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Encyclopedia > Siege of Acre

The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. It was also the deadliest event of the whole period of the crusades, for the Christian ruling class of the east. The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ...

Contents


Background

After Saladin had decisively defeated the crusaders at the Battle of Hattin on July 4, 1187, he was able to conquer a great part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem with little opposition, among them the cities of Acre and (on October 2) Jerusalem itself. The crusaders afterwards controlled only Tyre, Tripoli, and Antioch, which Saladin likewise attacked in 1188, although unsuccessfully. News of the loss of Jerusalem and Palestine was shocking to Europe, and there was soon demand for a new crusade, called by Pope Gregory VIII in October of 1187 and continued by his successor Pope Clement III. Saladin, from a 12th-century Arab codex. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength About 65-70,000 About 58,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown; very heavy {{{notes}}} The Battle of Hattin took place on Saturday, July 4, 1187, between the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of the... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds), Greek Ιεροσόλυμα, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ... For a wheel tyre, see the article under the US English spelling of the word, tire. ... Tripoli (Arabic طرابلس Trablus, academically transliterated Ṭarābulus) is the second-largest city in Lebanon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events Saladin unsuccessfully besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in modern Syria. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Gregory VIII, né Albert de Mora (Benevento, ca. ... Clement III, born Paulino Scolari (or Paolo) (b. ...


Tyre

In Tyre, Conrad of Montferrat had entrenched himself and had successfully resisted Saladin’s assault at the end of 1187. The sultan then turned his attention to other tasks, but then tried to negotiate the surrender of the city by treaty, as in mid-1188 the first reinforcements from Europe arrived at Tyre by sea. Under the terms of the treaty, Saladin would, among other things, release King Guy, whom he had captured at Hattin. This would have escalated the conflict between Guy, who was blamed for the catastrophe of Hattin, and Conrad, who had successfully defended Tyre from the subsequent invasion. Guy was released and appeared before Tyre, but Conrad would not let him into the city, claiming that he was administering it for the now absent monarchy. Guy left before appearing once again outside Tyre with his wife Queen Sibylla, who held the legal title to the kingdom, but he was again rejected by Conrad, and he set up his camp outside the gates of the city. Conrad of Montferrat (c. ... Guy of Lusignan (c. ... Sibylla of Jerusalem (c. ...


In late spring, 1188, William II of Sicily sent a fleet with 200 knights; on April 6, 1189, Ubaldo, Archbishop of Pisa, arrived with 52 ships. Guy succeeded in bringing both contingents over to his side. In August, Conrad again refused him entry to the city, so he broke camp and made his way south to attack Acre; he and his troops travelled along the coast, while the Pisans and Sicilians went by sea. Guy urgently needed a firm base from which he could organize a counterattack on Saladin, and since he could not have Tyre, he directed his plans to Acre, 50 kilometers (31 miles) to the south. William II (1153 - 1189), king of Sicily, was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Marguerite of Navarre. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ...


Acre

The port of Acre lay on a peninsula in the Gulf of Haifa. East of the old part of the city was the port, protected against the open sea, while to the west and south the coast was protected by a strong dyke wall. The peninsula was guarded on the mainland side by double barrier reinforced with towers. The Muslim garrison of the city might have been twice as large as the army led by Guy, who arrived on August 28, 1189. He tried to surprise the garrison with an assault on the walls, but this failed and Guy thus established his camp outside the city, to wait for reinforcements, which began to arrive by sea a few days later. A Danish and Frisian fleet replaced that of the Sicilians, who withdrew when they heard news of the death of William II. French and Flemish soldiers also arrived under James of Avesnes, Henry I of Bar, Andrew of Brienne, Robert II of Dreux, and his brother Philip of Dreux, the Bishop of Beauvais. Germans under Margrave Louis III of Thuringia and Otto I of Guelders, and Italians under Archbishop Gerhard of Ravenna and the Bishop of Verona, also arrived. Louis of Thuringia was able to convince Conrad to send troops from Tyre as well. When Saladin was informed about this development, he gathered his troops and marched to Acre, where he unsuccessfully attacked Guy’s camp on September 15. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... Flanders (Flemish, Fleming) (Dutch: Vlaanderen (Vlaams, Vlaming)) has-diddley two-diddley main-diddley designations-diddley: a-diddley geographical-diddley region-diddley in-diddley-diddley-diddley the-diddley north-diddley of-diddley Belgium-diddley, corresponding-diddley to-diddley the-diddley Flemish Region, a-diddley consituent-diddley part-diddley of-diddley the... The Bishop of Beauvais-Noyons-Senlis is a suffragan of the Archbishop of Reims. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ...


