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Encyclopedia > Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II

Diorama of the Siege of Leningrad, in the Museum of the Great Patriotic War, in Moscow
Date September 8, 1941January 27, 1944
Location Leningrad, USSR
Result Soviet victory
Belligerents
Germany
Flag of Finland Finland[1][2][3]
Soviet Union
Commanders
Wilhelm von Leeb
Georg von Küchler
Flag of Finland Carl Gustaf Mannerheim[4][5][6]
Flag of the Soviet Union Kliment Voroshilov
Flag of the Soviet Union Georgiy Zhukov
Flag of the Soviet Union Leonid Govorov
Strength
725,000[citation needed] 930,000[citation needed]
Casualties and losses
Wehrmacht (est.) 500,000 axis troops[citation needed] Red Army[7]:
332,059 KIA
24,324 non-combat dead
111,142 missing
16,470 civilian combat casualties
1.2 million civilians from starvation

The Siege of Leningrad, also known as The Leningrad Blockade (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada Leningrada)) was a military operation by the Axis powers[8] to capture Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) during World War II. The siege lasted from September 9, 1941, to January 18, 1943, when a narrow land corridor to the city was established. The total lifting of the siege occurred at January 27, 1944. The Siege of Leningrad was one of the longest, most destructive, and the most lethal siege of major cities in modern history. Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Museum of the Great Patriotic War is in Moscow at Poklonnaya Gora (Bowing Hill, Russian: ). Featured is the Victory Park with an open display of military vehicles, aircraft, cannons, etc, and the Central Museum building of the Great Patriotic War. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Soviet redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb in a photo from 1946 Wilhelm Ritter[1] von Leeb (September 5, 1876 - April 29, 1956) was a German Field Marshal during World War II. // Born in Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria as Wilhelm Leeb, he joined the Bavarian Army in 1895 as an officer cadet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Field Marshal Georg von Küchler Georg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Küchler (May 30, 1881 - May 25, 1968) was a German field marshal during World War II. Born in Philippsruhe castle near Hanau, Küchler led the German German Eighteenth Army in 1940 in the invasion of neutral Holland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...   (Russian: ), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Russian: ) (February 4 [O.S. January 23] 1881 – December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and politician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov (Russian Леонид Александрович Говоров) (February 22, 1897 - March 19, 1955), Soviet military commander, was born in the village of Butyrki in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Case Blue (German: ) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Josef Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko Strength... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Konstantin Rokossovsky, Ivan Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown The Baltic Offensive, also formally referred to as the Baltic Strategic Offensive Operation[1][2][3][4] as it was called by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes the battle between... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schorner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin-Brest Offensive is covered in the... Budapest Offensiv, together with other Soviet Balkan offensivesm is covered by the green area in the south. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Prussian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Pomeranian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 Eastern Front Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – Finland – Leningrad and Baltics – Crimea and Caucasus – Moscow – 1st Rzhev-Vyazma – 2nd Kharkov – Blue – Stalingrad – Velikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk – 2nd Smolensk – Dnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hubes Pocket – Baltic – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – Balkans (Iassy-Kishinev) – Balkans... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Rudolf von Bünau Wilhelm Bittrich Fyodor Tolbukhin Vladimir Stoychev Strength One army (understrength) Local irregulars,total 28,000 Four armies (full strength),total 400,000 Casualties and losses 19,000 18,000 The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Colonel General Ernst Busch General Kurochkin Strength Unknown 122,100 Casualties Unknown 29,200 The Toropets-Kholm Operation was a military operation ~conducted by the Red Army during the Soviet-German War, from 9th January to 6th February 1942 south of Lake Ilmen. ... Demyansk Pocket (German: die Demjansker Operation, Russian: ) is a name of encirclement of German troops by Red Army near Demyansk (Demjansk), south of Leningrad, during the Second World War, which lasted mainly from February 8 until April 21, 1942. ... Operation Spark (1943) (Russian: Операция Искра, operatsia iskra) was a military operation by the Red Army during January 12 —January 18, 1943 which intended to create a land connection to break the siege of Leningrad conducted by the German Wehrmacht. ... Operation Polar Star was an operation conceived by the Stavka of the Red Army in early 1943, during the Soviet-German War. ... Combatants Germany (Spain) Soviet Union Commanders Emilio Esteban Infantes Vladimir P. Sviridov Strength 5,900 44,000 Casualties 3,945 dead, wounded, missing, or captured 11,000 dead, wounded, missing or captured The Battle of Krasny Bor was fought between the German Wehrmachts 250th Infantry Division, composed of Spanish... Battle of Lenino took place from 12th October to 13th October 1943 near Trigubovo village (later renamed Lenino, today on Belarus) between Soviet Union 33rd Western Front Army and Nazi German forces. ... Battle of Narva Conflict {{{conflict}}} Date {{{date}}} Place {{{place}}} Result {{{result}}} The Battle of Narva took place in the first half of 1944. ... Combatants Red Army, Polish Home Army Wehrmacht Commanders Rainer Stahel The Battle of Vilnius occurred as part of Operation Bagration, the great summer offensive by the Red Army against the Wehrmacht, in June, and July, 1944. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown // [edit] Overview The Battle of the Baltic, called the Baltic Operation by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes combat operations between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army in the Baltic... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Field Marshal Fedor von Bock Army General D. Pavlov Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown 425,000 The Battle of Bialystok-Minsk was one of the Border Battles during the opening stage of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist Colonel-General Mikhail Karpenos Strength 600 Tanks 1,000 Tanks Casualties Heavy All Soviet Tanks Destroyed The Battle of Brody was a major Tank battle fought between the 1st Panzer Army and 5 Soviet Mechanized Corps in Ukraine. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gerd von Rundstedt Semyon Budyonny (Removed from duty on Sept. ... The Soviet Armys Yelnya Offensive (August 30, 1941- September 8, 1941) was part of the Battle of Smolensk during the Great Patriotic War. ... The Battle of Odessa was part of the Soviet-German War in 1941. ... ddsss ... Crimea was the scene of some of the most bloody battles in World War II. The Germans suffered heavy casualties as they tried to advance through the isthmus linking Crimea to the Ukrainian mainland at Perekop in the summer of 1941. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Rostov. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The following is a list of the most lethal battles in world history. ...

