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Encyclopedia > Siege of Sarajevo
Siege of Sarajevo
Part of the Bosnian War

Bosnian government parliament building burns after being hit by Serbian tank fire. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Date April 5, 1992[1] - February 29, 1996[2]
Location Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Casus
belli
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence
Result Siege lifted due to the Dayton Agreement
Combatants
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina ARBiH (1992-95)
 NATO (1995)
Flag of Yugoslavia JNA (1992)
Flag of Republic of Srpska VRS (1992-95)
Commanders
Jovan Divjak
Mustafa Hajrulahović
Vahid Karavelić
Nedžad Ajnadžić
Stanislav Galić (1992-94)
Dragomir Milošević (1994-95)
Strength
40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992)

The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of modern warfare, lasting from April 5, 1992 to February 29, 1996. Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (526x750, 254 KB) Summary A building in the centre of Sarajevo burns after being hit by tank fire during the siege in 1992. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_NATO.svg The flag of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Jovan Divjak (Born March 11, 1937 in Belgrade, Serbia) was a general in the Bosnian army during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War. ... Stanislav Galić, Serb commander of certain serb troops in Bosnia (Romanija Corps). ... General Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (February 4, 1942) was the commander of the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps of the Bosnian Serb Army which besieged Sarajevo for three years during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


It was fought during the Bosnian War between the forces of the Bosnian government, who had declared independence from Yugoslavia, and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Bosnian Serb forces (VRS), who sought to destroy the newly-independent state of Bosnia and Herzegovina and create the Serbian state of Republika Srpska (RS). Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian and languages of other nationalities. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde2 (English: God of Justice) Patron Saint: Saint Stephen3 The location of Republika Srpska as part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


It is estimated that more than 12,000 people were killed and 50,000 wounded during the siege, 85% of them civilians. Because of killing and forced migration, by 1995 the population decreased to 334,663 - 64% of the prewar population.[1] In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...

Contents

Warfare

Build-up

From its creation following World War II, the government of Yugoslavia kept a close watch on nationalism among the Yugoslav peoples, as it could have led to chaos and the breakup of the state. With longtime Marshal Tito's death in 1980, this policy took a dramatic reversal. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian and languages of other nationalities. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Start of the war

Serb militants in Sarajevo. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Serb militants in Sarajevo. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev

The first casualty of war is a point of contention between Serbs and Bosniaks. Serbs contend that the first casualty was Serb Nikola Gardović, a groom's father killed at a Serb wedding procession on the first day of the referendum, March 1, 1992. Bosniaks contend that this was one of a number of politically oriented killings in the first quarter of that year. Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-serbs-boy-gun-to-head. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-serbs-boy-gun-to-head. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


On April 5, the day of the declaration of independence, massive anti-war marches took place in the city, with the largest group of protesters moving towards the parliament building. At that point, Serb gunmen fired upon the crowd from the Serbian Democratic Party headquarters, killing two persons. These persons, Suada Dilberović and Olga Sučić, are considered by Bosniaks to be the first casualties of the war in Bosnia and the siege of Sarajevo; today, the bridge where they were killed is named in their honor. On the same day, Serb paramilitaries attacked the Sarajevo police academy, commanding strategic positions in Vraca, high above the city. is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Serbian Democratic Party (Serbian: Srpska Demokratska Stranka, SDS) is a Serbian nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Suada Dilberović (born 1968 in Dubrovnik, Croatia - died April 5, 1992 in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina) was a Bosniak medical student at the University of Sarajevo who became the first person in Sarajevo to be killed during the Bosnian War. ... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Police Academy is a long-running series of comedy films, the first six of which were made in the 1980s. ...


Early fighting for the city

A map of the initial JNA offensive
A map of the initial JNA offensive

In the months leading up to the war, the JNA forces in the region began to mobilize in the hills surrounding the city. Artillery and various other equipment that would prove key in the future besieging of the city was implemented at this time. In April of 1992, the Bosnian government demanded that the government of Yugoslavia remove these forces. Milošević's government agreed to withdraw those forces who were not of Bosnian nationality, an insignificant number. Those Bosnian Serb forces in the army were transferred to the VRS, which had declared independence from Bosnia a few days after Bosnia itself seceded from Yugoslavia. Combatants ARBiH VRS Commanders Atif Dudakovic Zeljko Raznatovic Strength 25,000 20,000-30,000 est. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


On May 2, 1992, a complete blockade of the city was officially established by the Bosnian Serb forces. Major roads leading into the city were blocked, as were shipments of food and medicine. Utilities such as water, electricity, and heating were cut off. The number of Serbian forces around Sarajevo, although better armed, was inferior in number to the Bosnian defenders within the city. Hence, after the failure of initial attempts to take over the city by the attacks of JNA's armored columns, the besieging forces continuously bombarded and weakened the city from the mountains, fortified into at least two hundred reinforced positions and bunkers. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire directed against fortifications, troops or towns and buildings. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ...


