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Encyclopedia > Siege of Petersburg
Siege of Petersburg
Part of the American Civil War

Troops in the Siege of Petersburg faced the usual siege armaments — projectiles of all shapes and sizes and attacks on fortifications — but the Union added underground explosives to the mix.
Date June 15, 1864March 25, 1865
Location Petersburg, Virginia
Result Union victory
Combatants
United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America
Commanders
Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee
Strength
67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000
Casualties
53,386 ~32,000
Richmond–Petersburg Campaign
1st Petersburg2nd PetersburgJerusalem Plank RoadStaunton River BridgeSappony Church1st Ream's Station1st Deep BottomCrater2nd Deep BottomGlobe Tavern2nd Ream's StationChaffin's FarmPeebles' FarmDarbytown & New Market RoadsDarbytown RoadFair Oaks & Darbytown RoadBoydton Plank RoadHatcher's RunFort Stedman

The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War. Although it is more popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg, it was not a classic military siege, in which a city is usually fully surrounded and all supply lines are cut off. It was ten months of trench warfare in which Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and then constructed trench lines that eventually extended over 30 miles around the eastern and southern outskirts of the city. Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond. This article is becoming very long. ... Download high resolution version (1404x1095, 259 KB)115. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Location Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Virginia Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Mayor Annie M. Mickens Geographical characteristics Area     City 60. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... // This article is about the Confederate general. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Benjamin Butler P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 4,500 2,500 Casualties 250 150 The first Battle of Petersburg was a minor, unsuccessful Union assault against the city of Petersburg, Virginia, June 9, 1864. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 62,000 42,000 Casualties 8,150 3,236 The Second Battle of Petersburg, also known as the Assault on Petersburg, was the major attempt by... Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road Conflict American Civil War Date June 21–24,1864 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union extended siege lines) The Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road, also known as the First Battle of the Weldon Railroad, was the first of a series of battles during the... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Brigadier General James H. Wilson and Brigadier General August V. Kautz General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee and Captain Benjamin Farinholt Strength 5000 938 Casualties at least 42 at least 10[1] The Battle of Staunton River Bridge was an... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Brigadier General James H. Wilson and Brigadier General August V. Kautz General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee and Major General Wade Hampton Casualties unknown unknown[1][2] The Battle of Sappony Church was an engagement of the American Civil War... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders James H. Wilson, August Kautz [US] William Mahone, Fitzhugh Lee [CS] Strength Third Cavalry Division, Army of the Potomac 2nd, 5th, 6th, 15th VA; 2nd, 5th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, FL; 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 13th, 14th AL Infantries; 3rd... The First Battle of Deep Bottom was fought from July 27 to July 29, 1864, at Deep Bottom in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength IX Corps elements of the Army of Northern Virginia Casualties 5,300 total 1,032 total The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the Siege... The Second Battle of Deep Bottom was fought from August 14 to August 20, 1864, at Deep Bottom in Henrico County, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Globe Tavern Conflict American Civil War Date August 18–21,1864 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Globe Tavern, also known as the Second Battle of the Weldon Railroad, saw the Confederate forces loose control of the vital Weldon Railroad to the Union army... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Winfield S. Hancock Henry Heth Strength II Corps Heths Division, III Corps Casualties 2,750 814 {{{notes}}} The Second Battle of Reams Station was fought in the American Civil War on August 25, 1864, in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. ... Map of Battle of Chaffins Farm The Battle of Chaffins Farm, also known as New Market Heights (September 29–30, 1864), was fought as part of the Siege of Petersburg in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Peebles Farm (or Poplar Springs Church) was the western part of a simultaneous Union offensive against the Confederate works guarding Petersburg, Virginia and Richmond, Virginia. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders David B. Birney, August V. Kautz Robert Hoke, Charles W. Field Strength Corps At least 2 divisions Casualties 458 700[1] The Battle of Darbytown and New Market Roads was an engagement between Union and Confederate forces during the... The Battle of Darbytown Road was fought on October 7, 1864 between Union and Confederate forces. ... The Battle of Fair Oaks & Darbytown Road (also known as the Second Battle of Fair Oaks) was fought October 27 and October 28, 1864, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of the Boydton Plank Road (or First Hatchers Run) followed the successfull battle of Peebles Farm. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Battle of Fort Steadman Conflict American Civil War Date March 25, 1865 Place Petersburg Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Steadman occurred on March 25th, 1865, during the final days of the American Civil War. ... Location Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Virginia Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Mayor Annie M. Mickens Geographical characteristics Area     City 60. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article is becoming very long. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... // This article is about the Confederate general. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...