Contents

Overview

The capture of Leningrad was one of three strategic goals in Hitler's initial plans for Operation Barbarossa. Hitler's strategic goal for capturing Leningrad was motivated by its political status as the former capital of Russia and the symbolic capital of the Russian Revolution, the military importance as a main base of the Soviet Baltic Fleet and its industrial strength with numerous arms factories.[9] Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... The Russian Revolution (1917) was a series of economic and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Hitler announced his goal as the taking of Leningrad by force with the intent to "Celebrate New Year's Eve 1942 in the Tsar's Palaces", ensuring the official invitations were sent out by the Reich Chancellor's office. Although Hitler's plan failed, the 2½ year siege caused the largest destruction and loss of life in a modern city.[10] Hitler redirects here. ...


The siege was conducted by Wehrmacht troops with assistance from the Finnish Army as part of an operation codenamed Barbarossa in 1941.[11] The operation was given to the Army Group North. The siege followed after the Finnish offensive in Karelia, and German offensive on southern suburbs of Leningrad. Once the offensive stopped, and the 4th Panzer Group left towards Moscow, the Germans started to dig-in to execute the siege. Georgy Zhukov overlooked this change and prepared the city to withstand expected German assault. [12] Meanings of Barbarossa (Italian: Red Beard): Barbarossa was the nickname of two famous people in history: Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Khair ad Din, Barbary pirate and Ottoman admiral. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


On August 6, 1941, Hitler repeated his order: "Leningrad first, the Donetsk Basin second, Moscow third."[13] From August 1941, when the Wehrmacht troops of Army Group North reached the outskirts of Leningrad, through to January 1944, operations to take the city dominated OKH decisionmaking in the northern Area of Eastern Front operations.[14] In August 1941 all railway lines to the city were severed, and the city was encircled by Finnish armies on the north and Wehrmacht troops to the south of Leningrad.[15] Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... The Oberkommando der Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ...

Fire of anti-aircraft guns deployed in the neighborhood of St. Isaac's cathedral during the defense of Leningrad (now called Saint Petersburg, its pre-Soviet name) in 1941.
Fire of anti-aircraft guns deployed in the neighborhood of St. Isaac's cathedral during the defense of Leningrad (now called Saint Petersburg, its pre-Soviet name) in 1941.

In August 1942, another operation for capturing Leningrad codenamed Operation Nordlicht (Operation Northern Light) was planned. Soviet Sinyavin offensive operation managed to pre-empt German offensive, and it was cancelled[16]. At the same time, Finnish Naval Detachment K carried out an attack on the Soviet supply route at Lake Ladoga; one barge[17] was sunk. Massive air-bombings and artillery bombardment of the city continued from August 1941 and through 1943. Mannerheim's order on May 17 authorised deployment of the international Naval Detachment K with boats from Finland, Germany and Italy which during its patrols interdicted the Leningrad supply route in the southern part of Lake Ladoga.[18][19] American and British Lend-Lease food and material supplies to Leningrad begun in the last quarter of 1941, while British and American convoys to Mourmansk increased this support for the city in 1942 and 1943, helping civilian survivors in the besieged Leningrad, as well as the Soviet fighting forces. In three winters between 1941 and 1944, the ice cover on Lake Ladoga was used by the besieged city for temporary communications via the Road of Life. Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ...


On Hitler's explicit orders most of the Palaces of the Tsars, such as the Catherine Palace, the Peterhof, the Gatchina, the Ropsha, the Strelna, and other historic landmarks located outside of the city's defensive perimeter were looted and then destroyed, with many art collections transported to Nazi Germany.[citation needed] Many Leningrad industries, factories, schools, hospitals, transport facilities and infrastructures, the airport and other locations were destroyed by the air raids and long range artillery bombardment during the 2½ years of the siege. South side - view from the garden. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Ropsha (Russian: Ропша) is a townlet in the Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation, situated about 20 km south of Peterhof and 49 km west of Saint Petersburg, at an elevation of 80 metres above sea level. ... The Constantine Palace in 1921 Strelna (Russian: Стрельна) is a historic village situated about halfway between Saint Petersburg and Peterhof and overlooking the shore of the Gulf of Finland. ...


The Wehrmacht besieging perimeter was penetrated by Soviet forces at January 17, 1943, during Operation Iskra, when a narrow corridor was established along the shores of Lake Ladoga. The siege was finally lifted by Marshal Zhukov's offensive on January 27, 1944, as part of the Leningrad-Novgorod strategic offensive operation. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 (N.S.)/November 19, 1896 (O.S.)) - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. // Prewar career Born into a peasant... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 900 days of the siege caused unparalleled famine through disruption of utilities, water, and energy supply. This resulted in the deaths of about 1.5 million civilians, and the evacuation of 1.4 million more, mainly women and children, many of whom died during evacuation due to starvation and bombardment.[20][21][22] Of the 1.5 million total Soviet casualties, one cemetery in Leningrad has half a million civilian victims of the siege interred. Economic destruction and human losses in Leningrad on both sides exceeded those of the Battle of Stalingrad, or the Battle of Moscow, or the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The battle for Leningrad is listed among the most lethal sieges in world history. Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Josef Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko Strength... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... The following is a list of the most lethal battles in world history. ...


Historians speak about the Nazi siege operations as a genocide of the Leningrad residents in terms of a "racially motivated starvation policy" which became the integral part of the unprecedented German war of extermination against the civilian population of the city and the Soviet Union in general.[23][24] Not to be confused with Nasi. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...

The diary of Tanya Savicheva, a girl of 11, her notes about starvation and deaths of her grandmother, then uncle, then mother, then brother, the last record saying "Only Tanya is left." She died of starvation during the siege. Her diary was shown at the Nuremberg trial.
The diary of Tanya Savicheva, a girl of 11, her notes about starvation and deaths of her grandmother, then uncle, then mother, then brother, the last record saying "Only Tanya is left." She died of starvation during the siege. Her diary was shown at the Nuremberg trial.

