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Encyclopedia > Siege tower
19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry.
19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry.

A siege tower (or in the Middle Ages a belfry[1]) is a specialized siege engine, constructed to protect assailants and ladders while approaching the defensive walls of a fortification. The tower was often rectangular with four wheels and a height roughly equal to that of the wall or sometimes higher to allow archers to stand on top of the tower and fire into the fortification. Because the towers were wooden and thus flammable, they had to have some non-flammable covering of iron or fresh animal skins.[1] The siege tower was mainly made from wood but sometimes they had metal parts. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (648x1043, 390 KB) Dessin représentant lassaut dune courtine à laide dun beffroi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (648x1043, 390 KB) Dessin représentant lassaut dune courtine à laide dun beffroi. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The term Belfry has a variety of uses: For the architectural term see:Belfry (architecture) For the U.S. town in Montana see Belfry, Montana For the English golf club see The De Vere Belfry There is also a German Epic Metal band called Belfry. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ...


Used since the 9th century BC in the ancient Near East, 305 BC in Europe and also in antiquity in the Far East, siege towers were of unwieldy dimensions and, like trebuchets, were therefore mostly constructed on site of the siege. Taking considerable time to construct, siege towers were mainly built if the defense of the opposing fortification could not be overcome by ladder assault, by sapping or by breaking walls or gates. (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302... World map showing the location of Europe. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... For the SUV vehicle, see Cadillac Escalade. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ... A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by walls, or an opening in a fence. ...


The siege tower sometimes housed pikemen, swordsmen, or crossbowmen who shot quarrels at the defenders. Because of the size of the tower it would often be the first target of large stone catapults but it had its own projectiles to fight back with.[1] A pike is a pole weapon once used extensively by infantry principally as a counter-measure against cavalry assaults. ... A swordsman is one skilled in the use of swords. ... 15th century French soldier wearing a helmet and a hauberk, carrying a crossbow/arbalest and a pavise. ... Note: a quarrel may also mean an argument or fight. ...


Siege towers were used to get troops over an enemy wall. When a siege tower was near a wall, it would drop a gangplank between it and the wall. Troops could then rush onto the walls and into the castle or city. A corvus (meaning raven in Latin) was a Roman military boarding device used in naval warfare during the First Punic War against Carthage. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Ancient Use

The first known siege towers were used by the armies of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th century BC, under Ashurnasirpal II (r. 884 BC-859 BC). Reliefs from his reign, and subsequent reigns, depict siege towers in use with a number of other siegeworks, including ramps and battering rams. One of the oldest references to the mobile siege tower in ancient China was ironically a written dialogue primarily discussing naval warfare. In the Chinese Yuejueshu (Lost Records of the State of Yue) compiled by the later Han Dynasty Yuan Kang in the year 52 AD, it was recorded that Wu Zixu (526 BC-484 BC) was discussing different ship types to King Helü of Wu (r. 514 BC-496 BC) while explaining military preparedness. After labeling the types of warships used, Wu Zixu said: An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashurnasirpal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashurnasirpal succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to the growing Assyrian empire. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC Events and trends 889 BC - Takelot succeeds his father Osorkon I as king of Egypt. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC Years: 859 BC 858 BC 857 BC 856 BC 855 BC 854 BC 853 BC 852 BC... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC 482 BC... King Helü (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ) of the state of Wu(Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ), a state in ancient China, was initially known as Prince Guang (Chinese: ). He reigned towards the end of the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC - 496 BC - 495 BC 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC...

Nowadays in training naval forces we use the tactics of land forces for the best effect. Thus great wing ships correspond to the army's heavy chariots, little wing ships to light chariots, stomach strikers to battering rams, castle ships to mobile assault towers, and bridge ships to light cavalry.[2] Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ...

Centuries after they were employed in Assyria, the use of the siege tower spread throughout the Mediterranean. The biggest siege towers of antiquity, such as the Helepolis of the siege of Rhodes in 305 BC (called "The Taker of Cities"), could be as high as 135 feet and as wide as 67.5 feet.[3] Such large engines would require a capstan to be moved effectively. It was manned by 200 soldiers was divided into nine stories; the different levels housed various types of catapults and ballistae.[3] Subsequent siege towers down through the centuries often had similar engines. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Helepolis (Taker of Cities) was an ancient siege engine invented by Demetrius I of Macedon and constructed by Epimachus of Athens for the unsuccessful siege of Rhodes, based on an earlier, less massive design used against Salamis. ... Combatants Antigonid dynasty Rhodes Ptolemaic dynasty Seleucid Empire Commanders Demetrius  ? Strength 1500 11200 Casualties 1300 5400 For other uses, see Siege of Rhodes (disambiguation). ... Nautical capstan A capstan is a rotating machine used to control or apply force to another element, usually linear. ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistÄ“s, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ...