Battle of Acre

On October 4 Saladin moved to the east of the city to confront Guy’s camp. The crusader army under Guy stood its ground in front of Saladin’s forces. The Christian army consisted of the feudal lords of the kingdom, many smaller contingents of European crusaders, and members of the military orders; the Muslim army consisted of troops from Egypt, Turkestan, Syria, and Mesopotamia. October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Christian military orders appeared following the First Crusade. ... Map of Turkestan (green) with borders of modern states in white Turkestan (Persian: ترکستان ) (also spelled Turkistan or Türkistan) is a region in Central Asia, which today is largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... Mesopotamia (Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan between rivers; Aramaic name being Beth Nahrain house of rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ...


The Muslims lay in a semicircle east of the city facing inwards towards Acre. The crusader army lay in between, with lighty-armed crossbowmen in the first line and the heavy cavalry in second. At the later Battle of Arsuf the Christians fought coherently; here the battle began with a disjointed combat between the Templars and Saladin's right wing. The crusaders were so far successful that the enemy had to send reinforcements from other parts of the field. Thus the steady advance of the Christian centre against Saladin's own corps, in which the crossbows prepared the way for the charge of the men-at-arms, met with no great resistance. Saladin’s centre and right flanks were put to flight. A crossbow is a weapon that fires projectiles called crossbow bolts or quarrels. ... Cavalry is also a common misspelling of the Biblical hill Calvary. ... The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. ... Fresco painting of a Knight Templar The Order of the Knights Templar (also known as Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: paupers commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici) was one of the most famous of the Christian military orders. ...


But the victors scattered to plunder. Saladin rallied his men, and, when the Christians began to retire with their booty, let loose his light horse upon them. No connected resistance was offered, and the Turks slaughtered the fugitives until checked by the fresh troops of the Christian right wing Into this fight Guy's reserve, charged with holding back the Saracens in Acre, was also drawn, and, thus freed, 5000 men sallied out from the town to the northward; uniting with the Saracen right wing, they fell upon the Templars, who suffered severely in their retreat. Gerard de Ridefort, Grand Master of the Templars, was killed. Andrew of Brienne was also killed and Conrad had to be rescued by Guy. In the end the crusaders repulsed the relieving army, but only at the cost of 7000 men. Saladin could not push them back without another pitched battle, and his victory remained incomplete. Gerard of Ridefort (died October 1, 1189) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1184 until his death. ...


The double siege

During the autumn, more European crusades arrived, allowing Guy to blockade Acre by land. News of the imminent arrival of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor reached the crusaders, which not only raised the morale of the Christian soldiers, but also compelled Saladin to bring in so many more troops that he was able to surround both the city and the crusade camp in two separate sieges. Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen) (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ...


The next fifteen months passed with no major actions on either side. On October 31 fifty Muslim galleys broke through the Christian sea blockade and supplied the city with food and weapons. On December 26, an Egyptian fleet arrived to reestablish control over the port and the road leading to it. In March, 1190, when the weather was better, Conrad travelled to Tyre on his own ship and soon returned with supplies for the crusaders, which helped the resistance against the Egyptian fleet on the shore. The building materials brought by Conrad were constructed into siege machinery, although these machines were lost when the crusaders tried to assault the city on May 5. October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ...


