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Encyclopedia > Siege of Tenochtitlan
Siege of Tenochtitlan
Part of the Spanish conquest of Mexico

Depiction of the Spanish defeat at Metztitlan from the History of Tlaxcala (Lienzo de Tlaxcala), a 16th century codex.
Date May 26 - August 13, 1521
Location Tenochtitlan, present-day Mexico City, Mexico
Result Spanish and Tlaxcallãn victory
Combatants
Spain
Tlaxcallān
Aztec Empire
Commanders
Hernán Cortés
Pedro de Alvarado
Cuitláhuac
Cuauhtémoc
Strength
86 cavalry
900 infantry
80,000 natives
100,000-
300,000 warriors[1]
Casualties
20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead
100,000 civilian dead

The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés' capture of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. It was the final, decisive battle that led to the downfall of the Aztec civilization and marked the end of the first phase of the Spanish conquest of Mexico. The conquest of Mexico was part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Image File history File links Sixteenth century depiction of the battle for Tenochtitlan between the Aztecs and Hernan Cortes. ... Hernan Cortés and La Malinche in the city of Tlatelolco, in a drawing from the History of Tlaxcala History of Tlaxcala is an illustrated codex written by and under the supervision of Diego Muñoz Camargo in the years leading up to 1585. ... Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial era Aztecs. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Picture from the History of Tlaxcala showing Cortés meeting with the Tlaxcallan messengers. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, c. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... Cuauhtémoc tortured by Hernán Cortéz This article is about the Aztec Emperor named Cuauhtémoc. ... Conquistador (Spanish: []) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement established in the modern-day Bahamas... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ...

Contents

Early events

In 1519, Hernán Cortés landed on the coast of Mexico at a point which he named Vera Cruz. The landing party consisted of 400 men, 13 horses and some artillery. He soon came into contact with a number of tribes who resented the Aztec rule; Cortés skirmished with some of these natives, defeating them and earning an alliance with them against the Aztecs. A widely cited myth states that the Mexica initially thought Cortés to be to be Quetzalcoatl, a mythical persona prophesized to return to Mexico in the year Cortes landed, and from the same direction. This is now widely-believed to be a post-conquest invention, and most scholars agree that the Aztecs were quite aware that Cortés wasn't a god. Cortés entered the city of Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519. Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... See: Veracruz (city) (Mexico) Veracruz (state) (Mexico) Vera Cruz, Indiana Vera Cruz, Bahia, Brazil Vera Cruz, São Paulo, Brazil This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ...



At the same time, Cortés learned of another Spanish landing force, under Pánfilo de Narváez, and gained their allegiance with promises of the vast wealth of Tenochtitlan. He then led a small contingent of men to battle Narváez, and assimilated Narváez' army into his own force. Pánfilo de Narváez Pánfilo de Narváez (1470 – 1528) was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. ...


Massacre at the festival of Tóxcatl

Cortés left Pedro de Alvarado in command of Tenochtitlan when he left to fight Narváez. At this time, the Mexica began an Aztec ceremony, for which they had asked permission. Alvarado agreed but only if they guaranteed they were unarmed. It is difficult to determine what happened. An account of the situation by the Spanish relates that they attempted to prevent a human sacrifice, while an Aztec version says the Spaniards craved for the gold of the people. Alvarado ordered to close the door on the recint and ordered an attack on the people, most of them belonging to the upper classes, which would be known as The Massacre in the Main Temple, and as the Spanish attacked, the Aztec warriors came. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, c. ... The massacre in the Main Temple of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán is an episode in the Spanish conquest of Mexico which occurred on May 10, 1520. ...


Aztec revolt

The attack at the festival of Tóxcatl incited a revolt and, outnumbered, Alvarado and the Spanish were soon overwhelmed and lost control of the city. Cortés returned with his 1100 Spanish soldiers to aid in the battle, but his forces were pushed into the palace. Cortés freed Cuitláhuac, hoping that his release would end the revolt. However, as soon as Cuitláhuac was released, he was elected Emperor. The Aztecs then began to surround the palace, and Moctezuma was sent to order his people to cease fighting. He was later killed as a result (whether or not he did as the Spanish ordered him to is uncertain). Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ...


In June 1520, Cuitláhuac mounted a determined resistance to the Spaniards. The Aztecs began to attack Cortés' men, launching arrows and javelins. Spanish cannon and arquebuses killed many of the attacking Aztecs, but their numbers were so overwhelming that the Aztec could not be stopped from breaking through the palace walls. The city was laced with canals, and the Aztecs had far superior numbers, as well as control of the bridges over the canals, so attempts on the Spaniards' part to fight back were hopeless. Every Spaniard not killed was wounded. Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; possibly related to German Hakenbuechse or Dutch Haakbus) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ...


