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Encyclopedia > Siege of Jerusalem (1187)
Siege of Jerusalem
Part of Crusades
Date Autumn 1187
Location Jerusalem
Result Ayyubid victory and capture of Jerusalem
Combatants
Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem
Commanders
Saladin Balian of Ibelin
Ayyubid-Crusader War, 1177–1187
Montgisard - Jacob's Ford - KerakCressonHattinJerusalem

The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. It resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem by Saladin and the near total collapse of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. It served as the catalyst for the Third Crusade. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The statue of Saladin at the entrance of the citadel in Damascus. ... Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV, Raynald of Chatillon, Knights Templar Saladin Strength 375 knights, 80 Templars, Several thousand infantry About 30,000 Casualties 1100 killed 750 wounded About 27,000 The Battle of Montgisard was fought between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV of Jerusalem Saladin Strength About 1500 unknown Casualties 700 killed, 800 captive unknown The Battle of Jacobs Ford was fought in 1179 between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of Saladin. ... The Siege of Kerak took place in in 1183 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladin at Kerak Castle, stronghold of Raynald of Chatillon. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders al-Afdal Gerard of Ridefort Strength About 7,000 140 knights, numerous others Casualties Unknown Almost all The Battle of Cresson was a small battle fought on May 1, 1187, at the springs of Cresson, or Ain Gozeh, near Nazareth. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The statue of Saladin at the entrance of the citadel in Damascus. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ...

Contents

Background

The Kingdom of Jerusalem, weakened by internal disputes, was completely defeated at the Battle of Hattin on July 4, 1187. Most of the nobility of the kingdom was taken prisoner, including King Guy, and throughout the summer Saladin quickly overran the kingdom. By mid-September, Saladin had taken Acre, Nablus, Jaffa, Toron, Sidon, Beirut, and Ascalon. The survivors of the battle and other refugees fled to Tyre, the only city able to hold out against Saladin, due to the fortuitous arrival of Conrad of Montferrat. Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Guy of Lusignan (c. ... Akko (Hebrew עכו; Arabic عكّا ʿAkkā; also, Acre, Accho, Acco, and St. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Toron, now Tibnin in southern Lebanon, was a major Crusader castle, built in the mountains on the road from Tyre to Damascus. ... , Sidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا á¹¢aydā) is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Imaginary portrait of Conrad by François-Édouard Picot, c. ...


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Subscript text In Tyre, Balian of Ibelin, Lord of Ramla and Nablus - the highest ranking noble to escape the defeat at Hattin - had asked Saladin for safe passage to Jerusalem in order to retrieve his wife Maria Comnena and their family. Saladin granted his request, provided that Balian not take up arms against him and not remain in Jerusalem for more than one day. However, upon arrival in the holy city, Patriarch Heraclius, Queen Sibylla, and the rest of the inhabitants begged him to take charge of the defense of the city. Heraclius, who argued that he must stay for the sake of Christianity, offered to absolve him of the oath, and Balian agreed. Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ... The Lordship of Ramla was one of the vassal states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Maria Comnena (c. ... Heraclius of Caesarea (died 1191) was archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. ... Top: Baldwin IV betrothes Sibylla to Guy; Bottom: Sibylla and Guy are married. ...


He sent word of his decision to Saladin at Ascalon, via a deputation of burgesses, who rejected the sultan's proposals for a negotiated surrender of Jerusalem. However, Saladin arranged for an escort to accompany Maria, their children, and all their household to Tripoli. As the highest ranking lord remaining in Jerusalem, according to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Balian was seen by the Muslims as holding a rank "more or less equal to that of a king." Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Izz ad-DÄ«n Hassan Karam pour AthÄ«r (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ...


Balian found the situation in Jerusalem dire. The city was filled with refugees fleeing Saladin's conquests, with more arriving daily. There were fewer than fourteen knights in the whole city, so he created sixty new knights from the ranks of the squires (knights in training) and burgesses. He prepared for the inevitable siege by storing food and money. The armies of Syria and Egypt assembled under Saladin, and after a brief and unsuccessful siege of Tyre, the sultan arrived outside Jerusalem on September 20. For the guitar company, see Squier. ... Burgess was originally a freeman of a borough. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Siege

