FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
Siege of Jerusalem
Part of the First Crusade

Capture of Jerusalem, 1099
Date June 7-July 15, 1099
Location Jerusalem
Result Decisive Crusader victory
Combatants
Crusaders Fatimids
Commanders
Raymond of Toulouse
Godfrey of Bouillon
Iftikhar ad-Dawla
Strength
1,500 knights
12,000 infantry
1,000 garrison
Casualties
Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead

The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of destroying the peaceful Islamic civilizations and confirming the barbaric nature of European society. ... Depiction of the Siege File links The following pages link to this file: Crusade Northern Crusades Sixth Crusade Albigensian Crusade First Crusade Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Childrens Crusade Eighth Crusade Fifth Crusade Seventh Crusade High Middle Ages Template:Crusade Crusade of 1101 Ninth Crusade Siege of Jerusalem... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... Iftikhar ad-Daula (also Iftikhar ad-Dawla, meaning pride of the nation) was the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem during the siege of 1099. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of destroying the peaceful Islamic civilizations and confirming the barbaric nature of European society. ... Combatants Crusaders, Byzantine Empire Nicaean Turks, forces of Sultan Commanders Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, Manuel Boutoumites Kilij Arslan I Strength 30,000 Crusaders 2000 Byzantine peltasts[1] Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses, see Siege of Nicaea (disambiguation) The Siege of Nicaea took... The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near Dorylaeum in Anatolia. ... Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Fatimids Commanders Godfrey of Bouillon al-Afdal Shahanshah Strength Possibly 10 000 Possibly 50 000 Casualties Unknown Possibly 10-12 000 For the siege and capture of Ascalon in 1153, see Battle of Ascalon (1153) The Battle of Ascalon took place on August 12, 1099, and... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of destroying the peaceful Islamic civilizations and confirming the barbaric nature of European society. ...

Contents

Background

After the successful siege of Antioch in June of 1098, the crusaders remained in the area for the rest of the year. The papal legate Adhemar of Le Puy had died, and Bohemund of Taranto had claimed Antioch for himself. Baldwin of Boulogne remained in Edessa, captured earlier in 1098. There was dissent among the princes over what to do next; Raymond of Toulouse, frustrated, left Antioch to capture the fortress at Ma'arrat al-Numan. By the end of the year the minor knights and infantry were threatening to march to Jerusalem without them. Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... A mitred Adhemar carrying the Holy Lance in battle. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Şanlı Urfa. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... Ma`arat al-Numan (معرة النعمان in Arabic) is today a small western Syrian market town, located at the highway between Aleppo and Hama and near the Dead Cities of Bara and Serjilla. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The siege of Arqa

At the end of December or early in January, Robert of Normandy and Bohemund's nephew Tancred agreed to become vassals of Raymond, who was wealthy enough to compensate them for their service. Godfrey of Bouillon, however, who now had revenue from his brother's territory in Edessa, refused to do the same. On January 5, Raymond dismantled the walls of Ma'arrat, and on January 13 began the march south, barefoot and dressed as a pilgrim, followed by Robert and Tancred. Proceeding down the coast of the Mediterranean, they encountered little resistance, as local Muslim rulers preferred to make peace and give supplies rather than fight. The local Sunnis may have also preferred Crusader control to Shi'ite Fatimid rule. Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


Raymond planned to take Tripoli for himself to set up a state equivalent to Bohemund's Antioch. First however, he besieged nearby Arqa. Meanwhile, Godfrey, along with Robert of Flanders, who had also refused to become Raymond's vassal, joined together with the remaining crusaders at Latakia and marched south in February. Bohemund marched out with them but quickly returned to Antioch. At this time Tancred left Raymond's service and joined with Godfrey, due to some unknown quarrel. Another separate force, though linked to Godfrey's, was led by Gaston IV of Béarn. This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... Arqa (originally Irqata, Arkite in the Bible) is a village near Miniara in the Akkar district of northern Lebanon, 22 km northeast of Tripoli, near the coast. ... Robert II of Flanders (c. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... Gaston IV (died 1131), was viscount of Béarn from 1090 to 1131. ...


