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Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
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Trench · Unconventional Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the cold war. ... It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal power or capacity of action, interact and take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of themselves and their enemies. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with war horse. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Chain of command · Formations
Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Law

Court-martial · Laws of war · Occupation
Tribunal · War crime Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

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Militarism · Military rule A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...

Military studies

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Peace and conflict studies A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ...

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A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. The term derives from the Latin word for "seat" or "sitting."[1] A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that refuses to surrender and cannot be easily taken by a frontal assault. Sieges involve surrounding the target and blocking the reinforcement or escape of troops or provision of supplies (a tactic known as "investment"[2]), typically coupled with attempts to reduce the fortifications by means of siege engines, artillery bombardment, or sapping (also known as mining), or the use of deception or treachery to bypass defenses. Failing a military outcome, sieges can often be decided by starvation, thirst or disease, which can afflict both the attacker or defender. Many of the authors that served in various real-life wars (and survived) wrote stories that are at least somewhat based on their own experiences. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military raids, not including air raids, sorted by the date at which they started: 1259 Mongol raid into Lithuania 1565, August 26th Chaseabout Raid 1575, July 7th Raid of the Redeswire 1582, August 27th Raid of Ruthven 1667, June 6th Raid on the Medway... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of reserve forces Economy of force Force protection Force dispersal Military Camouflage Deception Perfidy False flag Electronic countermeasures Electronic counter-counter-measures Radio silence Fortification Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head Protection... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... The city of Chicago, as seen from the sky The main square of the Catalan city of Sabadell during a popular celebration. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... A battle of attrition is a military engagement in which neither side has any tactical advantage, so that the only result of the fighting is the loss of men and materiel on both sides. ... To surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces towards enemy forces in a large number, in an attempt to overwhelm the enemy. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ...


Sieges probably predate the development of cities as large population centers. Ancient cities in the Middle East show archeological evidence of having had fortified city walls. During the Renaissance and the Early Modern period, siege warfare dominated the conduct of war in Europe. Leonardo da Vinci gained as much of his renown from the design of fortifications as from his artwork. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ...


Medieval campaigns were generally designed around a succession of sieges. In the Napoleonic era, increasing use of ever more powerful cannon reduced the value of fortifications. In modern times, trenches replaced walls, and bunkers replaced castles. In the 20th century, the significance of the classical siege declined. With the advent of mobile warfare, one single fortified stronghold is no longer as decisive as it once was. While sieges do still occur, they are not as common as they once were due to changes in modes of battle, principally the ease by which huge volumes of destructive power can be directed onto a static target. Sieges in present day are more commonly either smaller hostage, militant, or extreme resisting-arrest situations such as the Waco Siege. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... The Mount Carmel compound in flames during the final assault On February 28, 1993, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) raided the Branch Davidian ranch at Mount Carmel, a property located nine miles east-northeast of Waco, Texas. ...

Contents

Ancient siege warfare

City walls and fortifications were essential for the defense of the first cities in the ancient Near East. The walls were built by mud bricks, stone, wood or a combination of these materials depending on local availability. City walls may also have served the dual purpose of showing presumptive enemies the might of the Kingdom. The great walls surrounding the Sumerian city of Uruk gained such a wide-spread reputation. The walls were 9.5 km / 6 miles in length, and raised up to 12 metres / 40 feet in height. Later the walls of Babylon, reinforced by towers and moats, gained a similar reputation. In Anatolia, the Hittites built massive stone walls around their cities, taking advantage of the hillsides. The cities of the Indus Valley civilization showed less effort in constructing defenses, and likewise the Minoan civilization on Crete. These civilizations probably relied more on the defense of their outer borders or sea shores. Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Sumeria may refer to: A back-formation from the adjective Sumerian, often used to mean the ancient civilisation more properly known as Sumer Sumeria, a disco artist best known for the 1978 hit Golden Tears 1970 Sumeria, an asteroid discovered in 1954 by Miguel Itzigsohn Donna Sumeria, a song on... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Minoans (Greek: Μινωίτες) were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, flourishing from approximately 2700 to 1450 BC when their culture was superseded by the Mycenaean culture. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...

The Egyptian siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC, from Ramesseum, Thebes.
The Egyptian siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC, from Ramesseum, Thebes.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (410x614, 92 KB) Ramesseum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (410x614, 92 KB) Ramesseum. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Sieges ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings Ramesseum: Hypostyle hall The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern... Thebes For the ancient capital of Boeotia, see Thebes, Greece. ...

Siege warfare in art

The earliest representations of siege warfare is dated to the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, c.3000 BC. These show symbolic destruction of city walls by divine animals using hoes. The first siege equipment is known from Egyptian tomb reliefs of the 24th century BC, showing Egyptian soldiers storming Canaanite town walls on wheeled siege ladders. Later Egyptian temple reliefs of the 13th century BC portrays the violent siege of Dapur, a Syrian city, with soldiers climbing scale ladders supported by archers. Assyrian palace reliefs of the 9th to 7th centuries BC display sieges of several Near Eastern cities. Though a simple battering ram had come into use in the previous millennium, the Assyrians improved siege warfare and built huge wooden tower shaped battering rams with archers positioned on top. The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... Canaan (Canaanite: כנען, Hebrew: , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin: Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic: whence Arabic: ‎). Canaan is an ancient term for a region approximating present-day Israel(94%.) and West Bank and Gaza plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Sieges ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


