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Encyclopedia > Siege of Turin
Battle of Turin
Part of the War of the Spanish Succession
Date May 14, 1706 - September 7, 1706
Location Turin, present-day Italy
Result Piedmontese-Austrian victory
Combatants
Duchy of Savoy
Austrian Empire
Prussia
France
Spain
Commanders
Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
Eugene of Savoy
Virico Daun
Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Louis d'Aubusson de la Feuillade
Ferdinand de Marsin
Sebastien la Preste de Vauban
Strength
30,000[1] 44,000/47,000
War of the Spanish Succession
CarpiChieriCremonaLuzzara – Cádiz – FriedlingenVigo BayEkeren – Höchstädt – SchellenbergBlenheim – Málaga – CassanoCalcinatoElixheimRamilliesTurinAlmansaToulonOudenarde – Lille – MalplaquetAlmenaraSaragossaBrihuegaVillaviciosaBouchainDenainBarcelona

The Battle of Turin took place on 7 September 1706 west of the city of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. In a decisive victory for the Allied forces under Prince Eugene of Savoy and Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy (proclaimed King by the Treaty of Utrecht after the end of the war), the French siege of Turin was broken and the withdrawal of French forces from northern Italy began. Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Torino redirects here. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (July 3, 1676 – April 7, 1747), called the Old Dessauer (der alte Dessauer), general field marshal in the Prussian army, was the only surviving son of John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and was born at Dessau. ... Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... Louis dAubusson de la Feuillade (1673 - January 28, 1725) was a Marshal of France. ... MARSIN (Ferdinand, count of), (Liége, February 10, 1656 - Turin, September 9, 1706), Marshal of France. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Combatants Austria France Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Nicolas Catinat Strength 30,000 25,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Carpi was a serie of manoeuvres in the summer of 1701, and the first battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on July 9, 1701... The Battle of Chieri was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 1, 1701 between France and Austria. ... The Battle of Cremona was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on February 1, 1702 between France and Austria. ... Combatants Austria France Commanders Eugene of Savoy Duc de Vendôme Strength 25,000 30,000 Casualties 2,500 4,000 {{{notes}}} Battle of Luzzara was battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Spain England United Provinces Commanders Francisco de Villadarias George Rooke James, Duke of Ormonde Strength 300 infantry 150 cavalry 50 ships 14,000 infantry Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Cádiz was a siege of the Spanish city of Cádiz in 1702 by an Anglo-Dutch fleet... Combatants France Holy Roman Empire Commanders Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars Louis, Margrave of Baden-Baden Strength Casualties The Battle of Friedlingen was fought in 1702 between France and the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Battle of Vigo Bay, 23 October 1702 by Ludolf Bakhuizen, painted c. ... Combatants Dutch Republic France Spain Commanders General Obdam General Slangenburg Duc de Boufflers Duc de Villeroi Strength 10,000 40,000 Casualties 3,400 1,750 The Battle of Ekeren, June 30, 1703 was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Austria France Bavaria Commanders Limburg Styrum Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau Claude de Villars Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria Strength 16,000 24,000 Casualties 5,000 dead, wounded and (mainly) prisoners. ... The Battle of Schellenberg was fought on 2 July 1704. ... Combatants England,[1] Austria, Dutch Republic, Prussia, Denmark, Hesse, Hanover France, Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Eugene of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[2] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 20,000 killed, drowned, or... Combatants France Spain England