The remains of the Roman siege-rampart at Masada.
The remains of the Roman siege-rampart at Masada.

But this huge tower was defeated by the defenders by flooding the ground in front of the wall, creating a moat that caused the tower to get bogged in the mud. The siege of Rhodes illustrates the important point that the larger siege towers needed level ground. Many castles and hill-top towns and forts were virtually invulnerable to siege tower attack simply due to topography. Smaller siege towers might be used on top of siege-mounds, made of earth, rubble and timber mounds in order to overtop a defensive wall. The remains of such a siege-rampart at Masada, for example, has survived almost 2,000 years and can still be seen today. Image File history File linksMetadata MasadaRamp. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MasadaRamp. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Rampart may mean: A type of defensive wall consisting of a low earthen embankment topped by a parapet or palisade. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... Rampart may mean: A type of defensive wall consisting of a low earthen embankment topped by a parapet or palisade. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of...


On the other hand, almost all the largest cities were on large rivers, or the coast, and so did have part of their circuit wall vulnerable to these towers. Furthermore, the tower for such a target might be prefabricated elsewhere and brought dismantled to the target city by water. In some rare circumstances, such towers were mounted on ships to assault the coastal wall of a city: at the laying siege to Cyzicus during the Third Mithridatic War, for example, towers were used in conjunction with more conventional siege weapons.[4] The Battle of Cyzicus was fought in 74 BC between Roman forces and the armies of Mithridates VI of Pontus. ... Third Mithridatic War (75 - 65 BC) Mithridates VI had long been a thorn in Romes side, having launched two wars against the Roman Republic, in the early 1st century B.C. In response to the chaos in Rome, following the terror of Marius and Sullas dictatorship, the Empire...


Medieval and Later Use

With the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West into independent states, and the Eastern Roman Empire on the defensive, the use of siege towers reached its height during the medieval period. Siege towers were used when the Avars laid siege unsuccessfully to Constantinople in 626, as the Chronicon Paschale recounts: Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Chronicon Paschale (the Paschal Chronicle) is the conventional name of a 7th-century Byzantine universal chronicle of the world. ...

"And in the section from the Polyandrion Gate as far as the Gate of St Romanus he prepared to station twelve lofty siege towers, which were advanced almost as far as the outworks, and he covered them with hides." [5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2018 KB) Gate of St. ...

Medieval English siege tower.
Medieval English siege tower.

At this siege the attackers also made use of "sows" - mobile armoured shelters which were used throughout the medieval period, and allowed workers to fill in moats with protection from the defenders (thus levelling the ground for the siege towers to be moved to the walls). However, the construction of a sloping talus at the base of a castle wall (as was common in Crusader fortification[6]) could have reduced the effectiveness of this tactic to an extent. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (587x767, 62 KB) العربية | Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (587x767, 62 KB) العربية | Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... Talus (which is Latin for ankle-bone) may refer to: The talus bone, a bone connecting the leg to the foot Talos, a rock-throwing giant made of bronze in Greek mythology A sloping mass of loose rocks at the base of a cliff Scree, small broken rock found on... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ...


Siege towers also became more elaborate during the medieval period; at the Siege of Kenilworth Castle in 1266, for example, 200 archers and 11 catapults operated from a single tower.[1] Even then, the siege lasted almost a year, making it the longest siege in English history. They were not invulnerable either, as during the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman siege towers were sprayed by the defenders with Greek fire.[5] The castle, as seen from the gatehouse Kenilworth Castle is in Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ... The British Isles in the year 802 Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] - The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine capital by... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ...


Siege towers became vulnerable and obsolete with the development of large cannon. They had only ever existed to get assaulting troops over high walls and large cannon also made high walls obsolete as fortification took a new direction. However, later constructions known as battery-towers took on a similar role in the gunpowder age; like siege-towers, these were built out of wood on site for mounting siege artillery. One of these was built by the Russian military engineer Ivan Vyrodkov during the siege of Kazan in 1552 (as part of the Russo-Kazan Wars), and could hold ten large-calibre cannon and 50 lighter cannon. [7] Not to be confused with Canon. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... Ivan Grigoryevich Vyrodkov (Russian: Иван Григорьевич Выродков) (? - 1563 or 1564) was a Russian military engineer, inventor, and diak. ... St. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... St. ...