Tactics in siege warfare

The most common practice of siege warfare was however to lay siege and wait for the surrender of the enemies inside. The Egyptian siege of Megiddo in the 15th century BC lasted for 7 months before its inhabitants surrendered. The Hittite siege of a rebellious Anatolian vassal in the 14th century BC ended when the queen mother came out of the city and begged for mercy on behalf of her people. If the main objective of a campaign was not the conquest of a particular city, it could simply be passed by. The Hittite campaign against the kingdom of Mitanni in the 14th century BC bypassed the fortified city of Carchemish. When the main objective of the campaign had been fulfilled, the Hittite army returned to Carchemish and the city fell after an eight-day-siege. The well-known Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem in the 8th century BC came to an end when the Israelites bought them off with gifts and tribute, according to the Assyrian account, or when the Assyrian camp was struck by mass death, according to the Biblical account. Due to the problem of logistics, long lasting sieges involving but a minor force could seldom be maintained. Megiddo is the English designation for an important ancient settlement and city site in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel, known alternatively as Tel Megiddo (Hebrew) and Tell es-Mutesellim (Arabic). ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... Carchemish (pr. ... The hexagonal prism detailing the campaign of Sennacherib against Judah In 721 BCE, the Assyrian army captured the Israelite capital at Samaria and carried away the citizens of the northern kingdom into captivity. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


Siege accounts

Although there are numerous ancient accounts of cities being sacked, few contain any clues to how this was achieved. Some popular tales existed on how the cunning heroes succeeded in their sieges. The best-known is the Trojan Horse of the Trojan War, and a similar story tells how the Canaanite city of Joppa was conquered by the Egyptians in the 15th century BC. The Biblical Book of Joshua contains the story of the miraculous Battle of Jericho. A better detailed historical account from the 8th century BC, called the Piankhi stela, records how the Nubians laid siege to and conquered several Egyptian cities using battering rams, archers, slingers and building causeways across moats. // For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe The Trojan War was waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Achaeans (Mycenaean Greeks), after Paris of Troy stole Helen from... Canaan (Canaanite: כנען, Hebrew: , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin: Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic: whence Arabic: ‎). Canaan is an ancient term for a region approximating present-day Israel(94%.) and West Bank and Gaza plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. ... Jaffa port Sunset at Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Combatants Israelites Kingdom of Jericho Commanders Joshua King of Jericho † Strength 40,000 warriors ? Casualties ? entire city destroyed The Battle of Jericho was the first battle of the Israelites during their conquest of Canaan. ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. ... For other uses, see Kush (disambiguation). ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... Archers in Competition Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... A causeway is an elevated road on elevated ground, usually across a broad body of water or wetland. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats were deep and wide trenches, usually filled with water, to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ...


Greco-Roman and medieval siege warfare

Alexander the Great's Macedonian army was involved in many sieges. There are two which are of particular note: Tyre and Sogdian Rock. Tyre was a Phoenician island-city about 1 km from the mainland, and thought to be impregnable. The Macedonians built a mole (causeway) out to the island. It is said to have been at least 60 m (200 ft) wide. When the causeway was within artillery range of Tyre, Alexander brought up stone throwers and light catapults to bombard the city walls. The city fell to the Macedonians after a seven month siege. In complete contrast to Tyre, Sogdian Rock was captured by guile. The fortress was high up on cliffs. Alexander used commando-like tactics to scale the cliffs and capture the high ground. The demoralized defenders surrendered. Image File history File links Romseig1_Roman_siege_machines. ... Image File history File links Romseig1_Roman_siege_machines. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured by the forces of Alexander the Great in 328 or 327 BC. Oxyartes of Bactria had sent his wife and daughters, one of whom was Roxane, to take refuge in the fortress because it was thought to be... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ...


The importance of siege warfare in the ancient period should not be underestimated. One of the contributing causes of Hannibal's inability to defeat Rome was his lack of siege train; thus, while he was able to defeat Roman armies in the field, he was unable to capture Rome itself. Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – c. ...


The legionary armies of the Roman Republic and Empire are noted as being particularly skilled and determined in siege warfare. An astonishing number and variety of sieges, for example, formed the core of Julius Caesar's mid-1st century BCE conquest of Gaul (modern France). In his Gallic Wars, Caesar describes how at the Battle of Alesia the Roman legions created two huge fortified walls around the city. The inner circumvallation, 10 miles, held in Vercingetorix's forces, while the outer contravallation kept relief from reaching them. The Romans held the ground in between the two walls. The besieged Gauls, facing starvation, eventually surrendered after their relief force met defeat against Caesar's auxiliary cavalry. See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... circumvallation in Alesia Circumvallation is a standard military tactic of siege used in ancient and modern warfare. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, led the great Gallic war against Roman imperialism in 52 BC. His name in Gaulish means over-king of the marching men; the marching men would now... Contravallation is a standard military tactic of siege used in ancient and modern warfare. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


The Sicarii Zealots who defended Masada in 74 were defeated by the Roman Legions who built a ramp 100 meters high up to the fortress's west wall. Sicarii (Latin plural of Sicarius dagger- or later contract- killer) is a term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, to the Jewish Zealots, (or insurgents) who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea: —Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (xx. ... Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and ones own cause. ... Combatants Jewish Zealots Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown, if any Masada (a romanization of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on...


The universal method for defending against siege is the use of fortifications, principally walls and ditches to supplement natural features. A sufficient supply of food and water is also important to defeat the simplest method of siege warfare: starvation. During a siege, a surrounding army would build earthworks (a line of circumvallation) to completely encircle their target, preventing food and water supplies from reaching the besieged city. If sufficiently desperate as the siege progressed, defenders and civilians might have been reduced to eating anything vaguely edible—horses, family pets, the leather from shoes, and even each other. On occasion, the defenders would drive 'surplus' civilians out to reduce the demands on stored food and water. A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ... circumvallation in Alesia Circumvallation is a standard military tactic of siege used in ancient and modern warfare. ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ...