United Provinces Commanders Comte de Toulouse Victor-Marie dEstrées George Rooke Strength 50 warships 6 frigates (3,577 guns) 24,275 men 53 ships of the line 6 frigates 7 fireships (3,614 guns) 22,543 men Casualties no ships lost 1,600-3... Combatants France Austria Prussia Commanders Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme Eugene of Savoy Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau Strength 30,000 29,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Cassano, fought on August 16, 1705, was a hard fought battle in the Italian theatre of the War of... Combatants France Austria Commanders Duc de Vendôme Reventlow Strength 41,000 19,000 Casualties unknown 6,000 The Battle of Calcinato was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic German states France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Hendrik van Nassau-Ouwerkerk Duc de Villeroi Strength 14,000 (initially) 3,000 - 15,000 Casualties 50 - 200 3,000 The Battle of Elixheim, 18 July 1705, also known as the Passage of the Lines of Brabant was a... The Battle of Ramillies was a major battle in the War of Spanish Succession, May 23, 1706. ... Combatants Philippists Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Austriacists Britain Portugal United Provinces Commanders Duke of Berwick Marquis de Ruvigny Marquês das Minas Strength 25,000 22,000 Casualties 3,500 dead or wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 12,000 captured The Battle of Almansa, fought on April... Combatants Britain Austria United Provinces Savoy France Spain Commanders Victor Amadeus II of Savoy Prince Eugene of Savoy René de Froulay de Tessé Strength 35,000 15,000 Casualties 10,000 dead or wounded Unknown The Battle of Toulon took place in 1707 in the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ... Combatants Spain Austria Britain United Provinces Commanders Francisco de Villadarias Guido Starhemberg Lord Stanhope Strength 22,000 18,000 Casualties 1,000 dead 3,000 captured 400 dead The Battle of Almenara took place on July 27, 1710 in the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Spain Austria Britain United Provinces Cataluña Commanders Marquis de Bay Guido Starhemberg Lord Stanhope Strength 20,000 23,000 - 30,000 Casualties 7,000 - 10,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 5,000 captured Unknown, probably 1,500 dead or wounded The Battle of Saragossa (Spanish: Zaragoza) took... Combatants France Spain Britain Commanders Louis Joseph de Vendôme James Stanhope Strength 20,000–24,000 16,000–18,000 (4,000 present) Casualties 1,000 dead 600 dead 3,400 wounded or captured The Battle of Brihuega took place on December 8, 1710 in the War of the... Combatants France Spain Austria United Provinces Portugal Commanders Louis Joseph de Vendôme Guido Starhemberg Strength 20,000 12,000–14,000 Casualties 2,000–3,000 dead or wounded 2,000–3,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Villaviciosa took place on December 10, 1710 in the War... Combatants England Dutch Republic German states France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Claude Villars de Ravignau Strength 85,000 90,000 Casualties 4,080 2,500 killed and wounded 2,500 captured The Siege of Bouchain (9 August - 12 September 1711), following the Passage of the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra... Combatants Austria United Provinces Britain France Commanders Eugene of Savoy Claude de Villars Strength 105,000 120,000 Casualties 18,000 dead or wounded 5,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Denain was fought on July 24, 1712, as part of the War of the Spanish Succession, and resulted... The Siege of Barcelona was a battle at the end of the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714), which pitted Archduke Charles (backed by Britain, Austria, and the Netherlands), against Philip V, backed by France and Spain in a contest for Spanish lands. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Torino redirects here. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... The Treaty of Utrecht comprised a series of peace treaties signed in Utrecht in March and April 1713 that helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ...