Siege towers also became more elaborate during the medieval period; at the Siege of Kenilworth Castle in 1266, for example, 200 archers and 11 catapults operated from a single tower.[1] Even then, the siege lasted almost a year, making it the longest siege in English history. The castle, as seen from the gatehouse Kenilworth Castle is in Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ... The British Isles in the year 802 Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the...


Siege towers were not invulnerable either, as during the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman siege towers were sprayed by the defenders with Greek fire.[5] Furthermore, they became vulnerable and obsolete with the development of large cannon. They had only ever existed to get assaulting troops over high walls and large cannon also made high walls obsolete as fortification took a new direction. However, later constructions known as battery-towers took on a similar role in the gunpowder age; like siege-towers, these were built out of wood on site for mounting siege artillery. One of these was built by the Russian military engineer Ivan Vyrodkov during the siege of Kazan in 1552 (as part of the Russo-Kazan Wars), and could hold ten large-calibre cannon and 50 lighter cannon. [7] Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] - The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine capital by... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Not to be confused with Canon. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... Ivan Grigoryevich Vyrodkov (Russian: Иван Григорьевич Выродков) (? - 1563 or 1564) was a Russian military engineer, inventor, and diak. ... St. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... St. ...


Modern Image

Mordor's siege towers in The Return of the King film.

Although siege towers have long since ceased as a military unit, they have appeared in several films: they were notably featured in Peter Jackson's The Return of the King 2003 blockbuster film during the siege of Minas Tirith, and also in the 2005 film Kingdom of Heaven. They are popular, though not necessarily common, in both fantasy and historical miniature wargaming, such as The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game. The Real Time Strategy game Empire Earth also features siege towers as a unit. Image File history File linksMetadata WaroftheRingSiegeTowers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata WaroftheRingSiegeTowers. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961) is a New Zealand filmmaker best known as the director of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, which he, along with Fran Walsh, his long time partner, and Philippa Boyens, adapted from the novels by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kingdom of Heaven is a 2005 epic film, directed and produced by Ridley Scott, and written by William Monahan. ... Bavarian Napoleonic Infantry, 1811, from the historical wargame Volley & Bayonet. ... The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game (abbreviated as LotR SBG), often referred to by players as Lord of the Rings, is a tabletop miniature wargame produced by Games Workshop (GW). ... Empire Earth, also known as EE, is a real-time strategy computer game developed by Stainless Steel Studios and published by Sierra Entertainment in November 2001. ...


The computer game Age of Mythology features Helepolis units for the Greek forces, firing ballistae from range and being able to garrison other units. The older Age Of Empires I game also features Helepolis units, but instead as the upgraded version of the ballista. Rome: Total War offers a more realistic rendition of siege towers, used for attacking fortified walls. A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Age of Mythology (commonly abbreviated as AoM), is a mythology-based, real-time strategy computer game developed by Ensemble Studios, and published by Microsoft Game Studios. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Age of Empires, abbreviated to AoE or AOE, is a history-based real-time strategy computer game released in 1997. ... Rome: Total War is a grand strategy computer game where players fight historical and fictious battles during the era of the Roman Republic, from 270 BCE to 14 CE. The game was developed by Creative Assembly and released on September 22, 2004. ...


Additionally, although the rook in Chess originally symbolized a chariot, European adaptations of the game may have been influenced at least in part by Siege towers. Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ...


Modern Use

As an example of the extremely rare use of something resembling siege towers in present times, the machinery used by police forces to enter Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen, Denmark should be mentioned. On 1 March 2007, armored police officers were lifted to the upper levels of the building using small boom cranes. The officers were placed in containers which were lifted to the windows, thus enabling the intruding police to gain access to the illegally held structure.[citation needed] Ungdomshuset as seen from the street Ungdomshuset (literally the Youth House) was the attributed name of a building located in Copenhagen on Jagtvej 69, Nørrebro, which functioned as an underground scene venue for music and rendezvous point for varying anarchist and leftist groups from 1982 until 2007. ... Copenhagen (IPA: or ; Danish: IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... --> Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e Castle: Stephen Biesty's Cross-Sections. Dorling Kindersley Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). ISBN 978-1564584670
  2. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Page 678.
  3. ^ a b Helepolis
  4. ^ Siege Warfare in the Roman World, 146 BC–AD 378, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-782-4
  5. ^ a b c The Walls of Constantinople, AD 324–1453, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-759-X.
  6. ^ Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1192–1302, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1841768278.
  7. ^ a b Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9

Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ...

External links

  • http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/war/Helepolis.htm

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