Lee finally yielded to the overwhelming pressure—the point at which supply lines were finally cut and a true siege would have begun—and abandoned both cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender in the Appomattox Campaign. The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that would be common in World War I, earning it a prominent position in military history. It also featured the largest concentration of African American troops employed in the war, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffin's Farm. Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A company of 4th USCT Infantry African Americans at Siege of Petersburg In Petersburg At the beginning of the Civil War, Virginia had a black population of about 549,000. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength IX Corps elements of the Army of Northern Virginia Casualties 5,300 total 1,032 total The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the Siege... Map of Battle of Chaffins Farm The Battle of Chaffins Farm, also known as New Market Heights (September 29–30, 1864), was fought as part of the Siege of Petersburg in the American Civil War. ...

Contents

Background

Petersburg, a prosperous city of 18,000, was a supply center for the Confederate capital of Richmond, given its strategic location just south of the city, its site on the Appomattox River that provided navigable access to the James River, and its role as a major crossroads and junction for five railroads. The taking of Petersburg by Union forces would make it impossible for Robert E. Lee to continue defending Richmond. The Appomattox River at Matoaca, Virginia The Appomattox River is a tributary of the James River, approximately 137 mi (220 km), in central and eastern Virginia in the United States. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...


The battle for the city began shortly after the Union defeat at Cold Harbor. Grant decided to take Richmond through Petersburg, and he began positioning the Union army on June 15 by slipping away from Lee and crossing the James River. This represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign. There, confronting and defeating Lee's army in the open was the primary goal; now, Grant selected a geographic and political target and knew that his superior resources could besiege Lee there, pin him down, and either starve him into submission or lure him out for a decisive battle. Lee at first believed that Grant's main target was Richmond and devoted only minimal troops under Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard to the defense of Petersburg. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ...


Opposing forces

At the beginning of the campaign, Grant's Union forces consisted of the Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, and the Army of the James, under Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler. The Army of the Potomac included: Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... The Army of the James was a Union Army that was composed of unites from the Department of Virginia and North Carolina and served along the James River during the last opperations of the Civil War in Virginia. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ...

The Army of the James included: There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... David B. Birney David Bell Birney (May 29, 1825 – October 18, 1864) was a businessman, lawyer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Francis C. Barlow Francis Channing Barlow (October 19, 1834 – January 11, 1896) was a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... Gouverneur K. Warren Gouverneur Kemble Warren (8 January 1830 – 8 August 1882) was a civil engineer and prominent officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Charles Griffin (December 18, 1825–September 15, 1867) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Romeyn B. Ayres Romeyn Beck Ayres (December 20, 1825 – December 4, 1888) was a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Samuel W. Crawford Samuel Wylie Crawford (November 8, 1829 – November 3, 1892) was a U.S. Army surgeon and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... General Lysander Cutler Lysander Cutler (February 16, 1807 – July 30, 1866) A Union Army general during the American Civil War. ... The VI Corps (Sixth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Horatio G. Wright Horatio Gouverneur Wright ( March 6, 1820 – July 2, 1899) was an engineer and officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... David Allen Russell (December 10, 1820 – September 19, 1864) was a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. ... James Brewerton Ricketts (June 21, 1817 – September 22, 1887) was a career officer in the United States Army, serving as a general in the Eastern Theater during the American Civil War. ... IX Corps (Ninth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was a railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... James Ledlie in the Civil War James Hewett Ledlie (April 14, 1832 – August 15, 1882) was a civil engineer for American railroads and a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edward Ferrero (January 18, 1831 – December 11, 1899) was one of the leading dance instructors, choreographers, and ballroom operators in the United States. ... The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were those regiments of the United States Army during the American Civil War which were made up of African-American soldiers. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert (1833-1880) was an American Civil War general in the Union Army. ... David McM. Gregg David McMurtrie Gregg (April 10, 1833 – August 7, 1916) was a farmer, diplomat, and a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of James Wilson during the Civil War James Harrison Wilson (September 2, 1837 – February 23, 1925) was a U.S. Army topographic engineer, a Union Army general in the American Civil War and later wars, a railroad executive, and author. ...

Appomattox Manor served as Union Army headquarters during the siege.