Tanya Savicheva diary and photo. ... Tanya Savicheva diary and photo. ... Tatyana Nikolayevna Savicheva (Russian: Татьяна Николаевна Савичева), commonly referred to as Tanya Savicheva (Таня Савичева) (January 25, 1930 - July 1, 1944) was a Russian child diarist who died during the Siege of Leningrad during World War II. The diary that survives her is brief yet heartbreaking. ... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ...

Preparations

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

German plans

Axis attack in Operation Barbarossa: Finnish army attacking Soviet Union from the North, and Nazi Germany from the West.
Axis attack in Operation Barbarossa: Finnish army attacking Soviet Union from the North, and Nazi Germany from the West.

Army Group North under Leeb advanced to Leningrad, its primary objective. Leeb's plan called for capturing the city on the move, but due to strong resistance of the Soviet forces defending the city and Hitler's recall of 4th Panzergruppe he was forced to only siege the city after reaching the shores of Lake Ladoga, and tried to complete the encirclement by reaching the Finnish Army under Mannerheim waiting at the Svir River, east of Leningrad.[25] Image File history File links Operation_Barbarossa_corrected_border. ... Image File history File links Operation_Barbarossa_corrected_border. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb in a photo from 1946 Wilhelm Ritter[1] von Leeb (September 5, 1876 - April 29, 1956) was a German Field Marshal during World War II. // Born in Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria as Wilhelm Leeb, he joined the Bavarian Army in 1895 as an officer cadet. ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Svir (Russian: , Finnish: , Estonian: ) is a river in the north-east of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. ...


Finnish military forces were located north of Leningrad, while the territories south of Leningrad were occupied by Nazi Germany.[26] Finnish and German forces had their goal set to encircle Leningrad, and to keep the perimeter of blockade, cutting off any communication with the city[dubious ].[27][28][29][30][31][32]


Leningrad fortified region

On June 27, 1941 the Council of Deputies of the Leningrad administration organized "First response groups" of civilians. In the next days the entire civilian population of Leningrad was informed of danger and mobilized over a million citizens of Leningrad for the construction of fortifications. Several lines of defenses were built along the perimeter of the city limits, to meet the enemy approaching from north and south with civilian resistance.[33][34] is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


One of the fortifications ran from the mouth of the Luga River to Chudovo, Gatchina, Uritsk, Pulkovo and then through the Neva River. The other defense passed through Peterhof to Gatchina, Pulkovo, Kolpino and Koltushy. Another defense line against the Finns, the Karelian Fortified Region, had been maintained in the northern suburbs of Leningrad since the 1930s, and it was now returned to service. In all, 190 km of timber barricades, 635 km of wire entanglements, 700 km of anti-tank ditches, 5,000 earth-and-timber emplacements and reinforced concrete weapon emplacements and 25,000 km of open trenches were built by civilians. Even the gun of the cruiser Aurora was mounted on the Pulkovskiye Heights to the south of Leningrad The Luga River (Луга in Russian) is a river in the Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... Chudovo (Russian: Чудово) is a town in the Novgorod Oblast in Russia, located on the Kerest River (Lake Ladoga basin). ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Krasnoye Selo may also refer to a village formerly known as Hohensalzburg in Kaliningrad Oblast Krasnoye Selo (Russian: , lit. ... Pulkovo Airport (Аэропорт Пулково in Russian) ( IATA Airport Code: LED / ICAO Airport Code : ULLI) is located 16 km south of St Petersburg, Russia. ... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек - Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург - Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив - Finskii Zaliv). ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Kolpino (Колпино in Russian) is a city in the Federal City of Saint Petersburg in Russia, located on the Izhora River (Nevas tributary) some 26 km southeast of St. ... The Aurora (Russian: Авро́ра; English transliteration: Avrora) is a Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in St. ... Pulkovskiye Heights (Russian: Пулковские высоты) is a chain of hills located to the south of Saint Petersburg. ...


Establishing the siege

Following a swift advance accomplished by the 4th Panzer Group from East Prussia to take Pskov, and reached the neighborhood of Luga and Novgorod within operational reach of Leningrad, but was stopped by fierce resistance south of Leningrad. However the 18th Army with some 350 thousand men, lagged behind, forcing their way to Ostrov and Pskov, after the Soviet troops of the Northwestern Front retreated towards Leningrad. On July 10, both Ostrov and Pskov were captured, and the 18th Army reached Narva and Kingisepp from where advance continued to Leningrad from the Luga River line, assuming siege positions from the Gulf of Finland to Lake Ladoga with the eventual aim of isolating Leningrad from all directions when the Finnish Army was expected to advance along the eastern shore of Lake Ladoga.[35]. The German Fourth Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. It played a part in the invasion of France and then on the Eastern front, the 4th Panzer Army and Guderians 1st Army encircled army after army until it came to... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Pskov (Russian: , ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ (Plescow)) is an ancient city, located in the north-west of Russia about 20 km east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. ... , Luga (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Votic: Laugaz) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Luga River 140 kilometers (87 mi) south of St. ... For other cities named Novgorod, see Novgorod (disambiguation). ... Ostrov - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Pskov (Russian: , ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ (Plescow)) is an ancient city, located in the north-west of Russia about 20 km east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... St Catherine Cathedral of Yamburg was built in 1764-1782 to a late baroque design by Antonio Rinaldi. ... The Luga River (Луга in Russian) is a river in the Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ...