Disease was another effective siege weapon, although the attackers were often as vulnerable as the defenders. In some instances, catapults or like weapons would fling diseased animals over city walls in an early example of biological warfare. It has been suggested that Refractory disease be merged into this article or section. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ...

Medieval trebuchets could sling about two projectiles per hour at enemy positions.
Medieval trebuchets could sling about two projectiles per hour at enemy positions.

To end a siege more rapidly various methods were developed in ancient and medieval times to counter fortifications, and a large variety of siege engines were developed for use by besieging armies. Ladders could be used to escalade over the defenses. Battering rams and siege hooks could be used to force through gates or walls, while catapults, ballistae, trebuchets, mangonels, and onagers could be used to launch projectiles in order to break down a city's fortifications and kill its defenders. A siege tower could also be used: a substantial structure built as high, or higher than the walls, it allowed the attackers to fire down upon the defenders and also advance troops to the wall with less danger than using ladders. Image File history File links This is a replica of a Trebuchet from Baux, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links This is a replica of a Trebuchet from Baux, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... A ladder A ladder is a vertical set of steps. ... For the SUV vehicle, see Cadillac Escalade. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... A siege hook is a weapon used to pull stones from a wall during a siege. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing a several loops of twisted skeins to power it using torsion rather than a prod. ... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... A mangonel was a type of catapult or siege machine used in the medieval period to throw projectiles at a castles walls. ... Sketch of an Onager, from Antique technology by Diels. ... 19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry. ...


In addition to launching projectiles at the fortifications or defenders, it was also quite common to attempt to undermine the fortifications, causing them to collapse. This could be accomplished by digging a tunnel beneath the foundations of the walls, and then deliberately collapsing or exploding the tunnel. This process is known as sapping or mining. The defenders could dig counter-tunnels to cut into the attackers' works and collapse them prematurely. A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ...


Fire was often used as a weapon when dealing with wooden fortifications. The Byzantine Empire used Greek fire, which contained additives that made it hard to put out. Combined with a primitive flamethrower, it proved an effective offensive and defensive weapon. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ...

Cahir Castle in Ireland was besieged and captured three times: in 1599 by the Earl of Essex, in 1647 by Lord Inchiquin, and in 1650 by Oliver Cromwell.
Cahir Castle in Ireland was besieged and captured three times: in 1599 by the Earl of Essex, in 1647 by Lord Inchiquin, and in 1650 by Oliver Cromwell.

Advances in the prosecution of sieges in ancient and medieval times naturally encouraged the development of a variety of defensive counter-measures. In particular, medieval fortifications became progressively stronger—for example, the advent of the concentric castle from the period of the Crusades—and more dangerous to attackers—witness the increasing use of machicolations and murder-holes, as well the preparation of boiling oil, molten lead or hot sand. Arrow slits (also called arrow loops or loopholes), sally ports (concealed doors) for sallies, and deep water wells were also integral means of resisting siege at this time. Particular attention would be paid to defending entrances, with gates protected by drawbridges, portcullises and barbicans. Moats and other water defenses, whether natural or augmented, were also vital to defenders. Download high resolution version (600x800, 69 KB)Cahir Castle view from the river. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 69 KB)Cahir Castle view from the river. ... Categories: Ireland-place stubs | Castles in Ireland ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 – 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... Medieval fortification is the military aspect of Medieval technology that covers the development of fortification construction and use in Europe roughly from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. ... Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and no central keep. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Parapets at Newark Castle, Inverclyde, Scotland, supported on decorative machicolation. ... A murder-hole is a hole in the ceiling of a gateway or passageway in a fortification through which the defenders can fire, throw or pour dangerous or noxious substances at attackers. ... Boiling oil, in terms of tom, is a quantity of oil heated to high temperatures and then poured on an enemy. ... For PB or pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Atomic mass 207. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... An arrow slit is a thin vertical window in a fortification through which an archer can shoot arrows while remaining largely free from personal danger. ... An example of a Sally port, here is the main entrance to Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ... A portcullis in Edinburgh Castle A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... Barbican in Kraków Barbican (from mediæval Latin barbecana) - a fortified outpost or gateway, such as an outer defence to a city or castle and any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defence purposes. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ...


In the European Middle Ages, virtually all large cities had city walls—Dubrovnik in Dalmatia is an impressive and well-preserved example—and more important cities had citadels, forts or castles. Great effort was expended to ensure a good water supply inside the city in case of siege. In some cases, long tunnels were constructed to carry water into the city. Complex systems of underground tunnels were used for storage and communications in medieval cities like Tábor in Bohemia (similar to those used much later in Vietnam during the Vietnam War). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... County Dubrovnik–Neretva Area 143. ... Map of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, Italian: Dalmazia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France Castle has a history of scholarly debate surrounding its exact meaning. ... SW corner of the Žižka square as viewed from the church tower. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Until the invention of gunpowder-based weapons (and the resulting higher-velocity projectiles), the balance of power and logistics definitely favored the defender. With the invention of gunpowder, cannon and (in modern times) mortars and howitzers, the traditional methods of defense became less and less effective against a determined siege. Smokeless powder Gunpowder, whether black powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms. ... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ...


Mongol siege warfare

In the Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire's campaign against China by Genghis Khan and his army was extremely effective, allowing the Mongols to sweep through large areas. Even if they could not enter some of the more well-fortified cities, they used innovative battle tactics to grab hold of the land and the people: Expansion of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...

