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Encyclopedia > Siege of Los Angeles
The Terra Cotta relief on the current Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial
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The Terra Cotta relief on the current Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial

Fort Moore was a historic fort in Los Angeles, California, during the Mexican-American War. Its location gave name to Fort Moore Hill, which is located between the modern downtown Los Angeles neighborhoods of Bunker Hill and Chinatown. It is now memorialized by the Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial. Its approximate location was at what is now the intersection of North Hill Street and West Cesar E. Chavez Avenue. Nickname: City of Angels Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa Area    - City 1,290. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... The Bunker Hill district of Downtown Los Angeles as seen from USC, which makes up most of Downtowns skyline. ... Walt Disney Concert Hall, Bunker Hill John Ferraro Building, Bunker Hill Bunker Hill, in the downtown area of Los Angeles, California, is a short, developed hill with its peak located roughly around 3rd Street. ... New Chinatown, Los Angeles postcard, late 1940s Chinatown in Downtown Los Angeles, California, (Chinese: 洛杉磯唐人街/luò shān jÄ« táng rén jiÄ“, Vietnamese: khu Hoa kieu, thanh pho Los Angeles) was originally located less than a mile from its current location. ...

Contents

History

Mexican-American War and the Siege of Los Angeles

On August 13, 1846, early in the conflict, U.S. naval forces under Commodore Robert F. Stockton sailed into Los Angeles and raised the American flag without opposition. A small occupying force of 50 Marines, under Captain Archibald H. Gillespie, built a rudimentary barricade on what was then known as Fort Hill overlooking the small town. August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... USN redirects here. ... Commodore Robert Field Stockton Robert Field Stockton (20 August 1795–7 October 1866) was a United States naval officer, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War. ... National flag and ensign. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ...


However, the harsh martial law of Captain Gillespie soon ignited a popular uprising among Californios and Mexicans led by General José Mariá Flores beginning on September 22, 1846. Known as the Siege of Los Angeles, Californios assembled a force to retake Los Angeles. Gillespie's forces were able to resist an initial surprise attack on the government house in town and regroup on Fort Hill, where they strengthened the fortification with sandbags and mounted their cannon. As time passed, the Californian forces opposing him grew to over 600, and General Flores offered an ultimatum: leave within 24 hours or face invasion. Realizing he was greatly outnumbered and under pressure from American civilians, Gillespie agreed to leave Los Angeles under safe passage on September 30, 1846. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... A Californio was a Spanish-speaking inhabitant of Alta California who lived there when it was a part of Mexico, before it was taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War. ... General Jose Maria Flores was a Mexican, not a Californio, and a member of la otra banda. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A sandbag is typically used in flood control, but the exact use can vary. ... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... An ultimatum is a final demand, with a threat, made without intent of negotiation, for example before war, before killing hostages, etc. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Just over a week later, American forces were rebuffed in their attempt to retake Los Angeles in the Battle of Dominguez Rancho. Finally, on January 10, 1847, the town was recaptured by forces of Stockton and Stephen W. Kearny after the decisive battles of Battle of Rio San Gabriel and La Mesa. With the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847, hostilities in California ended. Well, Mexican-American, was a very long war; it lasted for two whole years. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Stephen W. Kearny Stephen Watts Kearny (August 30, 1794–October 31, 1848) was a United States Army officer, noted for action in the southwest during the Mexican-American War, in particular in the conquest of California. ... Combatants United States of America Mexico Californeros Commanders Robert F. Stockton Stephen Watts Kearny José Mariá Flores Strength U.S. naval and army forces 600 sailors, marines and dragoons Californios sympathic to Mexico 300 dragoons 200 soldiers Casualties 143 80 The Battle of Rio San Gabriel was a part of... The Battle of La Mesa occurred on January 9, 1847 in present-day Vernon, in which the outgunned and outnumbered Californios (The Americans having rifles, the Californios fighting on horseback with only lances)almost gained the advantage, but they fell back and camped at present-day Pasadena, giving up Los... The Treaty of Cahuenga ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in California. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


On January 12, 1847, in order to secure the area from any future counter-attacks, U.S. forces began erecting a 400-foot (120 m) long breastwork on the same strategic site as the previous Fort Hill and named it the Post at Los Angeles. The plans were later revised, and on April 23 a much larger defensive structure was begun on the same site. Constructed by the Mormon Battalion—the only religious "unit" in American military history—and the U.S. 1st Dragoons, it was designed for six cannons. It was never completed and was dedicated as Fort Moore on July 4, 1847, named after Captain Benjamin D. Moore, 1st Dragoons, killed in the Battle of San Pasqual in San Diego County, on December 6, 1846. January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A Breastwork is a fortification. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of San Pascual was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican_American War in what is now San Diego County, California, on the 6 and 7 December 1846. ... Official website: http://www. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Post-War development

The Banning Residence on Fort Moore Hill, 1887
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The Banning Residence on Fort Moore Hill, 1887

Lieutenant William T. Sherman ordered the garrison withdrawn in 1848, and the fort was abandoned in 1849 and decommissioned in 1853. In later years the site was leveled and became a public playground. By 1867, the site became a popular vantage point for the growing town. The hill became the site of a beer hall built by Jacob Philippi. Later, Mary Banning, wife of 'the Father of the Port of Los Angeles' Phineas Banning, converted the structure into a home. Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Beer halls are large pubs that specialize in beer. ... General Information Founded December 9, 1907 Coordinates  - Latitude  - Longitude 33º4239 N 118º1459 W Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 7500 acres 4200 acres 3300 acres Available Berths 270 Vessel Arrivals 2,813 (FY 2004) Annual container volume 7. ... Phineas Banning (1830-1885) was an American businessman, stagecoach driver, entrepreneur, and general best known to history as the Father of the Port of Los Angeles. ...