Godfrey, Robert, Tancred, and Gaston arrived at Arqa in March, but the siege continued. The situation was tense not only among the military leaders, but also among the clergy; since Adhemar's death there had been no real leader, and ever since the discovery of the Holy Lance by Peter Bartholomew in Antioch, there had been accusations of fraud among different clerical factions. Finally, in April, Arnulf of Chocques challenged Peter to an ordeal by fire. Peter underwent the ordeal and died of his wounds, thus discrediting the holy lance as a fake and one of Raymonds holds on his ultimate authority over the Crusade. According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross. ... Peter Bartholomew was a poor monk and mystic from France who accompanied the knights of the First Crusade. ... Arnulf Malecorne of Choques (or of Rohes) (died 1118) was a leader among the clergy during the First Crusade, and was Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1099 and from 1112 to 1118. ... Trial by ordeal is a judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting them to a painful task. ...


The siege of Jerusalem

Arrival at the Holy City

The siege of Arqa lasted until May 13 when the crusaders left, having captured nothing. The Fatimids had attempted to make peace, on the condition that the crusaders not continue towards Jerusalem, but this was of course ignored; Iftikhar ad-Dawla, the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem, apparently did not understand why the crusaders were there at all. On the 13th they came to Tripoli where the ruler of the city gave them money and horses. According to the anonymous chronicle Gesta Francorum, he also vowed to convert to Christianity if the crusaders succeeded in capturing Jerusalem from his Fatimid enemies. Continuing south along the coast, the crusaders passed Beirut on May 19, Tyre on May 23, and turning inland at Jaffa, reached Ramlah on June 3, which had already been abandoned by its inhabitants. The bishopric of Ramlah-Lydda was established there at the church of St. George (a popular crusader hero) before they continued on to Jerusalem. On June 6, Godfrey sent Tancred and Gaston to capture Bethlehem, where Tancred flew his banner from the Church of the Nativity. On June 7 the crusaders reached Jerusalem itself. Many cried upon seeing the city they had journeyed so long to reach. Jerusalem during the Crusades, from Muirs Historical Atlas (1911) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... The so-called Gesta Francorum (The Deeds of the Franks, in full De Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum) is a Latin chronicle of the First Crusade (1096-1099) by an anonymous author. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Lod (Hebrew לוד; Arabic اللد al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ...


As with Antioch the crusaders put the city to a siege, in which the crusaders themselves probably suffered more than the citizens of the city, due to the lack of food and water around Jerusalem. The city was well-prepared for the siege, and the Fatimid governor Iftikhar ad-Daula had expelled most of the Christians. Of the estimated 7,000 knights who took part in the Princes' Crusade, only about 1,500 remained, along with another 12,000 healthy foot-soldiers (out of perhaps as many as 20,000). Godfrey, Robert of Flanders, and Robert of Normandy (who had now also left Raymond to join Godfrey) besieged the north walls as far south as the Tower of David, while Raymond set up his camp on the western side, from the Tower of David to Mount Zion. A direct assault on the walls on June 13 was a failure. Without water or food, both men and animals were quickly dying of thirst and starvation and the crusaders knew time was not on their side. Coincidentally, soon after the first assault, a number of Christian ships sailed into the port at Jaffa, and the crusaders were able to re-supply themselves for a short time. The crusaders also began to gather wood from Samaria in order to build siege engines. They were still short on food and water, and by the end of June there was news that a Fatimid army was marching north from Egypt. Iftikhar ad-Daula (also Iftikhar ad-Dawla, meaning pride of the nation) was the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem during the siege of 1099. ... Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ... Mount Zion (Hebrew: ‎ transliteration: Har Tziyyon - Height) is the ancient name of a mountain in jerusalem southe of the old city. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ...