"By concentrating on the field armies, the strongholds had to wait. Of course, smaller fortresses, or ones easily surprised, were taken as they came along. This had two effects. First, it cut off the principal city from communicating with other cities where they might expect aid. Secondly, refugees from these smaller cities would flee to the last stronghold. The reports from these cities and the streaming hordes of refugees not only reduced the morale of the inhabitants and garrison of the principal city, it also strained their resources. Food and water reserves were taxed by the sudden influx of refugees. Soon, what was once a formidable undertaking became easy. The Mongols were then free to lay siege without interference of the field army as it had been destroyed... At the siege of Aleppo, Hulegu used twenty catapults against the Bab al-Iraq (Gate of Iraq) alone. In Jûzjânî, there are several episodes in which the Mongols constructed hundreds of siege machines in order to surpass the number which the defending city possessed. While Jûzjânî surely exaggerated, the improbably high numbers which he used for both the Mongols and the defenders do give one a sense of the large numbers of machines used at a single siege." 1

Another Mongol tactic was to use catapults to launch corpses of plague victims into besieged cities. The disease-carrying fleas from the person's body would then infest the city, and the plague would spread allowing the city to be easily captured, although this transmission mechanism was not known at the time. Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease plague, which is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Families Tungidae â€“ sticktight and chigoe fleas (chiggers) Pulicidae â€“ common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae â€“ carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae â€“ marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae â€“ rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae â€“ mouse and rat fleas Ischnopsyllidae â€“ bat fleas Ceratophyllidae:-fleas mainly associated with rodents Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae â€“ rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name... Traditionally in medicine, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...


On the first night while laying siege to a city, the leader of the Mongol forces would lead from a white tent: if the city surrendered, all would be spared. On the second day, he would use a red tent: if the city surrendered, the men would all be killed, but the rest would be spared. On the third day, he would use a black tent: no quarter would be given. A tent is a shelter, consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over or attached to a frame of poles and/or ropes. ...


Similar attitude was common to most armies. A city that surrendered could expect to negotiate terms to avoid a sack. A city broken by siege or assault could suffer extreme retribution, even in the 19th century. While the ruthless sack of Jerusalem in the finish of the First Crusade is often quoted as a sign of Christian religious fanaticism and barbarity against the Muslim opponents, it was no different from any siege ending in taking the city by assault. Jerusalem was taken by an all-out assault; the common usage was that it could be looted for three days and three nights, and the inhabitants freely raped or killed. The city had been similarly sacked only four years earlier, 1095, by victorious Turkomans. It was a common usage to sack the city and kill all the adult inhabitants if the city was taken by assault, carry out an "arson tax" if the city surrendered after a siege (as in Jerusalem 1187 and Visby 1361), and spare the city if it surrendered without a siege. Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob), sacking, or plundering is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians Turkish people Muslims/Arabs The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims, and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim rule. ... It has been suggested that Turkomen be merged into this article or section. ... The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. ... Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ...


Sieges in the age of gunpowder

The introduction of gunpowder and the use of cannons brought about a new age in siege warfare. Cannons were first used in the early 13th century, but did not become significant weapons for another 150 years or so. By the 16th century, they were an essential and regularized part of any campaigning army, or castle's defenses. Smokeless powder Gunpowder, whether black powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms. ... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ...


The greatest advantage of cannons over other siege weapons was the ability to fire a heavier projectile, further, faster and more often than previous weapons. Thus, 'old fashioned' walls—that is high and, relatively, thin—were excellent targets and, over time, easily demolished. In 1453, the great walls of Constantinople were broken through in just six weeks by the 62 cannon of Mehmet II's army. Map of Constantinople. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


However, new fortifications, designed to withstand gunpowder weapons, were soon constructed throughout Europe. During the Renaissance and the Early Modern period, siege warfare continued to dominate the conduct of war in Europe. Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ...


Once siege guns were developed the techniques for assaulting a town or a fortress became well known and ritualized. The attacking army would surround a town. Then the town would be asked to surrender. If they did not comply the besieging army would surround the town with temporary fortifications to stop sallies from the stronghold or relief getting in. The attackers would then build a length of trenches parallel to the defences and just out of range of the defending artillery. They would then dig a trench towards the town in a zigzag pattern so that it could not be enfiladed by defending fire. Once within artillery range another parallel trench would be dug with gun emplacements. If necessary using the first artillery fire for cover this process would be repeated until guns were close enough to be laid accurately to make a breach in the fortifications. So that the forlorn hope and support troops could get close enough to exploit the breach more zigzag trenches could be dug even closer to the walls with more parallel trenches to protect and conceal the attacking troops. After each step in the process the besiegers would ask the besieged to surrender. If the forlorn hope stormed the breach successfully the defenders could expect no mercy. A zigzag is a pattern made up of many small corners at an acute angle, tracing a path between two parallel lines; it can be described as both jagged and fairly regular. ... Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units exposure to enemy fire. ... Forlorn hope is a military term that comes from the Dutch verloren hoop, which should be translated as lost troop although in Dutch it can also mean lost hope. The Dutch phrase fortutiously sounding like a accurate statement of the units future in English. ...


Emerging theories on improving fortifications

The castles that in earlier years had been formidable obstacles were easily breached by the new weapons. For example, in Spain, the newly equipped army of Ferdinand and Isabella was able to conquer Moorish strongholds in Granada in 1482–92 that had held out for centuries before the invention of cannons. The Catholic monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Moorish Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I of England The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including present day Gibraltar, Spain and Portugal) as well as the Maghreb and western Africa, whose culture is often called Moorish. ... Granada – Greek: (Steph. ...

Turks laid siege to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, for nearly two months in 1453. Other sieges lasted much longer.
Turks laid siege to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, for nearly two months in 1453. Other sieges lasted much longer.

In the early 15th century, Italian architect Leon Battista Alberti wrote a treatise entitled De Re aedificatoria which theorized methods of building fortifications capable of withstanding the new guns. He proposed that walls be "built in uneven lines, like the teeth of a saw." He proposed star-shaped fortresses with low thick walls. The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Source: http://www. ... The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Source: http://www. ... // Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 5,000 militia soldiers plus 2,000 Italian mercenaries 80,000[1] - 150,000[1] Casualties Most of Byzantine defenders, some mercenaries, many civilians Heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ...