On May 19 Saladin, who had continued to strengthen his army over the previous months, began an attack on the Christian camp, which lasted eight days before it could be repelled. On July 25, against the orders of their commanders, the Christian soldiers attacked Saladin’s right flank and were defeated. Further reinforcements from France arrived in the crusader camp over the summer, led by Henry II of Champagne, Theobald V of Blois, Stephen I of Sancerre, Ralph of Clermont, John of Fontigny, Alain of Saint-Valéry, the Archbishop of Besançon, the Bishop of Blois, and the Bishop of Toul. Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia arrived at the beginning of October with the rest of his father’s army, after the emperor drowned in the Saleph River on June 10, and shortly afterwards English crusaders arrived under Baldwin of Exeter, Archbishop of Canterbury. In October the Count of Bar also arrived, and the Christians had a breakthrough in Haifa, which allowed more food to be brought to the camp at Acre. May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Henry II of Champagne (July 29, 1166–1197), was count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and king of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197. ... Theobald V of Blois (-1191), also known as Theobald the Good (French: Thibaut le Bon), was count of Blois from 1151 to 1191, as well as count of Chartres. ... Stephen I (1133-1191), first count of Sancerre (1151-1191) and third son of Count Theobald II of Champagne, inherited the county of Sancerre on his fathers death, when his eldest brother Henry received Champagne and his elder brother Theobald Blois and Chartres. ... Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen (1167 – March 20, 1191) was duke of Swabia from 1170 to his death at the siege of Acre. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... Categories: | ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Life in the city and the Christian camp quickly became difficult after their containment by Saladin. Food remained limited, the water supply was insufficient, hygiene was disregarded entirely, and epidemics soon began to spread. Louis of Thuringia, sick with malaria, made plans to return home when the French arrived, and died in Cyprus on the way back on October 16. In the autumn, Guy’s wife Queen Sibylla died, a few days after both of their daughters, Alais and Marie. With her death Guy lost his claim to the throne of Jerusalem, as Sibylla was the legal heiress. Red blood cell infected with Malaria, derived from mala aria (Italian for bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English, is an infectious disease which causes about 350-500 million infections with humans and approximately 1. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Sibylla of Jerusalem (c. ...


The barons of the kingdom used this opportunity to rid themselves of Guy, and arranged the marriage of Conrad to Sibylla’s half-sister Isabella of Jerusalem. However, Isabella was already married to Humphrey IV of Toron, and Conrad's marital status was uncertain (he had married a Byzantine princess in 1187, a few months before arriving at Tyre, and it was unclear whether she had had him annulled in his absence). Also, Sibylla's first husband had been Conrad's older brother William Longsword, which made a marriage between Isabella and Conrad canonically 'incestuous'. Patriarch Heraclius was sick, and his appointed representative Baldwin of Exeter died suddenly on November 19. Therefore it was the Archbishop of Pisa and papal legate, as well as the Bishop of Beauvais, who gave their consent to divorce Isabella from Humphrey on November 24. Conrad withdrew with Isabella to Tyre, but Guy still insisted that he was king: the succession would not be settled finally until 1192. Isabella of Jerusalem (c. ... Humphrey IV of Toron (c. ... William of Montferrat (early 1140s-1177), also called William Longsword (but not related to the other men of the same name), was the eldest son of William V, Marquess of Montferrat and Judith of Babenberg. ... Heraclius of Caesarea (died 1191) was archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ...


Saladin’s army was now so large that it was impossible for any more crusaders to arrive by land, and winter meant that no more supplies or reinforcements could arrive by sea. In the Christian camp the leaders began to succumb to the epidemics. Theobald of Blois and Stephen of Sancerre died, and Frederick of Swabia also died on January 20, 1191. Henry of Champagne struggled with sickness for many weeks before recovering. Leopold V of Austria, who arrived early in the spring, took control of the Christian forces. On December 31 another attempt to breach the walls failed, and on January 6, 1191, the partial collapse of the walls led to many Christian attempts at overrunning the Muslim garrisons. On February 13, Saladin succeeded in breaking through the Christian lines and reaching the city, so that he could replace the exhausted defenders with a new garrison; otherwise the old garrison would have all died of disease. In March, however, when the weather was better and ships could once again unload supplies on the coast, the danger of failure was again averted for the Christians. These ships also brought news that Kings Philip II of France and Richard I of England were on their way, and that Saladin’s chance for victory had slipped away. January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold V (1157-December 31, 1194), the Virtuous, was a Babenberg duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria from 1192 to 1194. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ...


The kings at Acre

Philip arrived on April 20, 1191, and Richard on June 8, after he had (rather thoughtlessly considering the situation at Acre) used the opportunity to conquer Cyprus along the way. Philip had used the time before Richard’s arrival to build siege engines, and now that stronger leadership from Europe had arrived, it was the city and not the Christian camp that was besieged. When Richard arrived, he sought a meeting with Saladin, and an armistice of three-days was agreed upon so that the meeting could take place. However, both Richard and Philip fell ill and the meeting did not take place. Patriarch Heraclius died around this time as well. April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ...