Grant made his headquarters in a cabin on the lawn of Appomattox Manor, the home of Dr. Richard Eppes and the oldest home (built in 1763) in what was then City Point, but is now Hopewell, Virginia. X Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Alfred Howe Terry (November 10, 1827 - December 16, 1890) was a American Civil War general and the military commander of the Dakota Territory from 1866 to 1869 and again from 1872 to 1886. ... Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 12, 1933) was a Union general in the American Civil War, a Mississippi politician, and a general in the Spanish-American War. ... XVIII Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... William F. Baldy Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 – February 28, 1903), was a civil engineer, a police commissioner, and Union general in the American Civil War. ... William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks (January 28, 1821 – July 19, 1870) was a career military officer in the U.S. Army, serving as a major general during the American Civil War. ... August V. Kautz (January 5, 1828-1895) was a German-American soldier and Union officer during the Civil War as well as the author of several army manuals on duties and customs, including Customs of service for Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers written in 1864 and The 1865 Customs of... 1865 photo appomattox manor, grants headquarters, city point, virginia (now hopewell) during siege of petersburg This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1865 photo appomattox manor, grants headquarters, city point, virginia (now hopewell) during siege of petersburg This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Appomattox Manor Appomattox Manor is a manor at City Point, Virginia. ... Richard Eppes (1824 - 1896) was born in 1824 in Virginia. ... Waterfront at City Point, Virginia (now Hopewell) in 1865 City Point was a town in Prince George County, Virginia in the state of Virginia. ... Waterfront at City Point, Virginia (now Hopewell) in 1865 Hopewell is an independent city in the state of Virginia. ...


Lee's Confederate force consisted of his own Army of Northern Virginia and a scattered, disorganized group of 10,000 boys and men defending Richmond under Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard. The Army of Northern Virginia was organized into five Corps: The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...

Beauregard's Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia had four depleted divisions commanded by Maj. Gens. Robert Ransom, Jr., Robert F. Hoke, and William H. C. Whiting, and Brig. Gen. Alfred H. Colquitt. (Later in the campaign, Beauregard's department would be expanded and reorganized to consist of the divisions of Maj. Gens. Hoke and Bushrod Johnson.) Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of George E. Pickett George Edward Pickett (January 25, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a major-general in the army of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... Charles William Field (April 6, 1828 – April 9, 1892) was a career military officer, serving in the United States Army and then, during the American Civil War, in the Confederate States Army. ... Joseph Brevard Kershaw (January 5, 1822 – April 13, 1894) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... Henry Heth Henry Heth (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox (May 20, 1824 – December 2, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer who served in the Mexican War and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... William Thomas Mahone (December 1, 1826 – October 8, 1895), of Southampton County, Virginia was a civil engineer, teacher, soldier, railroad executive, and a member of the Virginia General Assembly and U.S. Congress. ... Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... Fitzhugh Lee in the Civil War Fitzhugh Lee (November 19, 1835 – April 18, 1905), nephew of Robert E. Lee, was a Confederate cavalry general in the American Civil War, Governor of Virginia, diplomat, and U.S. Army general in the Spanish-American War. ... William Henry Fitzhugh Rooney Lee William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (May 31, 1837 – October 15, 1891), known as Rooney Lee or W.H.F. Lee, was the second son of Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Randolph Custis. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... William H. C. Whiting William Henry Chase Whiting (March 22, 1824 – March 10, 1865) was an U.S. Army officer who resigned after 16 years of exemplary service in the Army Corps of Engineers to serve in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Alfred Holt Colquitt (April 20, 1824–March 26, 1894) was a lawyer, preacher, soldier, Governor of Georgia and two term U.S. Senator from Georgia where he died in office. ... Bushrod Johnson Bushrod Rust Johnson (October 7, 1817 – September 12, 1880) was a teacher, university chancellor, and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


Grant's armies were significantly larger than Lee's during the campaign, although the strengths varied. During the initial assaults on the city, 15,000 Federal troops faced about 5,400 men under Beauregard. By June 18, the Federal strength exceeded 67,000 against the Confederate 20,000. More typical of the full campaign was in mid-July, when 70,000 Union troops faced 36,000 Confederates around Petersburg, and 40,000 men under Butler faced 21,000 around Richmond.[1] The Union Army, despite suffering horrific losses during the Overland Campaign, was able to replenish its soldiers and equipment, taking advantage of garrison troops from Washington, D.C., and the increasing availability of African-American soldiers. By the end of the siege, Grant had 125,000 men to begin the Appomattox campaign.[2] The Confederate army, by contrast, had difficulty replacing men lost through battle, disease, and desertion. June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack...


