of Siena. The new Spanish King Philip, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it (apart a series of coastal fortress annexed to the State of Presidi) to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century. A Republic government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559. Piero Strozzi as Marshal of France. ... The Battle of Marciano occurred in the countryside of Marciano, August 2nd, 1554. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... The Stato dei Presidi (loosely in English, The State of the Garrisons) was a client state of central Italy, which included the cities of Orbetello, Porto Ercole, Porto Santo Stefano, Talamone, Ansedonia and Porto Longone, in what is now southern Tuscany. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... Montalcino is a hilltown and comune in Tuscany, Italy. ...


The picturesque city remains an important cultural centre, especially for humanist disciplines.

Siena's Duomo.
Siena's Duomo
Siena's Duomo
The Piazza Del Campo.
The Piazza Del Campo.
Il Campo from Torre del Mangia.
Il Campo from Torre del Mangia.
Façade of the Palazzo Pubblico (Town Hall) during the Palio days.
Façade of the Palazzo Pubblico (Town Hall) during the Palio days.
Palazzo Salimbeni.
Palazzo Salimbeni.

Download high resolution version (599x900, 124 KB)Large version, by mdoege@compuserve. ... Download high resolution version (599x900, 124 KB)Large version, by mdoege@compuserve. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1086 KB) Summary Siena Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1086 KB) Summary Siena Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 947 KB) Siena, Italien/Italy/Italie, Bürgerhaus Fassade/Townhall Facade/Façade du Mairie - Piazza del Campo, 2003-08-15 Autor/Author/Auteur: --wpopp 10:59, 7 Dec 2004 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 947 KB) Siena, Italien/Italy/Italie, Bürgerhaus Fassade/Townhall Facade/Façade du Mairie - Piazza del Campo, 2003-08-15 Autor/Author/Auteur: --wpopp 10:59, 7 Dec 2004 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file... Palazzo Pubblico The Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) is a palace in the city of Siena, Italy. ... Thousands of spectators, coming from all the world, fill the Piazza del Campo to capacity on the day of the Palio di Siena. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 504 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1116 × 1328 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Palazzo Salimbeni, Siena, Italy File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Siena... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 504 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1116 × 1328 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Palazzo Salimbeni, Siena, Italy File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Siena...

Main sights

Siena's cathedral, the Duomo, begun in the twelfth century, is one of the great examples of Italian romanesque architecture. Its main façade was completed in 1380. It is unusual for a Christian cathedral in that its axis runs north-south. This is because it was originally intended to be the largest cathedral in existence, with a north-south transept and an east-west aisle, as is usual. After the completion of the transept and the building of the east wall (which still exists and may be climbed by the public via an internal staircase) the money ran out and the rest of the cathedral was abandoned. Duomo di Siena is the medieval cathedral of Siena, Italy. ... The duomo of Milan. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ...


Inside is the famous Gothic octagonal pulpit by Nicola Pisano (1266–1268) supported on lions, and the labyrinth inlaid in the flooring, traversed by penitents on their knees. Within the Sacristy are some perfectly preserved renaissance frescos by Ghirlandaio, and beneath the Duomo in the baptistry is the marvelous baptismal font with bas-reliefs by Donatello, Ghiberti, Jacopo della Quercia and other 15th century sculptors. The Museo dell'Opera del Duomo contains Duccio's famous Maestà (1308–1311) and various other works by Sienese masters. More Sienese paintings are to be found in the Pinacoteca. Nicola Pisano (c. ... This article is about the mazelike structure from Greek mythology. ... An Old Man and with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence, self portrait. ... Jacopo della Quercia (c. ...


The shell-shaped Piazza del Campo, the town square, which houses the Palazzo Pubblico and the Torre del Mangia, is another architectural treasure, and is famous for hosting the Palio horse race. The Palazzo Pubblico, itself a great work of architecture, houses yet another important art museum. Included within the museum is Ambrogio Lorenzetti's series of frescos on the good government and the results of good and bad government and also some of the finest frescoes of Simone Martini and Pietro Lorenzetti. Piazza del Campo is in the center of Siena and Sienas premier square. ... Palazzo Pubblico The Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) is a palace in the city of Siena, Italy. ... Torre del Mangia towering above of the Palazzo Pubblico The Torre del Mangia was built in 1334 and is located in Siena in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... Ambrogio Lorenzetti (or Ambruogio Laurati) (c. ... Petrachs Virgil (title page) (c. ... Beata Umilta Transports Bricks to the Monastery(c. ...