Order of battles

German order of battle

Army Group North (von Leeb)[36]

  • 18. Army (von Küchler)
    • XXXXII Corps (2 infantry divisions)
    • XXVI Corps (3 inf divisions)
  • 16. Army (Busch)
    • XXVIII Corps (2 inf, 1 armored disisions)
    • I Corps (2 inf divisions)
    • X Corps (3 inf divisions)
    • II Corps (3 inf divisions)
    • (L Corps - Under 9. Army) (2 inf divisions)
  • 4. Panzergruppe (Hoepner)
    • XXXVIII Corps (1 inf division)
    • XXXXI Motorized Corps (Reinhard) (1 inf, 1 motorized, 1 armored divisions)
    • LVI Motorized Corps (von Manstain) (1 inf, 1 mot, 1 arm, 1 panzergrenadier divisions)

Finnish order of battle

Finnish army HQ (Mannerheim)[37]

    • I Corps (2 infantry divisions)
    • II Corps (2 inf divisions)
    • IV Corps (3 inf divisions)

Soviet order of battle

Northern Front (Popov)[38]

  • 7. Army (2 rifle, 1 militia divisions, 1 marine brigade, 3 motorized rifle and 1 armored regiments)
  • 8. Army
    • X Rifle Corps (2 rifle divisions)
    • XI Rifle Corps (3 rifle divisions)
    • Separate Units (3 rifle divisions)
  • 14. Army
    • XXXXII Rifle Corps (2 rifle divisions)
    • Separate Units (2 rifle divisions, 1 Fortified area, 1 motorized rifle regiment)
  • 23. Army
    • XIX Rifle Corps (3 rifle divisions)
    • Separate Units (2 rifle, 1 mot divisions, 2 Fortified areas, 1 rifle regiment)
  • Luga Operation group
    • XXXXI Rifle Corps (3 rifle divisions)
    • Separate Units (1 armored brigade, 1 rifle regiment)
  • Kingisepp Operation Group
    • Separate Units (2 rifle, 2 militia, 1 armored divisions, 1 Fortified area)
  • Separate Units (3 rifle divisions, 4 guard militia divisions, 3 Fortified areas, 1 rifle brigade)

From these, 14. Army defended Murmansk and 7. Army Ladoga Karelia, thus they didn't participate to the initial stages of the siege. 8. Army was initially part of the Northwestern Front and retreated through Baltics and was transferred to Northern Front at July 14.


Severing lines of communication

On August 6 Hitler repeated his order: "Leningrad first, the Donetsk Basin second, Moscow third."[39] From August 1941 through January 1944, anything that happened between the Arctic Ocean and Lake Ilmen concerned Wehrmacht's Leningrad siege operations.[40] Arctic convoys delivered American, Canadian, and British food and war material supplies to the Murmansk–Leningrad railroad[citation needed], which was cut by the Finnish armies just north of Leningrad, and in several other locations in Lapland[citation needed]. After Britain and Canada declared war on Finland, Winston Churchill demanded that Mannerheim and Finnish armies should restore the Murmansk–Leningrad railroad for food supplies as a humanitarian act towards Leningrad's civilians.[citation needed] Ilmen (Russian: ) is a historically important lake in the Novgorod Oblast of Russia, formerly a vital part of the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ...


Encirclement of Leningrad

Finnish intelligence was particularly helpful for Hitler, as he constantly requested intelligence information about Leningrad[41], as the Finns had broken some of the Soviet military codes and were able to read their low level correspondence.[citation needed]


Finland's role in Operation Barbarossa was laid out in Hitler's Directive 21, "The mass of the Finnish army will have the task, in accordance with the advance made by the northern wing of the German armies, of tying up maximum Russian strength by attacking to the west, or on both sides, of Lake Ladoga".[42]


The last rail connection to Leningrad was severed on August 30, when Germans reached the Neva River. The shelling of Leningrad began on September 4. On September 8, the last land connection to the besieged city was severed when the Germans reached Lake Ladoga at Orekhovets. Bombing on September 8 caused 178 fires.[citation needed] Hitler's directive on October 7, signed by Alfred Jodl was a reminder not to accept capitulation.[citation needed] German shellings and bombings killed 5 723 and wounded 20 507 civilians in Leningrad during the siege[43]. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек - Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург - Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив - Finskii Zaliv). ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Orekhovets or Orechovets is an island with the fortress Oreshek (Nöteborg in Swedish, given the name Shlisselburg/Schlisselburg/Schlüsselburg (also sometimes erroneously spelled as Schlüsselberg, Schlusselberg, Schluesselberg) after its re-conquest by Peter the Great in 1702). ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ...


Finland and Germany

Barrage balloons in front of the Saint Isaac's Cathedral protecting Leningrad from the German air-bombings

By August 1941, the Finns had reached within 20km of the northern suburbs of Leningrad, threatening Leningrad from the North, and were advancing through Karelia east of Lake Ladoga, threatening Leningrad from the East. However, the Finnish forces halted their advance only kilometers from the suburbs of Leningrad (Saint Petersburg) at Finland's old border in Karelian Isthmus. The Finnish headquarters rejected German pleas for aerial attacks against Leningrad and did not advance further south from the River Svir in the occupied East Karelia which they reached at September 7, 160 kilometers north-east of Leningrad. In the south-east, Germans captured Tikhvin on November 8, but failed to advance further north to fully complete encirclement of Leningrad with the Finns at the Svir River. A month later on December 9, the counterattack of the Volkhov Front forced the Wehrmacht to retreat from the Tikhvin positions, to the River Volkhov line.[44][45] Image File history File links Isaakievskiy_Sobor. ... Image File history File links Isaakievskiy_Sobor. ... The cathedral dominates the city skyline St. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... The river Svir (Свирь, Finnish: Syväri) connects Lake Onega with Lake Ladoga in Russia, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe, and is considered the southern border of East Karelia. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tikhvin (Russian: Тихвин) is a town in the northeast of Leningrad Oblast of Russia, 200 km East of St. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Svir (Russian: , Finnish: , Estonian: ) is a river in the north-east of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Volkhov River, also called Olhava river (Russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ...


On the 6th of September, 1941, Mannerheim receives the Order Of The Iron Cross for his command in the campaign[citation needed]. Germany's Chief of Staff Jodl brought the award to him with a personal letter from Hitler for the award ceremony held at Helsinki. Mannerheim was later photographed wearing the decoration while meeting with Hitler.[46][47][48] Jodl's main reason for coming to Helsinki was to persuade Mannerheim to continue the Finnish offensive. Although during 1941 Ryti declared it as his goal to fight for more territories in the East for a "Greater Finland" in numerous speeches in the Finnish Parliament,[49][50][51]after the war, the former Finnish President Ryti changed his story[citation needed] and said that, "On August 24, 1941 I visited the headquarters of Marshal Mannerheim. The Germans aimed us at crossing the old border and at continuation of the offensive to Leningrad. I said that the capture of Leningrad wasn't our goal and that we shouldn't take part in it. Mannerheim and the military minister Walden agreed with me and refused the offers of the Germans. The result was a paradoxical situation: the Germans were not able to approach Leningrad from the north…" Later it was asserted that there was no systematic shelling or bombing from of the Finnish positions.[52] A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... Mannerheim is a surname of two well-known nobility lineages registered in Finland and Sweden. ... Risto Heikki Ryti (February 3, 1889 - October 25, 1956) was the president of Finland from 1940 to 1944. ... Risto Heikki Ryti (February 3, 1889 - October 25, 1956) was the president of Finland from 1940 to 1944. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