The siege of Sarajevo

Norwegian UN soldier at the Sarajevo airport. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Norwegian UN soldier at the Sarajevo airport. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev

The second half of 1992 and first half of 1993 were the height of the siege of Sarajevo. Various atrocities were committed during heavy fighting. Serbian forces from outside the city continuously shelled the government defenders. Most of the major military positions and arms supplies within the city were in Serbian control. Snipers roamed the city all over as Pazite, Snajper! ("Beware, Sniper!") became a common sign. Some streets were so dangerous to cross or use that they became known as "sniper alleys". Some neighborhoods of the city were taken over by the Serbs, especially in Novo Sarajevo, as Serbian offensives into parts of the city were met with success. To counterbalance the siege, the Sarajevo Airport was opened to United Nations (UN) airlifts in late June of 1992. Sarajevo's survival became strongly dependent on them. Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-un-holds-head. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-un-holds-head. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq in 2005. ... Red triangles represent snipers posts, and their fields of fire shaded in yellow. ... Novo Sarajevo is marked with number 6 on this map of the Sarajevo Canton. ... Offensive may relate to In sports or combat, the team which is attacking, pitching or moving forwards In language or morals, terms and concepts which are unacceptable to some people, such as swearing and profanity. ... Sarajevo International Airport (IATA: SJJ, ICAO: LQSA) is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located just a few kilometers southwest of the capital city of Sarajevo. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The Bosnian government forces had greatly inferior weaponry to the besiegers. Some Bosnian black market criminals who had joined the army at the outset of the war illegally smuggled arms into the city through Serb lines, and the raids on Serb held positions within the city too helped the cause. The Sarajevo Tunnel, completed in mid-1993, allowed supplies to come into the city, and people to get out. The tunnel was one of the major ways of bypassing the international arms embargo and providing the city defenders with weaponry, and it was said the tunnel saved Sarajevo. However, by April 1995 there were only 20 artillery pieces and five tanks in the defence of the city. The strength of the First Corps lay in its considerable supplies of rocket-propelled grenades, anti-aircraft missiles, and anti-tank missiles, but they could not really be used in the offensive actions needed to break out of Sarajevo. [2] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the DEA. Smuggling is illegal transport, in particular across a border. ... A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: page blanked by its creator If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... An arms embargo serves one or more purposes. ... A rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a man-portable, shoulder-launched weapon capable of firing an explosive device longer distances than an otherwise unassisted soldier could throw. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... An Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) is a missile the primary purpose of which is to hit and destroy tanks. ...

Vedran Smailović playing in the partially destroyed National Library in Sarajevo in 1992. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Vedran Smailović playing in the partially destroyed National Library in Sarajevo in 1992. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev

Reports indicate an average of approximately 329 shell impacts per day during the course of the siege, with a high of 3,777 shell impacts on July 22, 1993. The shellfire caused extensive damage to the city's structures, including civilian and cultural property. By September 1993, reports concluded that virtually all buildings in Sarajevo had suffered some degree of damage, and 35,000 were completely destroyed. Among these buildings targeted and destroyed were hospitals and medical complexes, media and communication centers, industrial targets, government buildings, and military and UN facilities. Some of the more significant of these were the building of the presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the National Library, which burned to the ground along with thousands of irreplaceable texts. Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-cello. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-cello. ... Vedran Smailović, in Sarajevo, 1992. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predsjedništvo Bosne i Hercegovine/Предсједништво Босне и Херцеговине) is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. ...