However, few rulers paid any attention to his theories. A few towns in Italy began building in the new style late in the 1480s, but it was only with the French invasion of the Italian peninsula in 1494–95 that the new fortifications were built on a large scale. Charles VIII invaded Italy with an army of 18,000 men and a horse-drawn siege-train. As a result he could defeat virtually any city or state, no matter how well defended. In a panic, military strategy was completely rethought throughout the Italian states of the time, with a strong emphasis on the new fortifications that could withstand a modern siege. Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ...


New styles of fortresses employed

The most effective way to protect walls against cannon fire proved to be depth (increasing the width of the defenses) and angles (ensuring that attackers could only fire on walls at an oblique angle, not square on). Initially walls were lowered and backed, in front and behind, with earth. Towers were reformed into triangular bastions.


This design matured into the trace italienne. Star-shaped fortresses surrounding towns and even cities with outlying defenses proved very difficult to capture, even for a well equipped army. Fortresses built in this style throughout the 16th century did not become fully obsolete until the 19th century, and were still in use throughout World War I (though modified for 20th century warfare). The trace italienne is a style of fortification that was developed in Italy in the late 15th and early 16th century in response, primarily to the French invasion of the Italian peninsula. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


However, the cost of building such vast modern fortifications was incredibly high, and was often too much for individual cities to undertake. Many were bankrupted in the process of building them; others, such as Siena, spent so much money on fortifications that they were unable to maintain their armies properly, and so lost their wars anyway. Nonetheless, innumerable large and impressive fortresses were built throughout northern Italy in the first decades of the 16th century to resist repeated French invasions that became known as the Wars of Italy. Many stand to this day. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ...


In the 1530s and 1540s, the new style of fortification began to spread out of Italy into the rest of Europe, particularly to France, the Netherlands, and Spain. Italian engineers were in enormous demand throughout Europe, especially in war-torn areas such as the Netherlands, which became dotted by towns encircled in modern fortifications. For many years, defensive and offensive tactics were well balanced leading to protracted and costly wars such as Europe had never known, involving more and more planning and government involvement.


The new fortresses ensured that war rarely extended beyond a series of sieges. Because the new fortresses could easily hold 10,000 men, an attacking army could not ignore a powerfully fortified position without serious risk of counterattack. As a result, virtually all towns had to be taken, and that was usually a long, drawn-out affair, potentially lasting from several months to years, while the members of the town were starved to death. Most battles in this period were between besieging armies and relief columns sent to rescue the besieged.


Marshal Vauban

Vauban refined siege warfare by designing fortresses to withstand attacks and planning attacks.
Vauban refined siege warfare by designing fortresses to withstand attacks and planning attacks.

At the end of the 17th century, Marshal Vauban, a French military engineer, developed modern fortification to its pinnacle, refining siege warfare without fundamentally altering it: ditches would be dug; walls would be protected by glacis; and bastions would enfilade an attacker. He was also a master of planning sieges himself. Before Vauban, sieges had been somewhat slapdash operations. Vauban refined besieging to a science with a methodical process that, if uninterrupted, would break even the strongest fortifications. Copyright, Disclaimer & Privacy © 2000-2003 New York State Division of Military & Naval Affairs and NY National Guard. ... Copyright, Disclaimer & Privacy © 2000-2003 New York State Division of Military & Naval Affairs and NY National Guard. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... A glacis, in military engineering (see Fortification and Siege) is an artificial slope of earth in the front of works, so constructed as to keep an assailant under the fire of the defenders to the last possible moment. ... The point of a bastion on a reconstructed French fort in Illinois. ... Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units exposure to enemy fire. ...


Examples of Vauban-style fortresses in North America include Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Maryland, Fort Ticonderoga in New York State, and La Citadelle in Quebec City. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. ... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town[1][2], B-more Motto: The Greatest City in America,[3] Get in on it. ... Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Lake Champlain Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... View of the fortifications of the Citadel, with the Parliament Building behind The Citadel - the French name is used both in English and French - is a military installation and official residence located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation...


Planning and maintaining a siege is just as difficult as fending one off. A besieging army must be prepared to repel both sorties from the besieged area and also any attack that may try to relieve the defenders. It was thus usual to construct lines of trenches and defenses facing in both directions. The outermost lines, known as the lines of contravallation, would surround the entire besieging army and protect it from attackers. This would be the first construction effort of a besieging army, built soon after a fortress or city had been invested. A line of circumvallation would also be constructed, facing in towards the besieged area, to protect against sorties by the defenders and to prevent the besieged from escaping. Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ... Contravallation is a standard military tactic of siege used in ancient and modern warfare. ... circumvallation in Alesia Circumvallation is a standard military tactic of siege used in ancient and modern warfare. ...


The next line, which Vauban usually placed at about 600 meters from the target, would contain the main batteries of heavy cannons so that they could hit the target without being vulnerable themselves. Once this line was established, work crews would move forward creating another line at 250 meters. This line contained smaller guns. The final line would be constructed only 30 to 60 meters from the fortress. This line would contain the mortars and would act as a staging area for attack parties once the walls were breached. It would also be from there that sappers working to undermine the fortress would operate. US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... USMC convoys staging prior to going north into Iraq in March of 2004 A staging area is a temporary location where military units, aircraft and warships plus their matériel are assembled ahead of an attack or invasion. ...


The trenches connecting the various lines of the besiegers could not be built perpendicular to the walls of the fortress, as the defenders would have a clear line of fire along the whole trench. Thus, these lines (known as saps) needed to be sharply jagged.