On the Piazza Salimbeni is the Palazzo Salimbeni, a notable building and also the medieval headquarters of Monte dei Paschi di Siena, one of the oldest banks in continuous existence and a major player in the Sienese economy. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SPA is perhaps the oldest surviving bank in the world. ...


Housed in the notable Gothic Palazzo Chigi on Via di Città is the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena's conservatory of music. The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... The Accademia Musicale Chigiana (English: Chigiana Musical Academy) in Siena, Italy was founded by Count Guido Chigi Saracini in 1932 as an international centre for advanced musical studies. ... A music school or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is an institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, music history, and music theory. ...


Other churches in the city include:

  • Basilica dell'Osservanza
  • Santa Maria dei Servi
  • San Domenico
  • San Francesco
  • Santo Spirito
  • San Martino
  • Sanctuary of Santa Caterina, incorporating the old house of St. Catherine of Siena. It houses the miraculous Crucifix (late 12th century) from which the saint received her stigmata, and a 15th century statue of St. Catherine.

The city's gardens include the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Siena, a botanical garden maintained by the University of Siena. St. ... For other senses of this word, see stigma and stigmata (disambiguation). ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... The University of Siena (Università di Siena, UNISI) in Tuscany is one of the older universities of Italy, founded in the 13th century, initially as a Studium. ...


The Medicean Fortress houses the Enoteca Italiana and the Siena Jazz School, with courses and concerts all the year long and a major festival during the International Siena Jazz Masterclasses. Over two weeks more than 30 concerts and jam sessions are held in the two major town squares, on the terrace in front of the Enoteca, in the gardens of the Contrade clubs, and in numerous historical towns and villages of the Siena province. Siena is also home of Sessione Senese per la Musica e l'Arte (SSMA), a summer music program for musicians, is a fun/learning musical summer experience.


In the neighbourhood are numerous patrician villa, numerous of which attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi: Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi (7 March 1481—6 January 1537) was an architect and painter, born at Siena and died at Rome. ...

  • Villa Chigi
  • Castle of Belcaro
  • Villa Celsa
  • Villa Cetinale
  • Villa Volte Alte

Sports

Siena has enjoyed a long tradition in sports. Basketball and football are perhaps the most popular in Siena. However, other sports such as rugby union and track-and-field are also widely practised. This article is about the sport. ... Soccer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ...


Professional sports

The 'Calcio' (soccer) Association of Siena was founded in 1904 and fully established in 1908. It has participated in the National Championship of Soccer in Seria "A" (The highest level of the Italian soccer leagues) since the 2003-2004 season. The soccer club A.C. Siena hosts its games at the Stadio Artemio Franchi. Associazione Calcio Siena is a football club based in Siena, Italy. ... Small stadium on the main road into the city. ...


The premiere society of men's basketball in Siena is called Mens Sana Basket (also referred to by its sponsored name of Montepaschi Siena). It is also the oldest sports society in Siena. Mens Sana Basket participates in the highest level of play in Italy, Lega Basket Serie A, and it won the national championship in the 2003-04 and 2006-07 seasons. The team host their home games at Palasport Mens Sana indoor arena. Mens Sana Basket, more frequently referred to as Montepaschi Siena, is an Italian basketball club from Siena. ... Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SPA is perhaps the oldest surviving bank in the world. ... Lega A Basket logo In Italian Basketball, the Serie A is the highest level club competition where play determines the national champion. ... Palasport Mens Sana is an indoor sporting arena located in Via Sclavo, Siena, Italy. ...


Amateur sports

As with most of Italy, football is very popular, and numerous amateur football teams have been formed. Tournaments for amateur football leagues are carried out during the winter. Contrary to the rest of Italy, Siena is home to several amateur basketball teams. These teams exist to "seed" the professional teams. In addition to Mens Sana Basket, other teams (amateur) exist including "l'Associazione Sportiva Costone Basket" and "La Virtus Siena".


There exist several female University sports teams organized under the CUS (Centro Universitario Sportivo.) These include such sports as fencing, volleyball and rugby. For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...