Funeral of a civilian killed in Sarajevo. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Funeral of a civilian killed in Sarajevo. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev

The shelling of the city took a tremendous toll on lives. Mass killings due primarily to mortar shell impacts made headline news in the West. On June 1, 1993, 15 people were killed and 80 injured during a soccer game. On July 12 of the same year, 12 people were killed while in line for water. The biggest of these however was the first Markale marketplace massacre on February 5, 1994 , in which 68 civilians were killed and 200 were wounded. Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-funeral-reaction. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-funeral-reaction. ... A mass murder (massacre) involves the murder of large numbers of people either by a state or an individual. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Photograph from the scene, shortly after one of the massacres. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


In response to the Markale massacre, the UN issued an ultimatum to Serb forces to withdraw heavy weaponry beyond a certain point in a given amount of time or face air strikes. Near the end of the given time, Serb forces complied. City shelling drastically decreased at that point, which could perhaps be seen as the beginning of the end of siege. An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... A military strike is a limited attack on a specified target. ...


NATO and Croatian intervention

See also: 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina

In 1995, after the second Markale massacre, in which 37 people were killed and 90 were wounded, the international forces firmly turned against the besiegers. When the Serb forces raided a UN-monitored weapons collection site, NATO jets attacked Bosnian Serb ammunition depots and other strategic military targets. On the ground fighting escalated, this time with the joint Bosnian and Croatian forces on the offensive, and the Serbs slowly lost more and more ground both in Sarajevo area and elsewhere. Heating, electricity, and water would eventually come back to the city as well. Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft, 2 pilots POW Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted by the North-Atlantic military organization to undermine the military capability of... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... An ammunition dump, ammunition compound, ammunition depot or ammo dump, is a military storage facility for live ammunition and explosives. ...


A cease fire was reached in October 1995, and the Dayton Agreement was reached later that year bringing peace to the country. A period of stabilization and return to normalcy followed, with the Bosnian government not officially declaring the siege of Sarajevo over until February 29, 1996. An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


Aftermath

Scars remain across the city, serving as poignant reminders of the destruction
Scars remain across the city, serving as poignant reminders of the destruction

Sarajevo was heavily damaged during those four years. The manuscript collection of the Oriental Institute in Sarajevo, one of the richest collections of Oriental manuscripts in the world, was deliberately destroyed by Serb nationalist forces. The siege of Sarajevo was undoubtedly the worst and most catastrophic period in the city's history since the World War I. Prior to the siege, the city was experiencing tremendous growth and development. The 1984 Winter Olympics had brought back some of the glory Sarajevo hadn't seen since the late 17th century. The warfare put a stop to all of this, taking the city back to a desolated state of destruction. Image File history File linksMetadata Bloodpave. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bloodpave. ... The Oriental Institute in Sarajevo, its premises, research library and complete manuscript collection (more that 2. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The city used to be a model for inter-ethnic relations, but the siege of Sarajevo inspired dramatic population shifts. Aside from the thousands of refugees who left the city, an immense number of Sarajevo Serbs left for the Republika Srpska as well. The percentage of Serbs in Sarajevo decreased from more than 30% in 1991 to slightly over 10% in 2002. Regions of Novo Sarajevo that are now part of the Republika Srpska have formed East Sarajevo (Serbian Sarajevo), where a good deal of the pre-war Serbian population lives today. Some Serbs that remained in Sarajevo were treated harshly by refugees returning to their homes, significantly so in Ilidža. Novo Sarajevo is marked with number 6 on this map of the Sarajevo Canton. ... East Sarajevo or Istočno Sarajevo is the part of the city of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina that belongs to Republika Srpska. ...


Since the gloomy desolate years of the early 1990s, Sarajevo has made tremendous progress, and is well on its way to recovery as a modern European capital[citation needed]. By 2004 most of the damage done to buildings during the siege was fixed. New construction projects have made Sarajevo perhaps the fastest growing city in the former Yugoslavia. Sarajevo's metro-area population in 2002 was around 401,000, which was 20,000 less than the population of the city itself in 1991. With its current growth and reconstruction, Sarajevo may one day in the not so distant future return to its late 1980s form and is clearly on the fast track to recovery, but the scars of the siege of Sarajevo on its history may never fully disappear. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ethnic cleansing

Mixed couple Admira Ismić and Boško Brkić shot dead while trying to escape Sarajevo
Burned apartment buildings in downtown Grbavica, a Serb-occupied suburb of Sarajevo, before being turned in to the government in 1996
Burned apartment buildings in downtown Grbavica, a Serb-occupied suburb of Sarajevo, before being turned in to the government in 1996

The Serb forces carried out a vicious campaign of ethnic cleansing in the parts of the city occupied by them during the siege. Non-nationalist Serbs were also targets of violence. In The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia, Michael A. Sells wrote: Image File history File links Brckic_and_ismic_dead. ... Image File history File links Brckic_and_ismic_dead. ... Romeo and Juliet in Sarajevo was an international documentary about the deaths of Admira Ismić (b. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Grbavica can refer to: Grbavica (Novi Sad), a quarter of the city Novi Sad in Serbia and Montenegro. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ...