Battles, 1864

Richmond-Petersburg Theater, fall 1864      Confederate      Union
First Battle of Petersburg (June 9, 1864)
On June 9, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler dispatched about 4,500 cavalry and infantry against the 2,500 Confederate defenders of Petersburg. While Butler's infantry demonstrated against the outer line of entrenchments east of Petersburg, Kautz's cavalry division attempted to enter the city from the south via the Jerusalem Plank Road but was repulsed by Home Guards. Afterwards, Butler withdrew. This was called the “battle of old men and young boys” by local residents. From June 14 to June 17, the Army of the Potomac crossed the James River and began moving towards Petersburg to support and renew Butler's assaults.
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15-16
Second Battle of Petersburg (June 15June 18)
Meade's Army of the Potomac crossed the James River on transports and a 2,200-foot long pontoon bridge at Windmill Point. Suspecting an attack, Beauregard brought Bushrod Johnson down from Bermuda Hundred, and Hoke's troops began arriving from Lee's army, bringing the defensive strength to 5,400. Butler's leading elements (Smith's XVIII Corps, Hinks's infantry division, and Kautz's cavalry) crossed the Appomattox River at Broadway Landing and attacked the Petersburg defenses on June 15. Beauregard's men were driven from their first line of entrenchments (the "Dimmock Line") back to Harrison Creek. After dark the XVIII Corps was relieved by the II Corps. On June 16, the II Corps captured another section of the Confederate line; on June 17, the IX Corps gained more ground. Beauregard stripped the Howlett Line at Bermuda Hundred to defend the city, and Lee rushed reinforcements to Petersburg from the Army of Northern Virginia. The II, XI, and V Corps attacked on June 18 but were repulsed with heavy casualties. Union commanders were apprehensive about continuing to attack, as Beauregard had engaged in a set of elaborate feints to fool the Union into believing he had more men and more guns than he actually did, including lighting many campfires and building fake cannons out of logs ("Quaker Guns"). By now the Confederate works were heavily manned, and the greatest opportunity to capture Petersburg without a siege was lost. With the Union's blunders during the first days of the battle, the stage was set for a drawn out siege.
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21June 22
Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road (June 21June 24)
On June 21, the Union II Corps, supported by the VI Corps, attempted to cut the Weldon Railroad south of Petersburg, one of the major supply lines into the city. The movement was preceded by Wilson's cavalry division, which began destroying tracks. On June 22, troops from A.P. Hill's corps, led by Brig. Gen. William Mahone, counterattacked, forcing the II Corps away from the railroad to positions on the Jerusalem Plank Road. Although the Federals were driven from their advanced positions, they were able to extend their siege lines farther to the west.
Wilson-Kautz Raid, June 22June 30
Battle of Staunton River Bridge (June 25)
On June 22, the cavalry divisions of Wilson and Kautz were dispatched from the Petersburg lines to disrupt Confederate rail communications. Riding via Dinwiddie Court House, the raiders cut the South Side Railroad near Ford's Station that evening, destroying tracks, railroad buildings, and two supply trains. On June 23, Wilson proceeded to the junction of the Richmond & Danville Railroad at Burke Station, where he encountered elements of Rooney Lee's cavalry between Nottoway Court House and Blacks and Whites (modern-day Blackstone). Wilson followed Kautz along the South Side Railroad, destroying about thirty miles (50 km) of track as he advanced. On June 24, while Kautz remained skirmishing around Burkeville, Wilson crossed over to Meherrin Station on the Richmond & Danville and began destroying track. On June 25, Wilson and Kautz continued tearing up track south to the Staunton River Bridge, where they were delayed by Home Guards, who prevented destruction of the bridge. Lee's cavalry division closed on the Federals from the northeast, forcing them to abandon their attempts to capture and destroy the bridge. By this time, the raiders were nearly 100 miles (160 km) from Union lines.
Battle of Sappony Church (June 28)
Rooney Lee's cavalry division pursued Wilson's and Kautz's raiders who failed to destroy the Staunton River Bridge on June 25. Wilson and Kautz headed east and, on June 28, crossed the Nottoway River at the Double Bridges and headed north to Stony Creek Depot on the Weldon Railroad. There they were attacked by Wade Hampton's cavalry division. Later in the day, Rooney Lee's division arrived to join forces with Hampton, and the Federals were heavily pressured. During the night, Wilson and Kautz disengaged and pressed north on the Halifax Road for the supposed security of Reams Station, abandoning many fleeing slaves who had sought security with the Federal raiders.
First Battle of Ream's Station (June 29)