Hitler, Mannerheim, and Ryti meeting in Imatra, Finland, 200 km north of Leningrad, in 1942
Hitler, Mannerheim, and Ryti meeting in Imatra, Finland, 200 km north of Leningrad, in 1942

Nevertheless the close proximity of the Finnish army's positions just 33-35 kilometers from the center of Leningrad, and the threat of a Finnish attack complicated the defense of Leningrad. At one point the Front Commander Popov could not release reserves facing the Finnish Army against the Wehrmacht because they were needed to bolster the 23rd Army's defence on the Karelian Isthmus.[53] On August 31 1941 Mannerheim ordered a stop to the offensive when the Finnish advance reached the 1939 border at the shores of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, after which Finnish offensive only continued by reducing the salients of Beloostrov and Kirjasalo, which threatened Finnish positions at the coast of Gulf of Finland and south of river Vuoksi respectively.[54] As the Finns reached the line during the first days of September, Popov noticed a reduction in pressure on Red Army forces allowing him to transfer two divisions to the German sector on September 5.[55] However, in November 1941, the Finnish forces made another advance towards Leningrad, and crossed the Sestra River, but were stopped again at the Sestroretsk and Beloostrov settlements 20-25 km north of the Leningrad outer suburbs.[56][57] Finnish sources do not know such an offensive and neither do Finnish casualty reports indicate any excess casualties at the time.[58] On the other hand, Soviet forces captured so called "Munakukkula" hill 1km west from Lake Lempaala at the evening of November 8, but Finns recaptured it next morning.[59] Later, in the summer of 1942, a special Naval Detachment K was formed from Finnish, German and Italian naval units under the Finnish operative command. Its purpose was to patrol the waters of Lake Ladoga, and it became involved in clashes against Leningrad supply route on southern Ladoga[60][19][61] Image File history File linksMetadata Hitler_Mannerheim_Ryti. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hitler_Mannerheim_Ryti. ... Imatra is a town and municipality in eastern Finland, founded in 1948 around three industrial settlements near the Finnish-Russian border. ... Markian Mikhailovich Popov (Маркиан Михайлович Попов) (1902-1969) was a Soviet military commaner, Army General (1953), Hero of the Soviet Union (1965). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... Beloostrov (Russian: ; Finnish: , both meaning lit. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sestroretsk (Сестрорецк in Russian) is a town in the Kurortny District of St. ... Beloostrov (Russian: ; Finnish: , both meaning lit. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ...

Defensive operations

Initial defence of Leningrad was undertaken by the troops of the Leningrad Front commanded by Kliment Voroshilov which included the 23rd Army in the northern sector between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and 48th Army occupying the western sector between Gulf of Finland and the Slutsk-Mga position. Included in the Front were the Leningrad Fortified Region, the Leningrad garrison, the Baltic Fleet forces, and the Koporsk, Southern and Slutsk-Kolpin operational groups. The Leningrad Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. ... The Leningrad Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. ...   (Russian: ), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Russian: ) (February 4 [O.S. January 23] 1881 – December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and politician. ...


The Siege

By September 1941 when the link with the Volkhov Front (commanded by Kirill Meretskov) was severed, the defensive sectors were occupied by four Armies: 23rd Army in the northern sector, 42nd Army on the western sector, 55th Army on the southern sector, and the 67th Army on the eastern sector. The 8th Army of the Volkhov Front had the responsibility for attempting to maintain the logistic route to the city in coordination with the Ladoga flotilla. Air cover for the city was provided by the Leningrad military district PVO Corps and Baltic Fleet naval aviation units. The Volkhov Front was a Front (i. ... Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov (Russian: Кирилл Афанасьевич Мерецков) (June 7, 1897 - December 30, 1968) was a Soviet military commander. ... Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ... The 6th Air Army (6 Vozdushnaya Armiya) of the Russian Air Force was created on June 1, 1998, from the 76th Air Army of the VVS and the 6th Independent Army of the PVO, both headquartered in Sankt Petersburg. ...


The defence operation to protect the 1.4 millions civilian evacuees was part of the Leningrad counter-siege operations, and was carried under the command of Andrei Zhdanov, Klim Voroshilov, and Aleksei Kuznetsov. Additional military operations was carried in coordination with the Baltic Fleet naval forces under the general command of Admiral Vladimir Tribuz. Major military involvement in defense operations in helping evacuation of civilians was carried by the Ladoga Flotilla under the command of V. Baranovsky, S.V. Zemlyanichenko, P.A. Traynin, and B.V. Khoroshikhin. Andrei Zhdanov Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov (Андре́й Алекса́ндрович Жда́нов) (February 26 [O.S. February 14] 1896–August 31, 1948) was a Soviet politician. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Kliment Voroshilov Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov () (January 23, 1881 - December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and politician. ... Alexei Kuznetsov was Deputy Leningrad Party Leader during the seige of Leningrad. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ...


Supplying the defenders

Main article: Road of Life

By September 8 the Germans had largely surrounded the city, cutting off all supply routes to Leningrad and its suburbs. Unable to press home their offensive, and facing defenses of the city organized by Marshal Zhukov, the German armies laid siege to the city for 872 days. To maintain the defense of the city it was vitally important for the Red Army to establish a constantly operating supply route to the city. This route was established over the southern part of Lake Ladoga, maintain with water transports in the warmer seasons, and over hard ice in the winter. The security of the supply route was ensured by the Ladoga flotilla, the Leningrad PVO Corps, and route security troops. The route would also be used to evacuate civilians from the besieged city because due to the chaos of the first winter of the war, no evacuation plan was available or executed and the city quite literally starved in complete isolation until November 20, 1941, when an ice road over Lake Ladoga was established. Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 (N.S.)/November 19, 1896 (O.S.)) - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. // Prewar career Born into a peasant... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Emergency evacuation is the movement of persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


This ice road, named the Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни), could only be used during the winter, and during the rest of the year watercraft were used. The Road of Life was dangerous due to carriages and transports becoming stuck in the snow or sinking if the ice broke under constant German bombardment. Because of the high death toll in the winter, the pathway was also known as the "Road of Death". However, the lifeline did bring war supplies and food in, and civilians out, allowing the city to continue to resist. Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ...