Another element of a fortress was the citadel. Usually a citadel was a "mini fortress" within the larger fortress, sometimes designed as a last bastion of defense, but more often as a means of protecting the garrison from potential revolt in the city. The citadel was used in wartime and peacetime to keep the residents of the city in line. This article is about a type of fortification. ...


As in ages past, most sieges were decided with very little fighting between the opposing armies. An attacker's army was poorly served incurring the high casualties that a direct assault on a fortress would entail. Usually they would wait until supplies inside the fortifications were exhausted or disease had weakened the defenders to the point that they were willing to surrender. At the same time, diseases, especially typhus were a constant danger to the encamped armies outside the fortress, and often forced a premature retreat. Sieges were often won by the army that lasted the longest. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidemic typhus. ...


An important element of strategy for the besieging army was whether or not to allow the encamped city to surrender. Usually it was preferable to graciously allow a surrender, both to save on casualties, and to set an example for future defending cities. A city that was allowed to surrender with minimal loss of life was much better off than a city that held out for a long time and was brutally butchered at the end. Moreover, if an attacking army had a reputation of killing and pillaging regardless of a surrender, then other cities' defensive efforts would be redoubled. A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, as differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... To surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ...


Advent of mobile warfare

Siege warfare dominated in Western Europe for most of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. An entire campaign, or longer, could be used in a single siege (for example, Ostend in 1601–04; La Rochelle in 1627–28). This resulted in extremely prolonged conflicts. The balance was that while siege warfare was extremely expensive and very slow, it was very successful—or, at least, more so than encounters in the field. Battles arose through clashes between besiegers and relieving armies, but the principle was a slow grinding victory by the greater economic power. The relatively rare attempts at forcing pitched battles (Gustavus Adolphus in 1630; the French against the Dutch in 1672 or 1688) were almost always expensive failures. The English Civil War (1642–1651) was an exception in that although there were many sieges, the general maxim of the field armies was "Where is the enemy? Let us go and fight them. Or... if the enemy was coming... Why, what should be done! Draw out into the fields and fight them."[3] This was very different from the siege of Nuremberg during the 30 Years' War and was demonstrated to the continental powers by regiments of the New Model Army at the Battle of the Dunes (1658) during the Anglo-Spanish War. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The esplanade with the Thermae Palace, the former Royal Residence and the casino For other uses, see Ostend (disambiguation). ... La Rochelle is a city and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 76,584 in 1999). ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... The Siege of Nuremberg took place in 1632 during the Thirty Years War. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of todays Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Commanders Vicomte de Turenne Juan José de Austria Louis II de Condé Strength 26,000 15,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 captured The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14, 1658, is also known as... The Anglo-Spanish War, caused by commercial rivalry, was fought between the Spanish between 1654 and 1660. ...


In the early nineteenth century, two factors changed this method of warfare.


Strategic concepts

In the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, new techniques stressed the division of armies into all-arms corps that would march separately and only come together on the battlefield. The less concentrated army could now live off the country and move more rapidly over a larger number of roads. Fortresses comanding lines of communication could be bypassed and would no longer stop an invasion. Since armies could not live off the land indefinitely, Napoleon Bonaparte always sought a quick end to any conflict by pitched battle. This military revolution was described and codified by Clausewitz. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain Russian Empire Sardinia France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, beginning in 1792 and lasting until the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[4] French Empire - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Duchy of Warsaw - Kingdom of Bavaria[5] - Kingdom of... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Carl Phillip Gottlieb von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 _ November 16, 1831) was a Prussian military thinker. ...


Though highly successful, this revolution relied on a densely populated rich countryside to work. The civil population resented feeding invading armies. In Spain and Russia, French armies starved and the local peasants became anti-French guerillas as too many troops, sought too much food, from too few peasants. For political and logistical reasons, the British army fighting the French in Spain relied heavily on supply lines. Sieges therefore played a more significant role in the Peninsular War than in most other Napoleonic warfare. The Lines of Torres Vedras (1810–1811), which were built by the Portuguese under the direction of Royal Engineers of the British Army during the Peninsular war were able to stop a French Army (as it was logistically impossible for the French to concentrate sufficient resources against it to break through) and were the first example of Trench warfare. Combatants Spain United Kingdom Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars, fought on the Iberian Peninsula by an alliance of Spain, Portugal, and Britain against the Napoleonic French Empire. ... The Lines of Torres Vedras The Lines of Torres Vedras were a line of forts in Portugal built in secrecy between November 1809 and September 1810 during the Peninsular War. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Combatants Spain United Kingdom Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars, fought on the Iberian Peninsula by an alliance of Spain, Portugal, and Britain against the Napoleonic French Empire. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...


Industrial advances

Advances in artillery made previously impregnable defenses useless. For example, the walls of Vienna that had held off the Turks in the mid-seventeenth century were no obstacle to Napoleon in the late eighteenth. Where sieges occurred (such as the Siege of Delhi and the Siege of Cawnpore during the Indian Rebellion of 1857), the attackers were usually able to defeat the defenses within a matter of days or weeks, rather than weeks or months as previously. The great Swedish white-elephant fortress of Karlsborg was built in the tradition of Vauban and intended as a reserve capital for Sweden, but it was obsolete before it was completed in 1869. (It was said that the Prussian General von Moltke, a great exponent of the art of mobile warfare, smiled only twice in his life; when he saw the fortress of Karlsborg, and when his wife's mother died.) // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders General Archdale Wilson Brigadier John Nicholson Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Strength max. ... A period painting of the massacre at the Satichura Ghat. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a British perspective. ... Karlsborg is a Municipality in Västra Götaland County, in western Sweden. ... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s...