La Noche Triste

Main article: La Noche Triste

This major Aztec victory is still remembered as "La Noche Triste", or, the Sad Night. Popular tales say that Cortés wept under a tree the night of his defeat at the hands of the Aztecs. By the end of it, 869 Spaniards lay dead and some 1,200-2,000 Tlaxcalan allies with them, only 20 horses survived (all wounded). Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ...


In that "Sad Night" July 1, 1520, the Spaniards attempted to sneak out of the city with as much treasure as possible. Before the Spaniards left, they climbed the steps of the temple to see if the image and the cross were still there. Díaz del Castillo claims they were not, that Moctezuma had rescued them, but is more likely that the Mexicas destroyed them. Before they left, the Spaniards set fire to the temple.[2] July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... mary elline m. ...


Cortés had hoped to break out by muffling the horses' hooves and carrying boards to fill in one of the causeways (which had been opened to prevent escape). One account says a woman fetching water saw them and alerted the city, another says it was a sentry. The fighting was ferocious, and many of the Spaniards were hindered by having loaded themselves down with as much gold as they could carry. Aztec soldiers quickly attacked both by land and by sea shooting arrows at the fleeing Spaniards on the causeways from canoes. Many Spaniards drowned in the Texcoco lake weighed down by armour and booty.


Cortés and his troops fled from Tenochtitlan chased by the Aztecs. Cortes claimed only 150 Spaniards were lost along with 2,000 native allies. Thoan Cano, another primary source, gives 1150 Spaniards dead (probably more than the total number of Spaniards) while Francisco López de Gómara, Cortes' chaplain, estimated 450 Spaniards and 4,000 allies had died.[3] Cortés, Alvarado and a few hundred men managed to fight their way out of Tenochtitlan and escape. When faced with a gap in the causeway Alvarado made the famous "leap of Alvarado" using a spear to get to the other side. The women survivors included Cortés's translator (and later lover) Doña Marina, María Estrada and two of Moctezuma's daughters who had been given to Cortés. (A third died, apparently leaving behind her infant by Cortés, the mysterious second "María" named in his will.) Francisco López de Gómara (1511?-1566?) was a Spanish historian at Seville, who is particularly noted for his works in which he described the early 16th century expedition undertaken by Hernándo Cortés in the Spanish conquest of the New World. ... La Malinche and Hernan Cortés in the city of Xaltelolco, in a drawing from the late 16th century codex History of Tlaxcala. ... María de Estrada (perhaps identical with María (or Marina) de la Caballería) was the only woman to arrive in Mexico with the expedition of Hernán Cortés as well as the only woman of European descent to take part in and survive the Spanish conquest of...


The Aztecs insisted in chasing Cortés in his retreat as to destroy the weak remnants of his army. But, a few days later Cortés went suddenly back to confront the Aztecs with the scanty rest of his troops, and smashed them in the Otumba Valley (Otompan), where (probably) more than 20,000 Aztecs were killed and the rest of their army was disbanded. After this, Cortés returned to his base in Tlaxcala to recover his strength, receive supplies, more allied Tlaxcalteca warriors and more Spaniards arriving from Cuba. Otumba (from Nahuatl Otompan, place of Otomis) is one of the 125 municipalities of the state of México. ...


Battle of Otumba

Even outside the city, the Spaniards faced fierce struggles and lost many more men before they found refuge near Tlaxcalan territory, where they were given assistance and comfort.


Although the Spanish would have been easily destroyed had the Aztecs mounted a rapid pursuit, Cuitláhuac ordered his men to hold back because he desired a proper battle (despite the fact that he had only a small portion of the Aztec military in fighting condition). He set in motion a plan to defend the Aztec empire in a succession of massive battles all across the Mexico basin.


A week after La Noche Triste, the Spaniards passed practically in the shadow of the pyramids at Teotihuacan and then, on the plain of Otumba, they met a vast Aztec army intent on their destruction. The Aztecs had underestimated the shock value of the Spanish cavalry because all they had seen was the horses traveling on the wet paved streets of Tenochtitlan. They had never seen them used in battle. Cortés saw an opening to an important-looking general, made for him instantly with several of his horsemen, captured the general and turned the tide of the battle. The Aztecs retreated, leaving the path to Tlaxcala clear for the Spaniards.