Early morning June 29, Kautz's cavalry division reached Ream's Station on the Weldon Railroad, which was thought to be held by Union infantry. Instead, Kautz found the road barred by Mahone's Confederate infantry division. Wilson's division, fighting against elements of Rooney Lee's cavalry, joined Kautz's near Ream's Station, where they were virtually surrounded. About noon, Mahone's infantry assaulted their front while Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry division threatened the Union left flank. The raiders burned their wagons and abandoned their artillery. Separated by the Confederate attacks, Wilson and his men cut their way through and fled south on the Stage Road to cross Nottoway River, while Kautz went cross-country, reaching Federal lines at Petersburg about dark. Wilson continued east to the Blackwater River before turning north, eventually reaching Union lines at Light House Point on July 2. The Wilson-Kautz raid tore up more than 60 miles (100 km) of track, temporarily disrupting rail traffic into Petersburg but at a great cost in men and mounts.
First Battle of Deep Bottom (July 27July 29)
During the night of July 26 to July 27, Winfield S. Hancock led the Union II Corps and two divisions of Sheridan's cavalry across to the north side of James River to threaten Richmond. This demonstration diverted Confederate forces from the impending attack at Petersburg on July 30 (the Crater). Union efforts to turn the Confederate position at New Market Heights and Fussell's Mill were abandoned when the Confederates strongly reinforced their lines and counterattacked. During the night of July 29, the Federals crossed the river again, leaving a garrison to hold the bridgehead at Deep Bottom.
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, June 30
Battle of the Crater (July 30)
In an attempt to break the siege, former coal miners from the 48th Pennsylvania infantry, commanded by Lt. Col. Henry Pleasants, in Burnside's IX Corps, mined a 511-foot (156 m) long tunnel under the Confederate lines at Elliot's Salient. On July 30, they detonated the explosives, creating a crater some 135 feet (41 m) in diameter that remains visible to this day. Some 280 to 350 Confederate soldiers were instantly killed in the blast. The Union plan was to exploit the explosion by sending well-rehearsed African-American troops of Ferrero's division into the gap and driving for critical objectives deep in the Confederate rear area. The plan was modified at the last minute, however, because of political concerns about the effect the black troops would have on the Confederate defenders and the public in general. Instead, the unrehearsed division of James Ledlie was substituted and disaster resulted. The troops entered the crater instead of moving around its rim. Unable to exit the steep sides of the crater, they were slaughtered by Confederates firing down on them. The division of William Mahone on the Confederate right flank was able to recover quickly and bring a strong counterattack to bear. Over 5,300 Union troops were casualties in the ill-fated battle that achieved none of its objectives.
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Second Battle of Deep Bottom (August 13August 20)
During the night of August 13 to August 14, the Union II Corps, X Corps, and Gregg's cavalry division, all under command of Winfield S. Hancock, crossed the James River at Deep Bottom to threaten Richmond, coordinating with a movement against the Weldon Railroad at Petersburg. On August 14, the X Corps closed on New Market Heights while the II Corps extended the Federal line to the right along Bailey's Creek. During the night, the X Corps was moved to the far right flank of the Union line near Fussell's Mill. On August 16, Union assaults near Fussell's Mill were initially successful, but Confederate counterattacks drove the Federals out of a line of captured works. Heavy fighting continued throughout the remainder of the day. After continual skirmishing, the Federals returned to the south side of the James on August 20, maintaining their bridgehead at Deep Bottom.
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18-19
Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18August 21)
While Hancock's command demonstrated north of the James River at Deep Bottom, the Union V Corps and elements of the IX and II Corps under command of Gouverneur K. Warren were withdrawn from the Petersburg entrenchments to operate against the Weldon Railroad. At dawn August 18, Warren advanced, driving back Confederate pickets until reaching the railroad at Globe Tavern. In the afternoon, Maj. Gen. Henry Heth's Confederate division attacked driving Ayres's division back toward the tavern. Both sides entrenched during the night. On August 19, William Mahone, whose division had been hastily returned from north of James River, attacked with five infantry brigades, rolling up the right flank of Crawford's division. Heavily reinforced, Warren counterattacked and by nightfall had retaken most of the ground lost during the afternoon's fighting. On August 20, the Federals laid out and entrenched a strong defensive line covering the Blick House and Globe Tavern and extending east to connect with the main Federal lines at Jerusalem Plank Road. On August 21, Hill probed the new Federal line for weaknesses but could not penetrate the Union defenses. With the fighting at Globe Tavern, Grant succeeded in extending his siege lines to the west and cutting Petersburg's primary rail connection with Wilmington, North Carolina. The Confederates were now forced to off-load rail cars at Stony Creek Station for a 30-mile (50 km) wagon haul up Boydton Plank Road to reach Petersburg.