The French troops were under command of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Louis d'Aubusson de la Feuillade and Ferdinand de Marsin, who was taken prisoner and died in captivity. Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... Louis dAubusson de la Feuillade (1673 - January 28, 1725) was a Marshal of France. ... MARSIN (Ferdinand, count of), (Liége, February 10, 1656 - Turin, September 9, 1706), Marshal of France. ...

Contents

Background

At the outbreak of the conflict, Victor Amadeus, backed by his cousin Eugene, generalissimo of the Imperial troops, had took the risk to side with Austria's Habsburgs since they were the sole power in Europe that could grant his state a total independence after a final victory. However, in case of defeat, Piedmont and Savoy would be wiped off the European maps. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ...


King Louis XIV of France, allied with Spain, replied by invading first Savoy and then Piedmont itself. As the Spanish armies occupied Lombardy, Piedmont found itself surrounded from every side. Attacked by three armies, the Savoyards lost Susa, Vercelli, Chivasso, Ivrea and Nice (1704). The last stronghold was the Citadel of Turin, a fortification built in the mid-16th century. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Susa is a city in Piedmont, Italy. ... Vercelli (Varséj in Piedmontese; Vercellae in Latin) is a commune and city of about 46,000 inhabitants in the Province of Vercelli, Italy. ... Chivasso is a common of 23. ... Ivrea is a small town, with a population of slightly over 20,000 people, located in the Piemonte region of northwestern Italy. ... For the Unix program, see nice_(Unix) This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In August 1705 the French-Spanish armies were ready to attack, but De la Feuillade deemed his troops insufficient and waited for reinforcements. This choice turned out to be wrong, as it allowed the Piedmontese to fortify the city up to the neighbouring hills and to prepare for a long siege.


The siege

The siege began on May 14. The Allied troops amounted to more than 40,000 men. Sebastien la Preste de Vauban, marshal of France and expert of siege techniques, proposed a side assault to the city, pointing out that the wide net of countermine galleries set by the defenders would oppose a tenacious obstacle. But La Feuillade had different ideas, and had 48 military engineers excavate a long series of trenches. May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...


The besiegers, supported by the active participation of the population to the battle, offered a strenuous defence, inflicting heavy losses on the attackers. Fighting continued during the whole summer of 1706.


On June 17 Victor Amadeus left Turin to meet Eugene, who was marching from the Trentino with the Austrian troops under his command. The city was handed over to the Austrian general Virico Daun. The heroic deeds of the defenders, including the famous sacrifice of Pietro Micca who had himself explode in a gallery together with a French party in order to save the citadel, seemed however in vain at this point, with the city totally surrounded and heavy shelled, and the French lines nearing the first bastions of the citadel. June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... Trentino-Alto Adige or Trentino-South Tyrol (in German: Trentino-Südtirol, in Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige) is an autonomous region in northern Italy. ... Pietro Micca, Piedmontese soldier (d. ...


Epilogue

On September 2 the two Savoyards analyzed the tactical situation from the hill of Superga, which commands Turin and the neighbouring area. While the defenders pushed back the last attack fueled only by desperation, they decided to outflank the besiegers with the bulk of the Austrian army, including part of the cavalry, in the north-western part of the city, which was deemed the most vulnerable part of the Allied front. The manoeuvre succeeded and the Austrians managed to set up camp between the Dora Riparia and the Stura di Lanzo rivers. Eugene declared: September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... lkjlk ... Dora Riparia is an Italian river, a left-hand tributary of the Po. ... Stura di Lanzo is a 65 km long river in north-western Italy (Piedmont). ...

ces gents là sont déjà a demi battues ("These men are already half defeated").

The final clash began at 10 AM on September 7 with an attack against the entire front of the besiegers. Amadeus' cavalry discovered a point left unguarded by the French, and managed to separate the enemy right wing from the centre. Two attempts to relieve the pocket formed in this way was driven back, and the Allied army started to rout. When Daun ordered the city's garrison to break out against the left wing of the French-Spanish army, it started to disband, with hundreds of soldiers drowning in the Dora Riparia in an extreme attempt to save their lives. The retreat of the Allied army towards Pinerolo started in the early afternoon of the same day. September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Pinerolo is a town in Italy, 40 km southwest of Turin on the River Chisone. ...


Victor Amadeus and Eugene entered the liberated city and assisted a Te Deum issued to celebrate the victory. On the Superga Hill the Savoyard dynasty built a Basilica where, every September 7, a Te Deum is still held. Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ... The Basilica of Superga is a church in the vicinity of Turin. ...


The victory put an end to the war on the southern front. After the failed Siege of Toulon in the following year, no relevant military event took place there until the peace of Utrecht.


Footnotes

  1. ^ Excluding the city's garrison.

External links

  • Pages about the siege (Italian) (English) (German)
  • Pietro Micca and Siege of Turin Museum (Italian)

 
 

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