The barefoot procession

Faced with a seemingly impossible task, their spirits were raised when a priest by the name of Peter Desiderius claimed to have a divine vision in which the ghost of Adhemar instructed them to fast for three days and then march in a barefoot procession around the city walls, after which the city would fall in nine days, following the Biblical example of Joshua at the siege of Jericho. Although they were already starving, they fasted, and on July 8 they made the procession, with the clergy blowing trumpets and singing psalms, being mocked by the defenders of Jerusalem all the while. The procession stopped on the Mount of Olives and sermons were delivered by Peter the Hermit, Arnulf of Chocques, and Raymond of Aguilers. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... Peter the Hermit shows the crusaders the way to Jerusalem. ... Arnulf Malecorne of Choques (or of Rohes) (died 1118) was a leader among the clergy during the First Crusade, and was Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1099 and from 1112 to 1118. ... Raymond of Aguilers (Raimundus de Aguilers or de Agiles) was a chronicler of the First Crusade (1096-1099). ...


The final assault and massacre

Throughout the siege, attacks were made on the walls, but each one was repulsed. The Genoese troops, led by commander Guglielmo Embriaco, had previously dismantled the ships in which the Genoeses came to the Holy Land; Embriaco, using the ship's wood, made some siege towers. These were rolled up to the walls on the night of July 14 much to the surprise and concern of the garrison. On the morning of July 15, Godfrey's tower reached his section of the walls near the northeast corner gate, and according to the Gesta two Flemish knights from Tournai named Lethalde and Engelbert were the first to cross into the city, followed by Godfrey, his brother Eustace, Tancred, and their men. Raymond's tower was at first stopped by a ditch, but as the other crusaders had already entered, the Muslim guarding the gate surrendered to Raymond. William or Guglielmo Embriaco, was a Genoese merchant who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the aftermath of the First Crusade. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... William or Guglielmo Embriaco, was a Genoese merchant who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the aftermath of the First Crusade. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne. ...


Once the Crusaders had breached the outer walls and entered the city almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem was killed over the course of that afternoon, evening and next morning. Muslims, Jews, and even a few of the Christians were all massacred with indiscriminate violence. Many Muslims sought shelter in the Al-Aqsa Mosque, where, according to one famous account in Gesta, "...the slaughter was so great that our men waded in blood up to their ankles..." According to Raymond of Aguilers "men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins." The chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisi states the Jewish defenders sought refuge in their synagogue, but the "Franks burned it over their heads", killing everyone inside.[1] The Crusaders circled the flaming building while singing "Christ, We Adore Thee!".[2] Tancred claimed the Temple quarter for himself and offered protection to some of the Muslims there, but he could not prevent their deaths at the hands of his fellow crusaders. The Fatimid governor Iftikhar ad-Daula withdrew to the Tower of David, which he soon surrendered to Raymond in return for safe passage for himself and bodyguards to Ascalon. [3] For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... Hamza ibn Asad abu Yala ibn al-Qalanisi (c. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Iftikhar ad-Daula (also Iftikhar ad-Dawla, meaning pride of the nation) was the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem during the siege of 1099. ... Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill...


The Gesta Francorum states some people managed to escape the siege unharmed. Its anonymous author wrote, "When the pagans had been overcome, our men seized great numbers, both men and women, either killing them or keeping them captive, as they wished."[4] Later it is written, "[Our leaders] also ordered all the Saracen dead to be cast outside because of the great stench, since the whole city was filled with their corpses; and so the living Saracens dragged the dead before the exits of the gates and arranged them in heaps, as if they were houses. No one ever saw or heard of such slaughter of pagan people, for funeral pyres were formed from them like pyramids, and no one knows their number except God alone." [5] The so-called Gesta Francorum (The Deeds of the Franks, in full De Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum) is a Latin chronicle of the First Crusade (1096-1099) by an anonymous author. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ...