Railways, when they were introduced, made possible the movement and supply of larger armies than those that fought in the Napoleonic Wars. It also reintroduced siege warfare, as armies seeking to use railway lines in enemy territory were forced to capture fortresses which blocked these lines. During the Franco-Prussian War, the battlefield front-lines moved rapidly through France. However, the Prussian and other German armies were delayed for months at the Siege of Metz and the Siege of Paris, due to the greatly increased firepower of the defending infantry, and the principle of detached or semi-detached forts with heavy-caliber artillery. This resulted in the later construction of fortress works across Europe such as the massive fortifications at Verdun. It also led to the introduction of tactics which sought to induce surrender by bombarding the civilian population within a fortress rather than the defending works themselves. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III # Otto Von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000[] 1,200,000[] Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian [] 70,000 dead or wounded 200... Combatants Prussia France Commanders Prince Friedrich Karl François Bazaine Strength 134,000 180,000 Casualties unknown 180,000 surrendered The Siege of Metz lasting from September 3 – October 23, 1870 was a crushing defeat for the French during the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Verdun, (German: Wirten) sometimes also called Verdun-sur-Meuse, is a city and commune in northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


The Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War and the Petersburg (1864–1865) during the American Civil War showed that modern citadels, when improved by improvised defences, could still resist an enemy for many months. The Siege of Pleven during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) proved that hastily-constructed field defences could resist attacks prepared without proper resources, and were a portent of the trench warfare of World War I. There have been two Sieges of Sevastopol, a Russian city on the Crimean peninsula: Siege of Sevastopol (1854) - during the Crimean War Siege of Sevastopol (1942) - during the Second World War This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March 25... This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolai Krudener King Carol I of Romania Osman Pasha Strength 100,000 30,000 Casualties 38,000 killed, wounded or captured 40,000 killed, wounded or captured {{{notes}}} Map The Siege of Pleven (or Plevna) during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877... It has been suggested that Romanian War of Independence be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


Advances in firearms technology without the necessary advances in battlefield communications gradually led to the defense again gaining the ascendancy. An example of siege during this time, prolonged during 337 days due to the isolation of the surrounded troops, was the Siege of Baler, in which a reduced group of Spanish soldiers, was besieged in a small church by the Philippine rebels, in the course of the Philippine Revolution and the Spanish-American War, until months after the Treaty of Paris, the end of the conflict. Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was a conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought independence for the Filipinos. ... Combatants United States Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (only 432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War was a conflict... The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. ...


Modern warfare

For ten months from 1864 to 1865, Union soldiers laid siege against Confederate positions in the siege at Petersburg, Virginia during the American Civil War.
For ten months from 1864 to 1865, Union soldiers laid siege against Confederate positions in the siege at Petersburg, Virginia during the American Civil War.

Mainly as a result of the increasing firepower (such as machine guns) available to defensive forces, First World War trench warfare briefly revived a form of siege warfare. Although siege warfare had moved out from an urban setting because city walls had become ineffective against modern weapons, trench warfare was nonetheless able to utilize many of the techniques of siege warfare in its prosecution (sapping, mining, barrage and, of course, attrition) but on a much larger scale and on a greatly extended front. The development of the armoured tank and improved infantry tactics at the end of World War I swung the pendulum back in favour of maneuver. Download high resolution version (1404x1095, 259 KB)115. ... Download high resolution version (1404x1095, 259 KB)115. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March 25... This article is becoming very long. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Attrition means wearing down by friction or grinding and may refer to the following. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ...


The Blitzkrieg of the Second World War truly showed that fixed fortifications are easily defeated by maneuver instead of frontal assault or long sieges. The great Maginot Line was bypassed and battles that would have taken weeks of siege could now be avoided with the careful application of air power (such as the German paratrooper capture of Fort Eben-Emael, Belgium, early in World War II). The most important siege of the Second World War, siege of Leningrad, occurred on the Eastern Front. In the west apart from the Battle of the Atlantic the sieges were not on the same scale as those on the European Eastern front; however, there were several notable or critical sieges: the island of Malta for which the population won the George Cross, Tobruk and Monte Cassino. In the South-East Asian Theatre there was the siege of Singapore and in the Burma Campaign sieges of Myitkyina, the Admin Box and the Battle of the Tennis Court which was the high water mark for the Japanese advance into India. The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maÊ’ino], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and... An American Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... Map of the area between Belgium and the Netherlands near Fort Eben-Emael Fort Eben-Emaels cupola penetrated by a shaped charge Eben-Emael was a Belgian fortress in between Liège and Maastricht, near the Albert Canal, defending the Belgian-German border. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhem von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada Leningrada... Combatants Soviet Union,1 Poland (from January 1945) Germany,1 Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Azi Aslanov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai Vatutin... Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose... The George Cross (GC) is the highest Commonwealth decoration awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry not in the face of the enemy, while the Victoria Cross is awarded for valour in the face of the enemy. ... Combatants Australia United Kingdom South Africa Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 35,000? Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North... Combatants United States United Kingdom Poland New Zealand Canada Free France India and others Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Mark Clark Oliver Leese Albert Kesselring Heinrich von Vietinghoff Frido von Senger Strength 105,000 80,000 Casualties 54,000 20,000 The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The Burma Campaign was a campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II. It was fought primarily between Commonwealth, Chinese and American forces against the Empire of Japan. ... Myitkyina is a city, and the capital of Kachin State in Myanmar, located 919miles from Yangon, or 487 miles from Mandalay. ... The Battle of the Admin Box took place on the Southern Front of the Burma Campaign from February 5 to February 23, 1944 in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II In Arakan the Japanese 55th Division infiltrated Allied lines to attack Indian 7th Infantry Division from the... The Battle of the Tennis Court was the turning point in the India from April 4 – June 22, 1944. ...