Second Battle of Ream's Station (August 25)
On August 24, the Union II Corps moved south along the Weldon Railroad, tearing up track, preceded by Gregg's cavalry division. On August 25, Heth attacked and overran the faulty Union position at Ream's Station, capturing 9 guns, 12 colors, and many prisoners. The old II Corps was shattered. Hancock withdrew to the main Union line near the Jerusalem Plank Road, bemoaning the declining combat effectiveness of his troops.
Battle of Chaffin's Farm or New Market Heights (September 29September 30)
During the night of September 28 to September 29, Butler's Army of the James crossed the James River to assault the Richmond defenses north of the river. The columns attacked at dawn. After initial Union successes at New Market Heights and Fort Harrison, the Confederates rallied and contained the breakthrough. Lee reinforced his lines north of the James and, on September 30, he counterattacked unsuccessfully. The Federals entrenched, and the Confederates erected a new line of works cutting off the captured forts. As Grant anticipated, Lee shifted troops to meet the threat against Richmond, weakening his lines at Petersburg.
Battle of Peebles' Farm (September 30October 2)
In combination with Butler's offensive north of the James River, Grant extended his left flank to cut Confederate lines of communication southwest of Petersburg. Two divisions of the IX corps under Maj. Gen. John G. Parke, two divisions of the V Corps under Warren, and Gregg's cavalry division were assigned to the operation. On September 30, the Federals marched via Poplar Spring Church to reach Squirrel Level and Vaughan Roads. The initial Federal attack overran Fort Archer, flanking the Confederates out of their Squirrel Level Road line. Late afternoon, Confederate reinforcements arrived, slowing the Federal advance. On October 1, the Federals repulsed a Confederate counterattack directed by A.P. Hill. Reinforced by Maj. Gen. Gershom Mott's division, the Federals resumed their advance on October 2, captured Fort MacRae (which was lightly defended) and extended their left flank to the vicinity of Peebles' and Pegram's Farms. With these limited successes, Meade suspended the offensive. A new line was entrenched from the Federal works on Weldon Railroad to Pegram's Farm.
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
Battle of Darbytown and New Market Roads (October 7)
Responding to the loss of Fort Harrison and the increasing Federal threat against Richmond, Gen. Robert E. Lee directed an offensive against the Union far right flank on October 7. After routing the Federal cavalry from their position covering Darbytown Road, Field's and Hoke's divisions assaulted the main Union defensive line along New Market Road and were repulsed. The Federals were not dislodged, and Lee withdrew into the Richmond defenses.
Battle of Darbytown Road (October 13)
On October 13, Union forces advanced to find and feel the new Confederate defensive line in front of Richmond. While mostly a battle of skirmishers, a Federal brigade assaulted fortifications north of Darbytown Road and was repulsed with heavy casualties. The Federals retired to their entrenched lines along New Market Road.
Battle of Fair Oaks and Darbytown Road (October 27October 28)
In combination with movements against the Boydton Plank Road at Petersburg, Benjamin Butler attacked the Richmond defenses along Darbytown Road with the X Corps. The XVIII Corps marched north to Fair Oaks where it was soundly repulsed by Field's Confederate division. Confederate forces counterattacked, taking some 600 prisoners. The Richmond defenses remained intact. Of Grant's offensives north of the James River, this was repulsed most easily.
Battle of Boydton Plank Road (October 27October 28)
Directed by Hancock, divisions from three Union corps (II, V, and IX) and Gregg's cavalry division, numbering more than 30,000 men, withdrew from the Petersburg lines and marched west to operate against the Boydton Plank Road and South Side Railroad. The initial Union advance on October 27 gained the Boydton Plank Road, a major campaign objective. But that afternoon, a counterattack near Burgess' Mill spearheaded by Henry Heth's division, and Wade Hampton's cavalry isolated the II Corps and forced a retreat. The Confederates retained control of the Boydton Plank Road for the rest of the winter. It marked the last battle for Hancock, who resigned from field command because of injuries sustained at Gettysburg.