The siege machines broke holes into the walls of Acre, but every new breach led to an attack from Saladin’s army, giving the garrison of Acre an opportunity to repair the damage while the Christians were distracted. On July 1, Philip of Alsace died in the camp, which was a major crisis for the French king, since Philip, the Count of Flanders and Vermandois and one of the most important men in the king’s retinue, had no heirs and settling his inheritance was an urgent matter, yet a very difficult one so far away from France. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Philip of Alsace was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... // Ancient counts ca. ...


On July 3 a sufficiently large breach was again created in the walls, but the Christian attack was repelled. On July 4 the city offered its surrender, but Richard rejected the conditions. This time Saladin did not make a large-scale attack on the Christian camp. On July 7 the city sent an embassy to Saladin asking for assistance one last time, and threatened to surrender if he did not help. On July 11 there was one final battle, and on July 12 the city once more offered terms of surrender to the crusaders, who found their offer acceptable this time. Saladin was not involved in the negotiations, but accepted the surrender. The Christians entered the city and the Muslim garrison was taken into captivity. July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ...


Leopold of Austria left shortly after the capture of the city, after quarrelling with Richard: as leader of the German contingent, he had demanded the same position as Philip and Richard, but had been rejected and his flag torn down from the ramparts of Acre. These actions would have dire consequences for Richard, as he was later taken prisoner by Leopold on the way back from the crusade in 1193, and would have to be ransomed for an enormous price. On July 31, Philip also returned home, to settle the succession in Vermandois and Flanders, and Richard was left solely in charge of the Christian forces. July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ...


The execution of the prisoners

It was now up to Richard and Saladin to finalize the surrender of the city. The Christians began to rebuild Acre’s defenses, and Saladin collected money to pay for the ransom of the imprisoned garrison. On August 11 Saladin delivered the first of the three planned payments and prisoner exchanges, but Richard rejected this because certain Christian nobles were not included. The exchange was broken off and further negotiations were unsuccessful. On August 20, Richard thought that Saladin had delayed too much, and had 2700 of the Muslim prisoners from the garrison of Acre killed, including women and children despite having promised that he would only sell the prisoners off. The Muslims fought back in an attempt to prevent this, but they were defeated. On August 22 Richard and his army left the city, now fully under crusader control. August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ...


Aftermath

The crusader army marched south, with the sea to their right and Saladin’s army following them to their left. On September 7, they met at the Battle of Arsuf, north of Jaffa, in which Saladin was defeated. Richard captured Jaffa on September 10, but throughout the remainder of 1191 and into the summer of 1192, he was unable to realize his ultimate goal of recapturing Jerusalem. Meanwhile it was becoming clear that his brother John Lackland was attempting to usurp the throne in England, so Richard arranged for a treaty with Saladin, and the Third Crusade came to an end. On the way home, he was taken prisoner by Leopold, and did not arrive back in England until 1194. September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... John (French: Jean) (December 24, c. ...


The Kingdom of Jerusalem was now relatively secure, with its new capital at Acre, from which a narrow strip along the Mediterranean coast was ruled. By 1291 all of this had been conquered as well, with Acre falling to the Mamluks that year. For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes, Mamlukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
siege: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (6017 words)
A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition.
A siege tower could also be used: a substantial structure built as high, or higher than the walls, it allowed the attackers to fire down upon the defenders and also advance troops to the wall with less danger than using ladders.
Although siege warfare had moved out from an urban setting because city walls had become ineffective against modern weapons, trench warfare was nonetheless able to utilize many of the techniques of siege warfare in its prosecution (sapping, mining, barrage and, of course, attrition) but on a much larger scale and on a greatly extended front.
Siege of Acre (1398 words)
However, the siege engines proved to be unequal to the task, and his fleet was destroyed in a battle with the crusaders.
Acre had been the favourite residence of the kings of Jerusalem, as well as the richest of the crusader cities, and was strongly defended, by the sea to the west and south and by strong land walls to the north and east.
The recapture of Acre was of major importance for the survival of the crusader kingdoms.
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