Soviet relief of the siege

Soviet ski troops near the Hermitage Museum heading to the front
Soviet ski troops near the Hermitage Museum heading to the front

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (461x700, 59 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (461x700, 59 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ...

Operation Iskra

The encirclement was broken as a result of Operation Iskra — (English: spark) a full-scale offensive of troops of the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts. This offensive started in the morning of January 12, 1943. After fierce battles, the Red Army units overcame the powerful German fortifications to the south of Lake Ladoga, and on January 18, 1943 the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts met, opening a narrow, 10-12km wide land corridor to the still-besieged city. The Volkhov Front was a Front (i. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lifting the siege

The siege continued until January 27, 1944, when as a result of the Soviet Oranienbaum Offensive the besieging Germans were expelled from the southern outskirts of the city. This was a combined effort by the Leningrad Front, along with the Volkhov Front, the 1st Baltic Front and the 2nd Baltic Front. Later, in the summer of 1944, the Finns were pushed back to the other side of the Bay of Vyborg and the Vuoksi River. Battle of Narva Conflict {{{conflict}}} Date {{{date}}} Place {{{place}}} Result {{{result}}} The Battle of Narva took place in the first half of 1944. ... The Leningrad Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. ... The Volkhov Front was a Front (i. ... The First Baltic Front was a Front of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... The Bryansk Front was a Front (i. ... The Bay of Vyborg or Bay of Viipuri is a deep inlet running northeastward near the eastern end of Gulf of Finland. ... The River Vuoksi (Finnish) or River Vuoksa (Russian standard transcription) runs in the northernmost part of the Karelian Isthmus, from Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland flowing into Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ...


Effect of the siege on the city

Main article: Effect of the Siege of Leningrad on the city

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Timeline of the Siege of Leningrad

1941

  • April:[citation needed] Hitler issues orders to occupy and then destroy Leningrad, according to plan Barbarossa and Generalplan Ost[62]
  • June 22: Operation Barbarossa begins.
  • June 23: Leningrad commander M. Popov, sends his second in command to recon defensive positions south of Leningrad.[63]
  • June 29: Building of Luga-line starts.[64]
  • July 10 - September 30: Leningrad strategic defensive operation (10.07–30.09.41) Army Group North breaks through Luga-line and encircles Leningrad
Tallin defensive operation (10.07–10.08.41),
Kingesepp-Luga defensive operation (10.07–23.09.41),
Sol'tsy-Dno Offensive Operation (15–20.07.41),
Staraia-Russa Offensive Operation (08–23.08.41),
Demyansk Defensive Operation (06-26.09.41)
  • July 19–23: First attack on Leningrad by the Army Group North is stopped 100 km south of the city.[citation needed]
  • July 27: Hitler visits Army Group North, expresses anger at the slowdown, and orders Wilhelm von Leeb to take Saint Petersburg by December 1941.[65]
  • July 31 – August 31: Finnish Army under Mannerheim attacks the 23rd Army at Karelian Isthmus, and reaches the northern pre-Winter War Finnish-Soviet border. At August 31 Mannerheim orders forces on defensive and to streighten the frontline.[66]
  • August 20 – September 8: Artillery bombardments of Leningrad are massive, targeting industries, schools, hospitals, and civilian houses[citation needed].
  • August 21: Hitler's Directive No.34 ordered "Encirclement of Leningrad and junction with the Finns."[67]
  • September 6: OKW's Chief of Operations Alfred Jodl visits Finland and tries to persuade Finns to continue offensive against Leningrad.[citation needed]
  • September 2 - 9: Finns capture of the salients of Beloostrov and Kirjasalo and starts to prepare defences.[68][57]
  • September 8: Encirclement of Leningrad is completed when the German forces reach the shores of Lake Ladoga.[69][70]
  • September 13: Joseph Stalin sends Zhukov to replace Voroshilov at the Leningrad Front commander position.[citation needed]
  • September 17: Zhukov orders to shoot to death soldiers that withdraw from their positions without written order.[citation needed]
  • September 19: German troops are stopped 10 km from Leningrad. Masses of citizens, women and schoolchildren come to fight in defense lines.[citation needed]
  • September 22: Hitler issues "Directive No. 1601" ordering "Saint Petersburg must be erased from the face of the Earth" and "we have no interest in saving lives of civilian population."[71]
  • November 10 - December 30: Tikhvin strategic offensive operation, Soviet counterattack forces Germans to retreat from Tikhvin to Volkhov river, thus failing to close the second encirclement of Leningrad, by trying to reach Finns waiting at Svir River east of Leningrad.[72]
Malo-Vishersk Offensive Operation (November 10–December 30)
Tikhvin-Kirishsk Offensive Operation (November 12–December 30)
  • November 8: Hitler's speech in Munich: "Leningrad must die of starvation."[73]
  • November: With massive air-raids the Germans destroy all major food stores in Leningrad.[citation needed]

Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb in a photo from 1946 Wilhelm Ritter[1] von Leeb (September 5, 1876 - April 29, 1956) was a German Field Marshal during World War II. // Born in Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria as Wilhelm Leeb, he joined the Bavarian Army in 1895 as an officer cadet. ... Mannerheim is a surname of two well-known nobility lineages registered in Finland and Sweden. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... Beloostrov (Russian: ; Finnish: , both meaning lit. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Svir (Russian: , Finnish: , Estonian: ) is a river in the north-east of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. ...