Cemetery

Part of the hill itself became home to a cemetery, with the first documented burial tracing back to December 19, 1853. Alternately known as Los Angeles City Cemetery, Protestant Cemetery, Fort Moore Hill Cemetery, Fort Hill Cemetery, or simply “the cemetery on the hill”, it was the city's first non-Catholic cemetery. The cemetery was overseen by the city starting in 1869. It was not well taken care of: it lacked clearly delineated boundaries, complete records or adequate maintenance. The Los Angeles City Council passed a resolution on August 30, 1879, closing the cemetery to any future burials save for those with already reserved plots. By 1884, the city had sold portions of the cemetery as residential lots and the rest to the Los Angeles Board of Education (later the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD)). The city never removed any bodies, and the former cemetery was the site of repeated, grisly findings and much negative press. As a result, the city began moving the bodies, most to Evergreen Cemetery, Hollywood Memorial Park Cemetery, and Rosedale Cemetery, with the final bodies being transferred in May 1947. Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Los Angeles City Council meets three times a week in city hall. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Los Angeles Unified School District ( the LAUSD) is the largest (in terms of number of students) public school system in California and the second-largest in the United States. ... Hollywood Forever Cemetery is located at 6000 Santa Monica Boulevard in Hollywood, California, adjacent to the north side of Paramount Studios. ... Angelus Rosedale Cemetery in West Adams district of Los Angeles, California is a burial grounds established in 1884 as the Rosedale Cemetery. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


High school

Los Angeles High School's second campus on Fort Moore Hill, 1908
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Los Angeles High School's second campus on Fort Moore Hill, 1908

By 1891, the site became home to the second location of Los Angeles High School. LAHS would move again in 1918. Most of the hill itself was removed in 1949, and a memorial was placed on its site in 1957. Part of the site was later replaced by the headquarters of LAUSD. Because of political and financial hardship caused by the construction of the nearby Belmont Learning Center, the LAUSD moved from the location in 2001 so that a new high school could be built on its location. Los Angeles Senior High School Los Angeles High School, founded in 1873, is the oldest public high school in the Southern California Region and in the Los Angeles Unified School District. ... Belmont Learning Center is an extension to the existing Belmont Senior High School on West 2nd Street in Los Angeles. ...


The new high school, tentatively named Central Los Angeles Area High School #9, is planned to specialize in visual and performing arts and be a part of the adjacent Los Angeles Cultural Corridor. The 238,000 square foot (22,110 m2), $171.9 million facility will be designed by Austrian firm Coop Himmelb(l)au and is scheduled for completion in 2008. UFA-Palast in Dresden Groninger Museum, in the Netherlands Arteplage in Biel/Bienne from Expo. ...


Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial

The Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial is a large stone memorial wall built in 1957 on part of the fort's original location facing Hill Street. As the largest bas-relief military monument in the United States, it honors the Mormon Battalion, the U.S. 1st Dragoons, and the New York Volunteers who raised the American flag over the fort on July 4, 1847, at the first Independence Day in Los Angeles. Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... In the United States, Independence Day (commonly known as the Fourth of July or simply the Fourth) is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Funded by the County of Los Angeles, the City of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Board of Education and the Department of Water and Power, the memorial was designed by Kazumi Adachi and Dike Nagano and dedicated on July 3, 1957. Featuring four different panels, a 78 foot by 45 foot (23 x 14.6 m) terra cotta panel designed by Saltus Award-winner Henry Kreis is the most prominent feature and portrays the July 4 event. Los Angeles County is a county in California and is the most populous county in the United States. ... Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is the largest municipal utility in the United States, serving 3. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ...


Other panels represent the agricultural and spiritual foundation of the region; transportation that shaped the city at the end of the 19th century; and the crucial role that water and electricity play in a large modern city. An 80-foot (24 m) wide waterfall sits to the right of the panels, however it has been out of service since a 1977 drought. The monument also includes a 237-foot (72 m) long brick facade that serves as a backdrop for a 68-foot (21 m) high pylon designed by noted American sculptor Albert Stewart. The pylon features a 16 foot by 11 foot (4.9 x 3.3 m) American eagle as well as an incised relief on the low wall along the sidewalk depicting the 1,100-mile (1,770 km) march of the Mormon Battalion from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to Los Angeles. Hopetoun Falls near Otway National Park, Victoria, Australia A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water, often in the form of a stream, flowing over an erosion-resistant rock formation that forms a sudden break in elevation. ... Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gate or door built in front of an Egyptian temple. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Biography Stewart, Albert ( April 9, 1900- Sept. ... Satellite photo showing Council Bluffs and Omaha, Nebraska Council Bluffs is a city in Pottawattamie County, Iowa, United States on the east bank of the Missouri River. ...


References

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