Tlaxcalteca remain loyal to Cortés

The Tlaxcalteca could have crushed the Spaniards at this point. In fact, the Aztecs sent emissaries promising peace and prosperity if they would do just that. The Tlaxcalteca leaders rebuffed the overtures of the Aztec emissaries, deciding to continue their friendship with Cortés, but Cortés had to pay for supplies for his warriors.


Cortés managed to negotiate an alliance with the Tlaxcalteca, but on heavy terms: they expected to have the city of Cholula, a part of any spoillage they could get, the right to build a citadel in Tenochtitlan (for more control of the city) and finally, to be exempted from any future tribute. Cortés was willing to promise anything and in the name of King Charles of Spain, he agreed. The Spanish authorities later disowned this treaty.


The Spaniards complained about having to pay for their food and water with their gold and other jewels that they had escaped with.[4]


Most of the Spanish survivors of La Noche Triste wanted nothing more than to go home, or at the very least back to Vera Cruz to wait for reinforcements.


Cortés saw it differently. Not only had he staked everything he had or could borrow on the enterprise, but he had completely compromised himself by defying his superior Velazquez. He knew that in defeat he would be considered a traitor to Spain, but that in success he would be its hero. And his Tlaxcalan allies were still loyal. So he argued, cajoled, bullied and coerced his troops, and they began preparing for the siege of Mexico. By happy coincidence, reinforcements and supplies were beginning to trickle into Villa Rica and from there to the interior. Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 – 1524) was a Spanish conquistador. ...


More Spaniards came to replenish the depleted resources of the defeated soldiers, bringing 200 more men, 80 horses, ammunition and guns, 13 brigantines they had built for a naval assault on the capital.


The joint forces of Spain and Tlaxcala, began to take the cities loyal to the Aztecs one by one, cutting off the supplies to Tenochtitlan.


Siege of Tenochtitlan

This time, Cortés used a complex strategy to lay siege to the city. He divided his force into four groups, the first three attacking towns around the shore and securing the causeways leading out of the city. The fourth group, led by Cortés, consisted of the thirteen brigantines, which he sailed on the lake and used to eliminate any effective Aztec canoe counter attack. After some initial quarrelling amongst his commanders, and the defection of one Tlaxcalan leader, Xicotencatl the Younger, Cortés was ready to attack.


Naval blockade

Cortés ordered his master shipwright, Martín López, a Basque who was arguably his most critical survivor, to build 12 brigantines for a siege of the city. Indian porters brought all the supplies stripped from the original fleet over the mountains from the coast, while Cortés and his allies secured all the towns around the Tenochtitlán lake system.


Battle Of Tlacopan

Main article: Battle of Tlacopan

In March 1521, Cortés assembled his allies. Under Spanish command were around 80,000 men (less than 600 of them were Spaniards and only 40 were cavalry), the plan being to gain control of communities near Tenochtitlan as a springboard for the final attack. As they reached the city of Tlacopan, he was met by a massive army, led by the new Emperor Cuauhtémoc: Cuitláhuac had died of smallpox only about 40 days into his rule. Cuauhtémoc managed to defeat the Spanish and halt the march to the capital in a brilliant, though bloody and long, land and naval attack. Tlacopan means florid plant on flat ground or also named Tacuba was one of the mesoamericans kingdoms of the prehispanic age Triple Alianza (together with Tenochtitlan and Texcoco). ...


It is worth noting that by this time the Mexica had grown accustomed to the Spanish tactics, and used this knowledge effectively in this battle, thereby negating the tactical advantage afforded to the Spanish by their guns. Many of the guns used by the Spanish were obsolete and clumsy to use in the close-combat situation that the Spanish found themselves in. [5]


This one battle significantly pushed back the Spanish-Native confederacy and they subsequently lost control of the area. Although this was a major tactical defeat, Cortés was able to turn the aftermath of the battle into a major strategic gain for the Spaniards, as he was able to cut off the water supply to Tenochtitlan from Chapultepec, which would later ravage the city and lead to an earlier defeat in the siege. Chapultepec (ChapoltepÄ“c = at the grasshopper hill in the Nahuatl language) is a large hill on the outskirts of central Mexico City with much significance in Mexican history. ...


Smallpox decimates the Aztecs

Aztec resistance was almost entirely wiped out at this point from contracting diseases at battles. The siege of Tenochtitlán began at a time when smallpox struck with a vengeance. Cortés's Indian allies suffered as well, with an estimated 40% mortality, but the effect on morale in Tenochtitlán, as they began to starve as well, must have been horrendous. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ...