Negotiations were carried out between Saladin and Balian, through the mediation of Yusuf Batit, one of the Eastern Orthodox clergy, who had been largely suppressed under Latin Christian rule and knew that they would have more freedoms if the city were returned to the Muslims. Saladin preferred to take the city without bloodshed, but those inside refused to leave their holy city, vowing to destroy it in a fight to the death rather than see it handed over peacefully. Thus the siege began. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Saladin's army was facing the Tower of David and the Damascus Gate. His archers continually pelted the ramparts with arrows. Siege engines were rolled up to the walls, but were pushed back each time. For days, skirmishes were fought with little result. On September 26, Saladin moved his camp to a different part of the city, on the Mount of Olives where there was no major gate from which the crusaders could counter-attack. The walls were constantly pounded by the siege engines, catapults, mangonels, petraries, Greek fire, crossbows, and arrows. A portion of the wall was mined, and it collapsed on September 29. The crusaders were unable to push Saladin's troops back from the breach, but at the same time the Muslims could not gain entrance to the city. The Muslims far outnumbered the crusaders, and soon there were only a few dozen men capable of bearing arms and defending the wall; no more men could be found even for the promise of an enormous fee. Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... It has been suggested that Heavy Catapult be merged into this article or section. ... A mangonel was a type of catapult or siege machine used in the medieval period to throw projectiles at a castles walls. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... 15th century man wearing coat of mail, shield, and armed with a crossbow/arbalest and resting on a pavise. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The civilians were in great despair. According to a passage possibly written by Ernoul, a squire of Balian, in the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre, the clergy organized a barefoot procession around the walls, much as the clergy on the First Crusade had done outside the walls in 1099. At Mount Calvary, women cropped their children's hair, after immersing them chin-deep in basins of cold water. These penances were aimed at turning away God's wrath from the city, but "…Our Lord did not deign to hear the prayers or noise that was made in the city. For the stench of adultery, of disgusting extravagance and of sin against nature would not let their prayers rise to God." Ernoul is the name generally given to the author of a chronicle of the late 12th century dealing with the fall of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... For the guitar company, see Squier. ... William of Tyre (c. ...


Negotiations between Balian and Saladin

At the end of September, Balian rode out with an embassy to meet with the sultan, offering the surrender that he had initially refused. Saladin would not accept this, seeing that as they spoke, his men had scaled the walls and planted their banners. Soon, however, the crusaders repelled their attack. Saladin acquiesced, and the two agreed that the city would be handed over to Saladin peacefully. The sultan allowed a ransom of twenty bezants for men, ten for women, and five for children, but those who could not pay were to be sold into slavery. Balian argued in vain that there were far more people who could not pay, as there were perhaps as many as 20,000 refugees from elsewhere in the kingdom. Bezants is a medieval name for gold coins. ...


After returning to Jerusalem, it was decided that seven thousand of the poor inhabitants could be ransomed from money drawn from the treasury that Henry II of England had established there, which was being guarded by the Hospitallers. This money was meant to be used by Henry on a pilgrimage or a crusade, in penance for the murder of Thomas Becket, but the king never arrived, and his treasury had already been used to pay mercenaries for the Battle of Hattin. Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Penance is repentance of sins, as well as the name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession. ... (St. ...


Balian met with Saladin again and the sultan agreed to lower the ransom to ten bezants for men, five for women, and one for children. Balian argued that this would still be too great, and Saladin suggested a ransom of 100,000 bezants for all the inhabitants. Balian thought this was impossible, and Saladin said he would ransom seven thousand people for no lower than 50,000 bezants. Finally it was decided that Saladin would free the seven thousand for 30,000 bezants; two women or ten children would be permitted to take the place of one man for the same price.


Surrender of Jerusalem

Balian handed over the keys to the Tower of David, the citadel, on October 2. It was announced that every inhabitant had about a month to pay their ransom, if they could (the length of time was perhaps 30 to 50 days, depending on the source). Saladin was generous and freed some of those who were forced into slavery; his brother Saphadin did the same, and both Balian and Heraclius, not wishing to be seen less generous than their enemies, freed many others with their own money. They offered themselves as hostages for the remaining citizens (at least several thousand) whose ransoms had not been paid, but Saladin refused. October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Abu-Bakr Malik Al-Adil I (also known as Saphadin) (1145-1218) was an Ayyubid-Egyptian general and ruler. ...


Saladin allowed for an orderly march away from Jerusalem and prevented the sort of massacre that had occurred when the crusaders captured the city in 1099. The ransomed inhabitants marched away in three columns; the Templars and Hospitallers led the first two, with Balian and the Patriarch leading the third. Balian was permitted to join his wife and family in Tripoli. Heraclius was allowed to evacuate a number of church treasures and reliquaries, which scandalised the Muslim chronicler Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani - although he had already contributed to the ransoms. 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ...