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1128x1080, 240 KB)Map of Richmond-Petersburg Theater during Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1128x1080, 240 KB)Map of Richmond-Petersburg Theater during Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Benjamin Butler P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 4,500 2,500 Casualties 250 150 The first Battle of Petersburg was a minor, unsuccessful Union assault against the city of Petersburg, Virginia, June 9, 1864. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 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Quaker Guns used at Centreville, Virginia in March, 1862 A Quaker Gun is a simulated cannon made from a wooden log, sometimes painted black, used to deceive an enemy into believing a foe possesses excess guns. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1557, 537 KB)Map of the Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War, actions on June 21-22, 1864. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1557, 537 KB)Map of the Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War, actions on June 21-22, 1864. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road Conflict American Civil War Date June 21–24,1864 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union extended siege lines) The Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road, also known as the First Battle of the Weldon Railroad, was the first of a series of battles during the... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... William Thomas Mahone (December 1, 1826 – October 8, 1895), of Southampton County, Virginia was a civil engineer, teacher, soldier, railroad executive, and a member of the Virginia General Assembly and U.S. Congress. ... 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The Blackwater River of southeastern Virginia flows from its source near the city of Petersburg, Virginia for about 105 miles (170 km) through the Inner Coastal Plain region of Virginia (part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain). ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Battle of Deep Bottom was fought from July 27 to July 29, 1864, at Deep Bottom in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 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Brig. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... Post-shot subsidence crater and Huron King test chamber, which was less than 20 kilotons (1980) A subsidence crater is the crater left on the surface of an area which has had an underground (usually nuclear) explosion. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 763 pixel, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 763 pixel, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... The Second Battle of Deep Bottom was fought from August 14 to August 20, 1864, at Deep Bottom in Henrico County, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... 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Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1803x1554, 550 KB)Map of Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War, actions August 18-19, 1864. ... Battle of Globe Tavern Conflict American Civil War Date August 18–21,1864 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Globe Tavern, also known as the Second Battle of the Weldon Railroad, saw the Confederate forces loose control of the vital Weldon Railroad to the Union army... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Winfield S. Hancock Henry Heth Strength II Corps Heths Division, III Corps Casualties 2,750 814 {{{notes}}} The Second Battle of Reams Station was fought in the American Civil War on August 25, 1864, in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Map of Battle of Chaffins Farm The Battle of Chaffins Farm, also known as New Market Heights (September 29–30, 1864), was fought as part of the Siege of Petersburg in the American Civil War. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Peebles Farm (or Poplar Springs Church) was the western part of a simultaneous Union offensive against the Confederate works guarding Petersburg, Virginia and Richmond, Virginia. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... John Grubb Parke (Sept. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gershom Mott Gershom Mott (April 7, 1822 – November 29, 1884) was a U.S. Army officer and a general in the Union Army, a commander in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3722x2874, 1316 KB)Map of Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War, actions October 27, 1864. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3722x2874, 1316 KB)Map of Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War, actions October 27, 1864. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders David B. Birney, August V. Kautz Robert Hoke, Charles W. Field Strength Corps At least 2 divisions Casualties 458 700[1] The Battle of Darbytown and New Market Roads was an engagement between Union and Confederate forces during the... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... The Battle of Darbytown Road was fought on October 7, 1864 between Union and Confederate forces. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... The Battle of the Boydton Plank Road (or First Hatchers Run) followed the successfull battle of Peebles Farm. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of...