Aftermath

Following the massacre, Godfrey of Bouillon was made Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (Protector of the Holy Sepulchre) on July 22, refusing to be named king in the city where Christ had died, saying that he refused to wear a crown of gold in the city were Christ wore a crown of thorns. Raymond had refused any title at all, and Godfrey convinced him to give up the Tower of David as well. Raymond then went on a pilgrimage, and in his absence Arnulf of Chocques, whom Raymond had opposed due to his own support for Peter Bartholomew, was elected the first Latin Patriarch on August 1 (the claims of the Greek Patriarch were ignored). On August 5, Arnulf, after consulting the surviving inhabitants of the city, discovered the relic of the True Cross. Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naos tis Anastaseos; Georgian: აგდგომის ტადზარი Agdgomis Tadzari; Armenian: Surp Harutyun) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ...


On August 12, Godfrey led an army, with the True Cross carried in the vanguard, against the Fatimid army at the Battle of Ascalon on August 12. The crusaders were successful, but following the victory, the majority of them considered their crusading vows to have been fulfilled, and all but a few hundred knights returned home. Nevertheless, their victory paved the way for the establishment of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Fatimids Commanders Godfrey of Bouillon al-Afdal Shahanshah Strength Possibly 10 000 Possibly 50 000 Casualties Unknown Possibly 10-12 000 For the siege and capture of Ascalon in 1153, see Battle of Ascalon (1153) The Battle of Ascalon took place on August 12, 1099, and... The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a short-lived country established in the 12th century by the First Crusade. ...


The siege quickly became legendary and in the 12th century it was the subject of the Chanson de Jérusalem, a major chanson de geste in the Crusade cycle. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath. ...


See also

1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders The history of the Jews and the Crusades is one of Crusader atrocities, but also one of the popes and some clergys defense of them. ...

References

  1. ^ Gibb, H. A. R. The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades: Extracted and Translated from the Chronicle of Ibn Al-Qalanisi. Dover Publications, 2003 (ISBN 0486425193)
  2. ^ Rausch, David. Legacy of Hatred: Why Christians Must Not Forget the Holocaust. Baker Pub Group, 1990 (ISBN 0801077583)
  3. ^ http://san.beck.org/AB18-Crusaders.html#1
  4. ^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/gesta-cde.html#jerusalem2
  5. ^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/gesta-cde.html#jerusalem3

Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, (2 January 1895 - 22 October 1971), also commonly referred to as H. A. R. Gibb, was a Scottish scholar of Islam and the Middle East. ...

Sources

  • Hans E. Mayer, The Crusades, Oxford, 1965.
  • Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, Philadelphia, 1999.
  • Frederic Duncalf, Parallel source problems in medieval history, New York, London : Harper & Brothers, 1912. via Internet Archive. See Chapter III for background, sources and problems related to the siege of Jerusalem.
  • Sir Archibald Alison, Essays, Political, Historical, and Miscellaneous - vol. II, London, 1850.
  • The Siege and Capture of Jerusalem: Collected Accounts Primary sources from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
  • Climax of the First Crusade Detailed examanination by J. Arthur McFall originally appeared in Military History magazine.

The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jerusalem (A.D. 71-1099) (7448 words)
Jerusalem is the "daughter of Sion" (Jeremiah 6:2, etc.).
The frontiers of this new patriarchate, as established by Chalcedon, are to the north the Lebanon, to the west the Mediterranean, to the south Sinai (Mount Sinai was certainly originally included in its boundaries), to the east Arabia and the desert.
It was inevitable that the Christians of Jerusalem should try to help their fellow-countrymen to reconquer the land that had been Roman and Christian; inevitable, too, that the Moslems should punish such attempts as high treason.
Jerusalem - History (2752 words)
Saladin succeeded in expelling the Crusaders and recaptured Jerusalem for the Muslims in 1187.
Teddy Kollek, Jerusalem’s mayor for 28 years, called the reunification of the city "the practical realization of the Zionist movement's goals." Today, a museum devoted to promoting dialogue and coexistence, the Museum on the Seam, is located at the junction of East and West Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is one issue on which the views of Israelis are unanimous: The city must remain the undivided capital of Israel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m