By the time Cortés arrived at the shores of Tenochtitlan, the population of the city had been ravaged by smallpox, which had been brought by a Spanish slave who had been abandoned in the capital during La Noche Triste.


With the Spaniards controlling the causeways, Tenochtitlan was now cut off from external food supplies. By the end of May, the aqueduct providing water to the city from Chapultepec was destroyed, as was the canoe fleet. However, gaps created in the causeways made invasion on foot all but impossible.


The final battle went on for ten weeks. One of the brigantines fired into the city, and served to transport soldiers who enjoyed some early successes but were driven back by the overwhelming numbers of Aztecs. The Spaniards and their allies fought their way across the causeways, were driven back and advanced again.


Fall of Tenochtitlan

The Spaniards slowly, gradually made their way into the city. When they got into the city, every rooftop was an enemy stronghold.


Most of the population took refuge in the city of Tlatelolco. Tlatelolco was almost adjacent to Tenochtitlan. Cortéz sent Indian emissaries from a conquered Aztec city to have the Tlatelolcas join his side and surrender the Mexica refugees, but the Tlatelolca remained loyal to the Mexica. In the chronicles of Tlatelolco, they told they took the last burden of the battle, and at the end the women cut their hair and joined the battle.


Most of the city was destroyed, because the only way for Cortés to hold a sector was to raze it. Some have conjectured that Cortés genuinely wanted to spare the beautiful city, and with so many Mexica attacking from the roofs it seems plausible to some that the invading forces pulled houses down street by street out of expediency, thus finding it necessary to destroy the whole city. Yet in the end, with a majority of the city destroyed, the Spanish destroyed everything that remained.


Smallpox and the lack of fresh water and food eventually took their toll upon the Aztecs. Still, the Aztecs refused to give up. By August, they were confined to the formerly great market precinct of Tlatelolco.


With Cortés closing in, Cuauhtémoc considered escaping to the mainland where he planned to keep up the struggle in guerrilla fashion. However, he decided instead to surrender to Cortés in order to allow some of his people to escape. Before he surrendered he gave the people his last mandate, telling the people to take the teachings into their homes in secret until the day the sun shines upon the Aztecs once again. Cuauhtémoc's surrender effectively ended the Aztec resistance.


On August 13, Cortés finally entered the now-empty city once again, officially conquering it. August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ...

The Aztec world
Aztec society

Nahuatl language
Aztec calendar
Aztec religion
Aztec mythology
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture Image File history File links Representación pictórica de la Piedra del Sol Representação pictórica da Pedra do Sol File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec calendar Wikipedia:Commons ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... // The society traditionally was divided into two classes; the macehualli (people) or peasantry and the pilli or nobility. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ... The Religion of the Aztecs was a typical Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of Astronomy and calendrics. ... The Aztec civilization recognized many gods and supernatural creatures. ... Human sacrifice is known to have been an aspect of Aztec culture, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. ...

Aztec history

Aztlán
Aztec codices
Aztec warfare
Aztec Triple Alliance
Spanish conquest of Mexico
Siege of Tenochtitlan
La Noche Triste
Hernán Cortés The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The seven caves of Chicomoztoc, from Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca Aztlán (, from Nahuatl Aztlan ) is the legendary ancestral home of the Nahua peoples, one of the main cultural groups in Mesoamerica. ... Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial era Aztecs. ... Aztec warfare concerns the aspects associated with the militaristic conventions, forces, weaponry and strategic expansions conducted by the Late Postclassic Aztec civilization of Mesoamerica, including particularly the military history of the Aztec Triple Alliance involving the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan and other allied polities of the central Mexican... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ...

Hueyi Tlatoani

Tenoch (13251376)
Acamapichtli (13761395)
Huitzilíhuitl (13951417)
Chimalpopoca (14171427)
Itzcóatl (14271440)
Moctezuma I (14401469)
Axayacatl (14691481)
Tízoc (14811486)
Auítzotl (14861502)
Moctezuma II (15021520)
Cuitláhuac (1520)
Cuauhtémoc (15201521) Huey Tlatoani (Nahuatl great speaker, also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Hueyi Tlahtoani; plural Huey Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). ... Tenoch was a ruler of the Azteca during the fourteenth century. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Acamapichtli was the first tlatoani (king) of the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Huitzilíhuitl (died circa 1417) was the second Tlatoani, or Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Chimalpopoca (died circa 1427) was the third Tlatoani, or Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Itzcóatl was the leader of the Tenochcas or Aztec from 1427/1428 to 1440. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Axayacatl (pron. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Tízoc was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the eighth Aztec ruler, the Chief Speaker, of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... mary elline m. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... mary elline m. ... Cuauhtémoc tortured by Hernán Cortéz This article is about the Aztec Emperor named Cuauhtémoc. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ...