Aftermath

Some of the refugees went first to Tripoli, where they were denied entrance and were robbed of their possessions which they had taken with them from Jerusalem. Many of them went on to Antioch, Cilicia, and Byzantium. Other refugees went to Egypt, and were permitted to board Italian ships heading for Europe. This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Saladin permitted Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem, and allowed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to remain in Christian hands. To solidify Muslim claims to Jerusalem, many holy sites, including what would come to be known as Al-Aqsa Mosque, were ritually purified with rose water. He went on to capture a number of other castles that were still holding out against him, including Belvoir, Kerak, and Montreal, and returned to Tyre to besiege it for a second time. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naos tis Anastaseos; Georgian: აგდგომის ტადზარი Agdgomis Tadzari; Armenian: Surp Harutyun) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Crusader fortress of Belvoir, located on a hill of the Naphtali plateau, 20 km. ... Kerak (also Karak) (Arabic: كرك) is a region in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle. ... Montreal was a Crusader castle located in Idumaea (Edom) on the eastern side of the Jordan river. ...


Meanwhile, news of the disastrous defeat at Hattin was brought to Europe by Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre, as well as other pilgrims and travellers, while Saladin was conquering the rest of the kingdom throughout the summer of 1187. Plans were immediately made for a new crusade; on October 29, Pope Gregory VIII issued the bull Audita tremendi, even before he had heard of the fall of Jerusalem. In England and France, the Saladin tithe was enacted in order to finance expenses. The subsequent Third Crusade did not get underway until 1189, in three separate contingents led by Richard Lionheart, Philip Augustus, and Frederick Barbarossa. Joscius, also Josce or Josias (died 1202), was Archbishop of Tyre in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the late 12th century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Gregory VIII (ca. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Audita tremendi was a papal bull written by Pope Gregory VIII in October of 1187, calling for the Third Crusade. ... The Saladin tithe, or the Aid of 1188, was a tax, or more specifically a tallage, levied in England and to some extent in France in 1188, in response to the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ...


In fiction

The Siege of Jerusalem was the climax of the plot of the 2005 movie Kingdom of Heaven directed and produced by Ridley Scott. It was perhaps the most accurate part of the film, drawing from a number of primary sources, although with much imaginative material added. This is a list of film-related events in 2005. ... There is another article about the theological concept of the Kingdom of Heaven. ...


Catherine Jinks's comedic story for young adults Pagan's Crusade (2003) outlines the events leading up to and of the Siege of Jerusalem. Though it is a work of fiction, it does describe with some degree of verisimilitude the damage done to the city, the weapons used, and the negotiations between Saladin and Balian of Ibelin. For other uses, see Verisimilitude (disambiguation). ... The statue of Saladin at the entrance of the citadel in Damascus. ... Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ...


See also

Nathan the Wise (original German title Nathan der Weise) is a play by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, published in 1779. ...

Sources

  • James A. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary Survey. Marquette University Press, 1962.
  • Peter W. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Ashgate, 1996.
  • P. M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman, 1986.
  • Amin Maalouf, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. London, 1984.
  • Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187. Cambridge University Press, 1952.
  • Kenneth Setton, ed. A History of the Crusades, vol. I. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958 (available online).
  • R. C. Smail, Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193. Cambridge University Press, 1956.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Siege of Jerusalem (1187) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1642 words)
It resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem by Saladin and the near total collapse of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and was the catalyst for the Third Crusade.
After returning to Jerusalem, it was decided that seven thousand of the poor inhabitants could be ransomed from money drawn from the treasury that Henry II of England had established there, which was being guarded by the Hospitallers.
The Siege of Jerusalem was the climax of the plot of the 2005 movie Kingdom of Heaven directed and produced by Ridley Scott.
Encyclopedia4U - Jerusalem - Encyclopedia Article (3241 words)
Israel declared Jerusalem its capital in 1950, and it is the location of its presidential residence and parliament, but this status is not internationally recognized and most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv.
Jerusalem became the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which lasted until 1291, although Jerusalem itself was recaptured by Saladin in 1187.
East Jerusalem was captured by the Israelis in the Six-Day War of 1967, along with the Wailing Wall and the Temple Mount / Haram al-Sharif.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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