The Palio

Main article: Palio di Siena

July 2 and August 16 are the dates when the Palio di Siena is held. The Palio is a traditional medieval horse race is run around the Piazza del Campo each year. This event is attended by large crowds, and is widely televised. Seventeen Contrade (which are city neighbourhoods originally formed as battalions for the city's defence) vie for the trophy: a painted flag, or Palio bearing an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Ten of the seventeen run in each Palio: seven run by right (having not run in the previous year's corresponding Palio) together with three drawn by lot from the remaining ten. A horse is assigned to each by lot. Though often a brutal and dangerous competition for horse and rider alike, the city thrives on the pride this competition brings. This event is not without its controversy however, and recently, there have been complaints about the treatment of the horses and to the danger run by the riders. In order to better protect the horses, steps have been taken to make veterinary care more easily available during the main race. Thousands of spectators, coming from all the world, fill the Piazza del Campo to capacity on the day of the Palio di Siena. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thousands of spectators, coming from all the world, fill the Piazza del Campo to capacity on the day of the Palio di Siena. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Contrade (singular: contrada) are districts, or wards, in an Italian city. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Our Lady redirects here. ...


Transport

The nearest international airports to Siena are Peretola Airport in Florence and Galileo Galilei International Airport in Pisa. Peretola Airport, Florence Airport (Italian: Aeroporto di Firenze) or Amerigo Vespucci Airport (IATA: FLR, ICAO: LIRQ) is an airport located close to Florence, Italy, but administratively located within the territory of Sesto Fiorentino. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Galileo Galilei International Airport (IATA: PSA, ICAO: LIRP) is an airport located in Pisa, Italy. ... For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ...


Siena can be reached by train from both Pisa and Florence, changing at Empoli. Siena's train station is located at the bottom of a long hill outside the city walls, and travellers with luggage should look for a taxi or bus (from the stop opposite the station). Empoli is a town in Tuscany, Italy, about 30 km southwest of Florence. ...


Buses leave from Piazza Gramsci, located within the city walls. Buses are available directly to and from Florence, a one hour trip, as well as from Rome (three hours), Milan (four and a half hours), and from various other towns in Tuscany and beyond.


By road, Siena is linked to Florence by a "superstrada" (the Raccordo Autostradale RA03 - Siena-Firenze), a form of toll free autostrada, albeit with narrower lanes, with a less well maintained surface and sharper bends. The superstrada to Florence is indicated on some road signs with the letters SI-FI, recalling the pre-1994 license-plate designations. A continuation of the same four lane road to the south east is under construction and will when completed facilitate the drive towards Perugia and Rome. However, drivers should be aware that almost no traffic is permitted within the city centre. Several large carparks are located immediately outside the city walls. The "La Fortezza" car park is closest to the centre, and is free of charge. Commercial traffic is permitted within the city only during the morning hours, while in the afternoon pedestrians dominate. Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Autostrada sign Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways/freeways, but is used in several countries including Belgium, Switzerland, Lithuania, Poland, Egypt, Israel, Albania and Romania. ... Present Italian car number plates have black characters on a rectangular white background, with small blue side-fields on the right and left (see European vehicle registration plates). ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Piazza del Campo.
Piazza del Campo.

Sister cities

Siena has 4 sister cities: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm Town twinning or sister cities is a concept whereby towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Dura may refer to: Dura (linguistics), a critically endangered language of Nepal Dura mater, the outer membrane of the meninges which envelop the brain and spinal cord This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...

References

  • A Medieval Italian Commune: Siena under the Nine, 1287-1355 by Professor William M. Bowsky (1982)

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Siena On Line - Siena Hotels Agriturismi Ristoranti Cristalli e Vino tuscany siena Tuscany shopping Siena shop (331 words)
Siena is one of Italy' s most beautiful cities, situated in the center of Tuscany between the Chianti area and Maremma, rich in history, art and popular traditions; it is the city of the Palio.
A few minutes away from the historical center of the city of Siena, is an ancient and prestigious Villa of 1700.
The Hotel Minerva is situated in the historic center of Siena; the bedrooms have a view on the old Siena.
Siena travel guide - Wikitravel (2426 words)
Siena [1] is an historic medieval city in the region of Tuscany, located in the north of Italy, and lying some 70 km (43 miles) south of Florence.
Siena was a very poor little city for a few hundred years after its defeat, which is the main reason that its lovely Medieval buildings were never torn down and replaced with modern structures.
Siena is a city (a small city, yes, but it isn't like one of the hill towns) and the attractions away from the Piazza/Duomo area are a bit spread out.
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