Serbs who refused to participate in the persecution of Muslims were killed. In a Serb-army occupied area of Sarajevo, Serb militants killed a Serb officer who objected to atrocities against civilians; they left his body on the street for over a week as an object lesson. During one of the 'selections' carried out by Serb militants in Sarajevo, an old Serb named Ljubo objected to being separated out from his Muslim friends and neighbors; they beat him to death on the spot.

After several years in the 1990s characterised by denial of the widely held view of the Serb role in the Yugoslav wars, a trend has developed in the 2000s where Serb nationalists have attempted to draw Bosniak and Croat parallels to such infamous examples of atrocities as Srebrenica. Regarding Sarajevo, the typical claim is that between 1992 and 1995, 150,000 Serbs were ethnically cleansed from Sarajevo, with several thousand killed. The allegations were brought to the media forefront in early 2005 when the Prime Minister of RS, Pero Bukejlović, claimed that genocide was committed against Serbs during the siege of Sarajevo that exceeded that of the Srebrenica massacre. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... Burial of 505 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2006) Burial of 610 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2005 The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8,000 Bosniak males, in the region of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina by units... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Pero Bukejlović (Перо Букејловић) (born August 9, 1946 in BuÅ¡letic) is the current Prime Minister of Republika Srpska (since January 10, 2005) after the resignation of Dragan Mikerević (December 17, 2004) Categories: Articles to be expanded | Politician stubs | 1946 births | Politics of Republika Srpska ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Burial of 505 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2006) Burial of 610 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2005 The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8,000 Bosniak males, in the region of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina by units...


Today, Sarajevo citizens of all nationalities generally take accusations of ethnic cleansing by the government forces in Sarajevo during the war as a highly offensive insult. In response to premier Bukejlović's statement, many have demanded a public apology to all Sarajevo citizens. The president of the Serb Citizens Council, Dr. Mirko Pejanović (a wartime member of the Bosnia-Herzegovina Presidency, and the 2007-2011 Dean of the Faculty of Political Sciences at the University of Sarajevo), stated: This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Nobody, not even Bukejlović, can change or cover up the truth for the sake of current political needs. In Sarajevo, during the four year siege carried out by Karadžić's military forces and the SDS, there were deaths of Sarayevians of all ethnicities. The people were both suffering and dying from hunger, cold, they were being killed by mortar shells... among the 12,000 killed Sarayevians recorded in the war, at least one fourth were members of the Serb nation or had Serb ethnic ancestry. Thus, we can not talk of an extermination or genocide of Serbs, but of a responsibility of the SDS and Karadžić's military forces for the overall extermination of Sarajevo and Sarayevians, and within that of the Serb people.

During the war, Serb forces systematically raped and sexually abused Muslim Bosnian women in rape camps after being separated from men. There are claims the rapes occurred with the knowledge and approval of Serbian officials. In 2001, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) officially indicted Dragoljub Kunarac, Radomir Kovac, and Zoran Vukovic for the crimes of rape.


Siege of Sarajevo in documentaries and art

The former building of Sarajevo newspaper Oslobođenje. For years after the siege it remained as a memorial
The former building of Sarajevo newspaper Oslobođenje. For years after the siege it remained as a memorial