1942

c1,496,000 Soviet personnel were awarded the medal for the defence of Leningrad from 22nd December 1942.
c1,496,000 Soviet personnel were awarded the medal for the defence of Leningrad from 22nd December 1942.
  • January 7 - April 30: Lyuban Offensive Operation, failed Soviet relief attempt resulting encirclement and destruction of the 2nd Shock Army.
  • January–December: Nevsky Pyatachok battle attempting to break the siege. 300 thousand men are killed within an area of 1 km at Nevsky Pyatachok.[citation needed]
  • April 4 - April 30: Operation Eis Stoß (Ice impact) Luftwaffe unsuccessfully tries to sink Baltic fleet stuck in the ice at Leningrad.[74]
  • August 14 – October 27 : International Naval Detachment K consisting boats from Finland, Germany and Italy, under the Finnish operative command has clashes against Leningrad supply route on southern Ladoga.[75][19][76]
  • June–September: Newer heavy artillery is stationed 10–28 km from the city and bombards Leningrad with 800 kg shells. The Nazis make special maps of Leningrad for artillery bombardments targeting the city infrastructure, businesses, transportation, schools, and hospitals.
  • August 19 - October 15: Sinyavin offensive operation Soviet failed relief attempt, but it managed to thwart German preparations for Operation Nordlicht, which was cancelled.[77]

Image File history File links Medal_Defense_of_Leningrad. ... Image File history File links Medal_Defense_of_Leningrad. ... Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life The Road of Life (Russian: Дорога жизни, doroga zhizni) was the transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during the Great Patriotic War. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians...

1943

Artillery bombardments of the Nevsky prospekt
  • January–December: Increased artillery bombardments of Leningrad. In 1943 the Nazis fired 6 times more shells and bombs than in 1942 on Leningrad. Total number of heavy artillery shells recorded at 147 thousand explosions. Highly explosive Navy torpedos were frequently used for night bombings by the Luftwaffe.[citation needed]
  • January–December: Baltic Fleet Navy aviation makes over 100,000 air missions to support the military operations during the siege of Leningrad.[78].
  • January 12 – January 30: Operation Iskra opens a narrow land corridor along the coast of Lake Ladoga to the city
  • February: The railroad is temporarily restored, but soon destroyed again by enemy aircraft.[citation needed]

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 695 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 695 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Nevsky Prospekt, or the Neva Avenue (Russian: Невский проспект), is the main street in the city of St Petersburg. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ...

1944

Women of Leningrad collecting water from a broken street main, struggling to survive
  • January 14 - March 1: Leningrad-Novgorod strategic offensive operation, 1st of the Ten Stalin’s punches:
Krasnoye Selo-Ropshin offensive operation (January 14-January 30)
Novgorod-Luga offensive operation (January 14-February 15)
Kingisepp-Gdov offensive operation (February 1–March 1)
Staraya Russa-Novorzhev offensive operation (February 18–March 1)
  • January 27: Siege of Leningrad ends, after a joint effort by the Army and the Baltic Fleet, which provided 30% of aviation power for the final blow to the Germans[79]. The Germans are forced to retreat 60–100 km away from the city.
  • June 9 - July 15: Vyborg-Petrozavodsk Strategic Offensive Operation pushes Finns northwestwards about 30–100 km to the other side of Bay of Vyborg and River Vuoksi.

Image File history File links Blokada_02. ... Image File history File links Blokada_02. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... The Bay of Vyborg or Bay of Viipuri is a deep inlet running northeastward near the eastern end of Gulf of Finland. ... The River Vuoksi (Finnish) or River Vuoksa (Russian standard transcription) runs in the northernmost part of the Karelian Isthmus, from Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland flowing into Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ...

See also

Tatyana Nikolayevna Savicheva (Russian: Татьяна Николаевна Савичева), commonly referred to as Tanya Savicheva (Таня Савичева) (January 25, 1930 - July 1, 1944) was a Russian child diarist who died during the Siege of Leningrad during World War II. The diary that survives her is brief yet heartbreaking. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of...

