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Encyclopedia > Siege of Boston
Siege of Boston
Part of the American Revolutionary War

1775 map of the Battle of Lexington and Concord and the Siege of Boston (contains some inaccurate information)
Date April 19, 1775March 17, 1776
Location Boston and surrounding area
Result British evacuation of Boston
Combatants
New England militia,
Continental Army
Great Britain
Commanders
Artemas Ward,
George Washington
Thomas Gage,
William Howe
Strength
17,000

The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded the city of Boston, Massachusetts, to prevent movement by the British Army garrisoned within. As a siege it was only partially successful, but it played an important role in the creation of the Continental Army and promoting the unity of the Thirteen Colonies. It also served to shape the attitudes and character of participants on both sides. The most important single event of the siege was the Battle of Bunker Hill. This article is about military actions only. ... Download high resolution version (3211x2476, 1589 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Boston” redirects here. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American Major General in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Sir Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the American Revolution. ... Sir William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (August 10, 1729 – July 12, 1814) was an English General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War, one of the three Howe brothers. ... The Boston campaign was part of the American Revolutionary War. ... Powder House on the seal of the City of Somerville. ... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain Province of Massachusetts Bay Commanders Samuel Graves Thomas Graves John Stark Israel Putnam Strength Several hundred Royal Marines (Samuel Graves). ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ... Combatants Continental Army Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe The Fortification of Dorchester Heights was a decisive action early in the American Revolutionary War, which led to the British evacuation of Boston, ending the ongoing siege of Boston. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about military actions only. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... “Boston” redirects here. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ...

Contents

Background

The siege started on the night after the Battles of Lexington and Concord as American forces followed the British back to Boston and occupied the neck of land extending to the peninsula the city stood on. Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ...


At first, General Artemas Ward, as the head of the Massachusetts militia, was in charge of the siege. He set up his headquarters at Cambridge and positioned his forces at Charlestown Neck, Roxbury, and the Dorchester Heights. Initially, the 6,000 to 8,000 rebels faced some 4,000 British regulars under General Thomas Gage and had them trapped in the city. Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American Major General in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. ... Militia of the Colony and later Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... Dorchester Heights Monument Dorchester Heights is the central area of South Boston. ... Sir Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the American Revolution. ...


In traditional terms, the British were not besieged since the Royal Navy controlled the harbor, and supplies did come in by ship. Nevertheless, the town and the army were on short rations, and prices escalated rapidly. Another factor was that the American forces generally had information about what was happening in the city, while General Gage had no effective intelligence of rebel activities. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Bunker Hill

Main article: Battle of Bunker Hill

On May 25, 1775, Gage received about 4,500 reinforcements and three extra Generals, Major Generals William Howe and John Burgoyne and Henry Clinton. Gage began plans to break out of the city. For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (August 10, 1729 – July 12, 1814) was an English General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War, one of the three Howe brothers. ... General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ...


On June 15, the Committee of Safety learned of his plans to attack at Dorchester Heights and the Base of the Charlestown Peninsula. They sent word to General Ward to fortify Bunker Hill and the heights; he assigned Colonel William Prescott the Bunker Hill task. is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Committee of Safety may refer to: The Committee of Safety, the parliamentary body in England that oversaw the English Civil War The Committee of Public Safety which controlled created the French Republic and initiated the Reign of Terror One of the many Colonial American Committees of Safety established at the... Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ... The Super Sexy and hot Statue of Colonel William Prescott in Charlestown, Massachusetts. ...


On June 17, as the result of the Battle of Bunker Hill, British forces under General Howe seized the Charlestown peninsula. (The battle was somewhat misnamed since most of the fighting was done at Breed's Hill next to Bunker Hill.) The British did take their objective, only after two failed charges, but did not break out of Boston because the Americans held the ground at the base of the peninsula. With some 1000 men killed or injured the British losses were so heavy that there were no more direct attacks on American forces. From this point, the siege essentially became a stalemate. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ...


Fortification of Dorchester Heights

On July 3, George Washington arrived to take charge of the new Continental Army. Forces and supplies came in from as far away as Maryland. Trenches were built at the Dorchester Neck, and they were extended toward Boston. Washington reoccupied Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill without opposition. However, these activities had little effect on the British occupation. Combatants Continental Army Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe The Fortification of Dorchester Heights was a decisive action early in the American Revolutionary War, which led to the British evacuation of Boston, ending the ongoing siege of Boston. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Mural in South Boston saying Welcome to South Boston in English and Fáilte go mBoston Uheas in Irish. ...


On November 11, 1775, Washington wrote to Congress of an incident during the siege, in which Col. Woodbridge and part of his 25th Massachusetts Regiment joined with Col. Thompson’s regiment, defending against a British landing at Lechmere’s Point, and “gallantly waded through the water, and soon obliged the enemy to embark under cover of a man-of-war…”[1] George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge (1739–1819) of South Hadley, Massachusetts, was a doctor, a colonel of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War,[1] and a member of the Massachusetts legislature for many years. ... Woodbridges Regiment of Militia also known as the 1st Hampshire County Militia Regiment was called up at South Hadley, Massachusetts on August 16, 1777 as reinforcements for the Continental Army during the Saratoga Campaign. ... Lechmere Square (pronounced leech-meer) is located at the intersection of Cambridge St. ...


Subsequently, in the winter of 1775–76, Henry Knox and his engineers used sledges to retrieve 60 tons of heavy artillery that had been captured at Fort Ticonderoga. Bringing them across the frozen Connecticut River, they arrived back at Cambridge on January 24, 1776. Weeks later, in an amazing feat of deception and mobility, Washington moved artillery and several thousand men overnight to occupy Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston. Since it was the middle of winter and the continental army was unable to dig into the frozen ground on Dorchester Heights, rather than entrenching themselves, Washington's men used logs, branches and anything else available to fortify the position overnight. General Gage observed that it would have taken his army weeks to build Washington's earth fort. The British fleet ceased to be an asset, because it was anchored in a shallow harbor with limited maneuverability, and the American guns on Dorchester Heights were aimed at the fleet. Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nations first Secretary of War. ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Aftermath

The siege was over when the British sent a message to Washington stating that if the British troops were allowed to vacate the city and embark unchallenged, then the British would not destroy the town. Washington agreed and the British set sail for Halifax, Nova Scotia on March 27, 1776. The militia went home, and in April, Washington took most of the Continental Army forces to fortify New York City. The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Since 1901, Suffolk County, Massachusetts has celebrated March 17 as a holiday known as Evacuation Day. Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts is Evacuation Day, an official holiday commemorating the evacuation of the city (which was a town at the time) of Boston by British forces during the American Revolutionary War. ...


References

  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: McKay, 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1.
  • Frothingham, Jr., Richard: History of the Siege of Boston and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, Second Edition, published by Charles C. Little and James Brown, Boston (1851). This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at http://books.google.com/books?id=xl4sAAAAMAAJ.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Sparks, Jared: The Writings of George Washington, Vol III, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston (1855) p. 157.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Boston, Massachusetts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4361 words)
Boston is the capital and the largest city in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles occurred in or near the city, including Battle of Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston.
Boston University, now the city's second largest employer and one of the largest private universities in the country, was originally established in Vermont before moving to its present campus in the mid-20th century.
Siege of Boston - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (642 words)
The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 - March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the active American Revolutionary War.
As a siege it was only partially successful, but it played an important role in the creation of a real Continental Army and promoting the unity of the colonies.
The siege started on the night after the Battle of Lexington and Concord as American forces followed the British back to Boston, and occupied the neck of land extending to the peninsula the city stood on.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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