Battles, 1865

Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
Battle of Hatcher's Run (February 5February 7, 1865)
On February 5, 1865, Gregg's cavalry division rode out to the Boydton Plank Road via Ream's Station and Dinwiddie Court House in an attempt to intercept Confederate supply trains. Warren's V Corps crossed Hatcher's Run and took up a blocking position on the Vaughan Road to prevent interference with Gregg's operations. Two divisions of the II Corps under Maj. Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys shifted west to near Armstrong's Mill to cover Warren's right flank. Late in the day, John B. Gordon attempted to turn Humphrey's right flank near the mill but was repulsed. During the night, the Federals were reinforced by two divisions. On February 6, Gregg returned to Gravelly Run on Vaughan Road from his unsuccessful raid and was attacked by elements of Brig. Gen. John Pegram's Confederate division. Warren pushed forward a reconnaissance in the vicinity of Dabney's Mill and was attacked by Pegram's and Mahone's divisions. Pegram was killed in the action. Although the Union advance was stopped, the Federals extended their siegeworks to the Vaughan Road crossing of Hatcher's Run.
Battle of Fort Stedman (March 25)
As the siege continued, Grant attempted to break or encircle the Confederate forces in multiple attacks moving from east to west, and both armies' lines were stretched out until they surrounded the city. By March 1865, the siege had taken an enormous toll on both armies, and Lee decided to pull out of Petersburg. He amassed nearly half of his army in an attempt to break through Grant's Petersburg defenses and threaten his supply depot at City Point. Led by Gordon, the pre-dawn assault on March 25 overpowered the garrisons of Fort Stedman and Batteries X, XI, and XII. The Confederates were brought under a killing crossfire, and counterattacks led by Maj. Gens. Parke and John F. Hartranft contained the breakthrough, cutting off and capturing more than 1,900 of the attackers. During the day, elements of the II and VI Corps assaulted and captured the entrenched picket lines in their respective fronts, which had been weakened for the assault on Fort Stedman.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3719x2870, 1428 KB)Map of Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War, actions March 29-31, 1865. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3719x2870, 1428 KB)Map of Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War, actions March 29-31, 1865. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Andrew A. Humphreys Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (November 2, 1810 – December 27, 1883), was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Fort Steadman Conflict American Civil War Date March 25, 1865 Place Petersburg Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Steadman occurred on March 25th, 1865, during the final days of the American Civil War. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... John Frederick Hartranft (1830–1889) was a general during the American Civil War, and the governor of Pennsylvania from 1873 to 1879. ...

Aftermath

Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (Appomattox Campaign)

The loss at Fort Stedman was a devastating blow for Lee's army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1 and the fall of Petersburg on April 2 and April 3. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3723x2874, 1441 KB)Map of start of Appomattox Campaign of the American Civil War, actions at Petersburg April 2, 1865. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3723x2874, 1441 KB)Map of start of Appomattox Campaign of the American Civil War, actions at Petersburg April 2, 1865. ... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ...


After his victory at Five Forks, Grant ordered an assault along the entire Confederate line. Wright's VI Corps made a decisive breakthrough along the Boydton Plank Road line. Gibbon's XXIV Corps overran Fort Gregg after a heroic Confederate defense. Parke's IX Corps overran the eastern trenches but were met with stiff resistance. In the following days, Lee pulled his forces out from Petersburg and Richmond, and headed for the west in an attempt to meet up with forces under the command of General Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina. The resulting Appomattox Campaign led to Lee's surrender on April 9 at Appomattox Court House. XXIV Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... McLean house, April 1865. ...


Richmond-Petersburg had been a costly campaign for both sides. The initial assaults on Petersburg in June 1864 cost the Union 11,386 casualties, to approximately 4,000 for the Confederate defenders. The casualties for the siege warfare that concluded with the assault on Fort Stedman are estimated to be 42,000 for the Union, and 28,000 for the Confederates.[3]


See also

Petersburg National Battlefield is a unit of the National Park Service at 1539 Hickory Hill Road in Petersburg, Virginia. ... A company of 4th USCT Infantry African Americans at Siege of Petersburg In Petersburg At the beginning of the Civil War, Virginia had a black population of about 549,000. ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ...

References

  • Bonekemper, Edward H., III, A Victor, Not a Butcher: Ulysses S. Grant's Overlooked Military Genius, Regnery, 2004, ISBN 0-89526-062-X.
  • Davis, William C., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, Death in the Trenches: Grant at Petersburg, Time-Life Books, 1986, ISBN 0-8094-4776-2.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • Trudeau, Noah Andre, The Siege of Petersburg, National Park Service Civil War Series, Eastern National, 1995, ISBN 0-915992-82-5.
  • National Park Service battle descriptions

Notes

  1. ^ Davis, pp. 18, 49, 64.
  2. ^ Eicher, p. 806.
  3. ^ Bonekemper, p. 323.

External links

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Siege of Petersburg information - Search.com (3904 words)
Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond.
Petersburg, a prosperous city of 18,000, was a supply center for the Confederate capital of Richmond, given its strategic location just south of the city, its site on the Appomattox River that provided navigable access to the James River, and its role as a major crossroads and junction for five railroads.
The casualties for the siege warfare that concluded with the assault on Fort Stedman are estimated to be 42,000 the Union, 28,000 for the Confederates.
Siege of Petersburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3970 words)
Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond.
Petersburg, a prosperous city of 18,000, was a supply center for the Confederate capital of Richmond, given its strategic location just south of the city, its site on the Appomattox River that provided navigable access to the James River, and its role as a major crossroads and junction for five railroads.
The casualties for the siege warfare that concluded with the assault on Fort Stedman are estimated to be 42,000 the Union, 28,000 for the Confederates.
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