See also

Although there are tantalizing fragments of evidence suggesting human habitation of Mexico more than 20,000 years ago (see Tlapacoya archaeological site), there is no uncontested evidence that humans arrived in Mexico earlier than ~15,000 BP. Ancient Mexicans began to selectively breed corn plants around 8,000 BC. Evidence... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ...

Notes

  1. ^ George Edwin Mueller
  2. ^ Religious Conflicts in the Conquest of Mexico
  3. ^ Prescott, Book 5, Chapter 3
  4. ^ The Reconquest of Mexico
  5. ^ James Lockhart, 1993, p7-8 of Introducton to We people here: Náhuatl accounts of the Conquest of Mexico, University of California Press

References

Primary sources

  • Hernán Cortés, Letters – available as Letters from Mexico translated by Anthony Pagden (1986) ISBN 0-300-09094-3
  • Francisco López de Gómara, Hispania Victrix; First and Second Parts of the General History of the Indies, with the whole discovery and notable things that have happened since they were acquired until the year 1551, with the conquest of Mexico and New Spain
  • Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Conquest of New Spain – available as The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico: 1517-1521 ISBN 0-306-81319-X
  • León-Portilla, Miguel (Ed.) [1959] (1992). The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Ángel María Garibay K. (Nahuatl-Spanish trans.), Lysander Kemp (Spanish-English trans.), Alberto Beltran (illus.), Expanded and updated edition, Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5501-8. 

Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ... Miguel León-Portilla (born in Mexico City, 22 February 1926) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and the prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature. ... Fray Ángel María Garibay K.(intana) (June 18, 1892– October 19, 1967) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest, philologist, linguist, historian, and scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, specifically of the Nahua peoples of the central Mexican highlands. ...

Secondary sources

  • Conquest: Cortés, Montezuma, and the Fall of Old Mexico by Hugh Thomas (1993) ISBN 0-671-51104-1
  • Cortés and the Downfall of the Aztec Empire by Jon Manchip White (1971) ISBN 0-7867-0271-0
  • History of the Conquest of Mexico. by William H. Prescott ISBN 0-375-75803-8
  • The Rain God cries over Mexico by László Passuth
  • Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest by Matthew Restall, Oxford University Press (2003) ISBN 0-19-516077-0
  • The Conquest of America by Tzvetan Todorov (1996) ISBN 0-06-132095-1
  • "Hernando Cortés" by Fisher, M. & Richardson K.
  • "Hernando Cortés" Crossroads Resource Online.
  • "Hernando Cortés" by Jacobs, W.J., New York, N.Y.:Franklin Watts, Inc. 1974.
  • "The World’s Greatest Explorers: Hernando Cortés." Chicago, by Stein, R.C., Illinois: Chicago Press Inc. 1991.
  • Davis, Paul K. (2003). "Besieged: 100 Great Sieges from Jericho to Sarajevo." Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • History of the Conquest of Mexico, with a Preliminary View of Ancient Mexican Civilization, and the Life of the Conqueror, Hernando Cortes By William H. Prescott [1]

Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (born October 21, 1931 Windsor), is a British historian. ... William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 - January 29, 1859) was a historian. ... Tzvetan Todorov (Bulgarian: ) (born on March 1, 1939 in Sofia) is a Franco-Bulgarian philosopher. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
List of sieges (891 words)
Siege of Gibraltar (1349–1350) - fifth siege of Gibraltar, by Alfonso XI in the Reconquista
Siege of Gibraltar (1374) - sixth siege of Gibraltar, by the Nasrid in the Reconquista
Siege of Gibraltar (1467) - ninth siege of Gibraltar, by the Duke of Medina Sidonia
Tenochtitlán: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2008 words)
Tenochtitlan (pronounced [tɛ.nɔtʃ.tɪ.tɬaːn]) or, alternatively, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, (Nahuatl for "Mexico among the stone-cacti") was the capital of the Aztec empire, built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Federal District in central Mexico.
Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 square kilometers, situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco.
Some of the remaining ruins of Tenochtitlan's main temple, the Templo Mayor, were uncovered during the construction of a metro line in the 1970s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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