Download high resolution version (480x640, 41 KB)Picture obtained from French Wikipedia. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 41 KB)Picture obtained from French Wikipedia. ... The building of Oslobodjenje in 1996; only the lifts remained after the Siege of Sarajevo. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Bosnian writer born in Kiseljak, near Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina, in 1960. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Savatage is a progressive heavy metal band founded by the brothers Jon and Criss Oliva in 1979. ... Trans-Siberian Orchestra (often abbreviated as TSO) is a Rock and Heavy Metal orchestra founded by Paul ONeill, Robert Kinkel, and Jon Oliva in 1996. ... Dead Winter Dead is a concept album by Savatage, released in 1995 dealing with a Serb boy and a Muslim girl who fall in love. ... Savatage is a progressive heavy metal band founded by the brothers Jon and Criss Oliva in 1979. ... Fax from Sarajevo is a graphic novel by Joe Kubert characterized by the veteran artists heavily inked yet brisk and emotionally charged linework. ... Joe Kubert (born September 18, 1926, Poland) is an American comic book artist who went on to found the Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art. ... Miss Sarajevo is the only single from Passengers 1995 album, Original Soundtracks No. ... U2 (IPA: /ju. ... Brian Eno (pronounced ) (born Brian Peter George St. ... Natashas Story is a 1994 book by war correspondent Michael Nicholson and is based on his work for the British news broadcaster, ITN. Deeply shocked about the catastrophic situation of 200 orphaned children in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Nicholson adopted a girl, Natasha, under adventurous circumstances and gave her a new... Michael Nicholson OBE is a journalist and former ITN Senior Foreign Correspondent who reported from wars in Nigeria, Ulster, Vietnam, Cambodia, Jordan, India and Pakistan, Rhodesia, Cyprus, Beirut, Angola, the Falklands and the Persian Gulf. ... Sarajevo Tango is an anti-war comic book/graphic novel by Hermann initially released in 1995 (ISBN 2-8001-2269-2). ... Hermann Huppen, born July 17, 1938, is a Belgian cartoonist. ... Shot Through the Heart is a 1998 TV film directed by David Attwood, shown on the BBC and HBO in 1998, which covers the Siege of Sarajevo during the Bosnian War. ... Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was a well-known American essayist, novelist, intellectual, filmmaker, and activist. ... Romeo and Juliet in Sarajevo was an international documentary about the deaths of Admira Ismić (b. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... FRONTLINE is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... Welcome to Sarajevo is a British war movie from 1997. ... Winterbottom at the Toronto International Film Festival. ... Zlatas Diary (ISBN 0140242058) is a book by Zlata Filipovic, a young girl living in Sarajevo while it was under siege in 1992. ...

Notes

  1. ^ April 5, 1992 was the date of the first attack on Sarajevo by the JNA and Serb paramilitaries and is as such considered the beginning of the siege. However as early as March 1, 1992 barricades and and armed gunmen started appearing on the streets of Sarajevo.
  2. ^ February 29, 1996 was the official end to the siege as declared by the Bosnian government. The war ended with the signing of the Dayton Accords on November 21, 1995 and the Paris Protocol on December 14, 1995. The reason that the siege was not declared as over was because the Serbs had not yet implemented the Dayton deal which required them to withdraw from areas north and west of Sarajevo as well as other parts of the city. The Serbs also violated the Dayton peace by firing a rocket propelled grenade at a Sarajevo tram on January 9, 1996 killing 1 and wounding 19.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Siege of Sarajevo
  • Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts on the Siege of Sarajevo
  • An incomplete list of persons killed during the siege.
  • Survival Map of Sarajevo
  • Photos of Siege of Sarajevo
  • Radovan Karadzicc $5 million Reward - The U.S. Government is offering $5 million reward for information leading to the arrest of Radovan Karadzic
  • Ratko Mladic $5 million Reward - The U.S. Government is offering $5 million reward for information leading to the arrest of Ratko Mladic
  • [7] - Bosnia's rape babies: abandoned by their families, forgotten by the state
  • [8] - Systematic Rape in Bosnia: a Tool of Genocide- Evidence Serb leaders in Bosnia OKd attacks
  • [9] - Mass Rape in Bosnia: 20,000 WOMEN, MOSTLY MUSLIMS, HAVE BEEN ABUSED BY SERB SOLDIERS
  • [10] - Rape: weapon of war
  • [11] - Bosnia: Landmark Verdicts for Rape, Torture, and Sexual Enslavement
  • [12] - Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation Bosnia and Herzegovina

  Results from FactBites:
 
Siege of Sarajevo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3022 words)
The siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of modern warfare.
To counterbalance the siege, the Sarajevo Airport was opened to United Nations (UN) airlifts in late June of 1992.
Sarajevo's metro-area population in 2002 was around 401,000, which was 20,000 less than the population of the city itself in 1991.
Siege of Sarajevo: 1992-1996 (624 words)
Sarajevo, which gets its name from the word "serai", which is Turkish for "palace", was founded in the 15th century and later became a military, administrative, and commercial center of Turkey.
Sarajevo has served as a setting for a great number of important historical events, events that have often been tumultuous and engrossed in conflict.
Residents came very close to complete starvation, and their only chance for survival weighed in the balance on the success of UN airlifts from the Sarajevo airport that was opened in late June of 1992.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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