References

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  2. ^ Wykes 1972, pp. 9-21
  3. ^ Siege of Leningrad. Encyclopedia Britannica. [1]
  4. ^ Wykes 1972, pp. 9-21
  5. ^ Carell 1966, pp. 205-210
  6. ^ Salisbury 1969, p. 331
  7. ^ Glantz 2001, pp. 220
  8. ^ Siege of Leningrad. Encyclopedia Britannica. [2]
  9. ^ Carell 1963
  10. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
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  15. ^ Military-Topographic Directorate, maps No. 194, 196, Officer's Atlas. General Staff USSR. 1947. Атлас Офицера. Генеральный штаб вооруженных сил ССР. М., Военно-топографическоее управление,- 1947. Листы 194, 196
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  22. ^ Wykes 1972, pp. 9-21
  23. ^ Ganzenmüller 2005, pp. 17,20
  24. ^ Barber 2005
  25. ^ Carell 1966, pp. 205-208
  26. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
  27. ^ Higgins 1966
  28. ^ Brinkley 2004, pp. 210
  29. ^ Wykes 1972, pp. 9-21
  30. ^ Carell 1966, pp. 205-208
  31. ^ Miller 2006, pp. 67
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  33. ^ Wykes 1972, pp. 9-21
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  39. ^ Higgins 1966, pp. 151
  40. ^ Carell 1966, pp. 205-210
  41. ^ Carell 1966, pp. 205-210
  42. ^ Führer Directive 21. Operation Barbarossa [3]
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  44. ^ Wykes 1972, pp. 9-21
  45. ^ Carell 1966, pp. 205-210
  46. ^ [4] - Helsingin Sanomat International Web-Edition - "Conversation secretly recorded in Finland helped German actor prepare for Hitler role" Helsingin Sanomat / First published in print 15.9.2004 in Finnish.
  47. ^ Hitler–Mannerheim meeting (fragment).
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  49. ^ Vehviläinen 2002
  50. ^ Пыхалов, И (2003). «Великая Оболганная война». Военная литература. Со сслылкой на Барышников В. Н. Вступление Финляндии во Вторую мировую войну. 1940-1941 гг. СПб с. 28. Militera. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  51. ^ «И вновь продолжается бой…». Андрей Сомов. Центр Политических и Социальных Исследований Республики Карелия.. Politika-Karelia. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  52. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
  53. ^ Glantz 2001, pp. 33–34
  54. ^ National Defence College 1994, pp. 2:262-267
  55. ^ Platonov 1964
  56. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
  57. ^ a b Approaching Leningrad from the North. Finland in WWII (На северных подступах к Ленинграду) (Russian).
  58. ^ Database of Finns killed in WWII. War Archive. Finnish National Archive.
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  60. ^ Juutilainen 2005, pp. 662-672
  61. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
  62. ^ Cartier 1977
  63. ^ Glantz 2001, p. 31
  64. ^ Glantz 2001, p. 42
  65. ^ Cartier 1977
  66. ^ National Defence College 1994, p. 2:261
  67. ^ Higgins 1966, pp. 156
  68. ^ National Defence College 1994, pp. 2:262-267
  69. ^ Cartier 1977
  70. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
  71. ^ Hitler, Adolf (1941-09-22). Directive No. 1601 (Russian).
  72. ^ Carell 1966, pp. 210
  73. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
  74. ^ Bernstein, AI; Бернштейн, АИ (1983). Notes of aviation engineer (Аэростаты над Ленинградом. Записки инженера - воздухоплавателя. Химия и Жизнь №5) (Russian) с. 8–16.
  75. ^ Juutilainen 2005, pp. 662-672
  76. ^ Baryshnikov 2003
  77. ^ Glantz 2001, pp. 167-173
  78. ^ Гречанюк 1990
  79. ^ Гречанюк 1990
  • Backlund, L.S. (1983), Nazi Germany and Finland, University of Pennsylvania. University Microfilms International A. Bell & Howell Information Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • Baryshnikov, N.I.; V.N. Baryshnikov & V.G. Fedorov (1989), Finlandia vo vtoroi mirivoi voine (Finland in the Second World War), Lenizdat, Leningrad
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  • Baryshnikov, V.N. (1997), Neuvostoliiton Suomen suhteiden kehitys sotaa edeltaneella kaudella, TPH
  • Bethel, Nicholas & Virginia Alexandria (1981), Russia Besieged, Time-Life Books, 4th Printing, Revised
  • Brinkley, Douglas & Mickael E. Haskey (2004), The World War II. Desk Reference, Grand Central Press
  • Carell, Paul (1963), Unternehmen Barbarossa - Der Marsch nach Russland
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  • Cartier, Raymond (1977), Der Zweite Weltkrieg (The Second World War), R. Piper & CO. Verlag, München, Zürich
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  • Fugate, Bryan I. (1984), Operation Barbarossa. Strategy and Tactics on the Eastern Front, 1941, Presidio Press, ISBN-10: 0891411976, ISBN-13: 978-0891411970
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  • Гречанюк, Н. М.; В. И. Дмитриев & А. И. Корниенко (1990), Дважды, Краснознаменный Балтийский Флот (Baltic Fleet), Воениздат
  • Higgins, Trumbull (1966), Hitler and Russia, The Macmillan Company
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  • Kay, Alex J. (2006), Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder. Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940 - 1941, Berghahn Books, New York, Oxford
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  • National Defence College (1994), Jatkosodan historia 1-6, Porvoo, ISBN 951-0-15332-X
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Siege of Leningrad
  • Barber, John & Andrei Dzeniskevich (2005), Life and Death in Besieged Leningrad, 1941–44, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, ISBN 1-4039-0142-2
  • Baryshnikov, N.I. (2003), Блокада Ленинграда и Финляндия 1941–44 (Finland and the Siege of Leningrad), Институт Йохана Бекмана
  • Glantz, David (2001), The Siege of Leningrad 1941–44: 900 Days of Terror, Zenith Press, Osceola, WI, ISBN 0-7603-0941-8
  • Goure, Leon (1981), The Siege of Leningrad, Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA, ISBN 0-8047-0115-6
  • [|Granin, Daniil Alexandrovich] (2007), Leningrad Under Siege, Pen and Sword Books Ltd, ISBN 9781844154586, <http://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/?product_id=1502>
  • Kirschenbaum, Lisa (2006), The Legacy of the Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1995: Myth, Memories, and Monuments, Cambridge University Press, New York, ISBN ISBN 0-521-86326-0
  • [|Lubbeck, William] & David B. Hurt (2006), At Leningrad's Gates: The Story of a Soldier with Army Group North, Pen and Sword Books Ltd, ISBN 9781844156177, <http://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/?product_id=1457>
  • Platonov, S.P. ed. (1964), Bitva za Leningrad, Voenizdat Ministerstva oborony SSSR, Moscow
  • Salisbury, Harrison Evans (1969), The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-81298-3
  • Simmons, Cynthia & Nina Perlina (2005), Writing the Siege of Leningrad. Women's diaries, Memories, and Documentary Prose, University of Pittsburgh Press, ISBN-13: 9780822958697
  • Willmott, H.P.; Robin Cross & Charles Messenger (2004), The Siege of Leningrad in World War II, Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 978-0-7566-2968-7
  • Wykes, Alan (1972), The Siege of Leningrad, Ballantines Illustrated History of WWII

External links

  • (Youtube) Leningrad blockade part1 (Retrieved on June 29, 2008)
External images
the Siege of Leningrad
Russian map of the operations around Leningrad in 1943 Blue are the German and allied Finnish troops. The Soviets are red.[1]
map of the advance on Leningrad and relief Blue are the German and allied Finnish troops. The Soviets are red.[2]
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  Results from FactBites:
 
The 900-day Siege of Leningrad, Russia (The Leningrad Blockade) (475 words)
For everyone who lives in St. Petersburg the Blokada (the Siege) of Leningrad is an important part of the city's heritage and a painful memory for the population's older generations.
The Red Army was outflanked and on September 8 1941 the Germans had fully encircled Leningrad and the siege began.
In January 1943 the Siege was broken and a year later, on January 27 1944 it was fully lifted.
The Siege of Leningrad September 8, 1941 - January 27, 1944 - World War II Multimedia Database (741 words)
Leningrad came to symbolize the Soviet-Nazi conflict, and Americans especially identified with the Leningrad inhabitants.
The 900-Day Siege of Leningrad, Russia (The Leningrad Blockade) is an index and description of the history of Leningrad during the blockade years of World War II.
The siege of Leningrad lasted from September 1941 to 1944.
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