The air supply methods which were developed and used extensively in the Burma Campaign for supplying the Chindits and other units, including those in sieges such as Imphal, as well as flying the Hump into China, allowed the western powers to develop air lift expertise which would prove vital during the Cold War Berlin Blockade. The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 1943 Indian 3rd Infantry Division) were a British Indian Army Special Force that served in Burma and India from 1942 until 1945 during the Burma Campaign in World War II. They were formed into long range penetration groups trained... The Battle of Imphal took place in Manipur district of North East India from April until June 1944. ... The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew from India to China to resupply the Flying Tigers and the Chinese Government of Chiang Kai-shek. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Occupation zones after 1945. ...


During the Vietnam War the battles of Dien Bien Phu (1954) and Khe Sanh (1968) possessed siege-like characteristics. In both cases, the Vietminh and NLF were able to cut off the opposing army by capturing the surrounding rugged terrain. At Dien Bien Phu, the French were unable to use air power to overcome the siege and were defeated. However, at Khe Sanh a mere 14 years later, advances in air power allowed the United States to withstand the siege. The resistance of US forces was assisted by the PAVN and PLAF forces' decision to use the Khe Sanh siege as strategic distraction to allow their mobile warfare offensive, the first Tet offensive to unfold securely. The Siege of Khe Sanh displays typical features of modern sieges, as the defender has greater capacity to withstand siege, the attacker's main aim is to bottle operational forces, or create a strategic distraction, rather than take a siege to conclusion. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants France, Vietnam (loyalist), Hmong mercenaries Vietnam (Viet Minh), Chinese consultants Commanders Christian de Castries, Pierre Langlais # Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195 wounded, 11... Combatants United States, Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Col. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... NLF flag The National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. ... knulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din... NLF flag The National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. ... Combatants Republic of Viet Nam United States of America Republic of Korea New Zealand Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Viet Nam (Viet Cong) Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Commanders William Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 50,000+ (estimate) 85,000+ (estimate) Casualties 2,788 KIA...


Recent sieges

April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... February 29th, or bissextile day, is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95) NATO Air Force (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galic (1992-94) Dragomir Milosevic (1994-95) Strength 30,000-70,000 of badly-armed troops 30,000-50,000 Thousands of Artillery pieces, Hundreds of Tanks... Nickname: Olympic City Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina&Republika Srpska Canton Sarajevo Canton  - Mayor Semiha Borovac Area    - City 142 km²  (55. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the city of Fallujah in Iraq. ...

Police actions

Despite the overwhelming might of the modern state, siege tactics continue to be employed in police conflicts. This has been due to a number of factors, primarily risk to life, whether that of the police, the besieged, bystanders or hostages. Police make use of trained negotiators, psychologists and, if necessary, force, generally being able to rely on the support of their nation's armed forces if required. A hostage is a person (sometimes another entity) which is held by a captor (often a criminal abductor) in order to compel another party (relative, employer, government. ... Negotiation is the process where interested parties resolve disputes, agree upon courses of action, bargain for individual or collective advantage, and/or attempt to craft outcomes which serve their mutual interests. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ...


One of the complications facing police in a siege involving hostages is the Stockholm syndrome where sometimes hostages can develop a sympathetic rapport with their captors. If this helps keep them safe from harm this is considered to be a good thing, but there have been cases where hostages have tried to shield the captors during an assault or refused to co-operate with the authorities in bringing prosecutions. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The 1993 police siege on the Branch Davidian church in Waco, Texas, lasted 51 days, an atypically long police siege. Unlike traditional military sieges, police sieges tend to last for hours or days rather than weeks, months or years. The Mount Carmel compound in flames during the final assault On February 28, 1993, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) raided the Branch Davidian ranch at Mount Carmel, a property located nine miles east-northeast of Waco, Texas. ... The Branch Davidians are a religious group originating from a schism in 1955 from the Davidian Seventh Day Adventists, themselves former members of the Seventh Day Adventist Church who were excommunicated during the 1930s. ... Waco is the county seat of McLennan County, Texas. ... Official language(s) English (de facto) See also languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (261,797 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


In Britain if the siege involves perpetrators who are considered by the British Government to be terrorists, then if an assault is to take place, the civilian authorities hand command and control over to the military. The threat of such an action ended the Balcombe Street Siege in 1975 but the Iranian Embassy Siege in 1980 ended in a military assault and the death of all but one of the hostage takers. The Balcombe Street Siege was an incident involving members of the Provisional IRA (Irish Republican Army) and the London Metropolitan Police lasting from December 6 to December 12, 1975. ... The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian Embassy in London, United Kingdom. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sieges

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... This is a list of established military terms which have been in use for at least 50 years. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... A mole is a spy who works for an enemy nation and works within his nations government. ...

References

  • May, Timothy. "Mongol Arms." Explorations in Empire, Pre-Modern Imperialism Tutorial: the Mongols. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 27 June 2004.

June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Duffy, Christopher. Fire & Stone: The Science of Fortress Warfare (1660–1860). 1975. 2nd ed. New York: Stackpole Books, 1996.
  • Duffy, Christopher. Siege Warfare: Fortress in the Early Modern World, 1494–1660. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1996.
  • Duffy, Christopher. Siege Warfare, Volume II: The Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great. Routledge and Kegan Paul: London, 1985.
  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV.

Notes

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster: siege
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster: invest
  3. ^ Memoirs of a Cavalier by Daniel Defoe at Project Gutenberg

Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (1660 [?] â€“ April 1731) was an English writer, journalist and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ...

External links

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  • Three ancient Egyptian Sieges: Megiddo, Dapur, Hermopolis (archived version)
  • The Siege Of The City Biblical perspectives.

Image File history File links Siege(part1of2). ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that French Wiktionary be merged into this article or section. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Siege Warfare in Ancient Egypt (2446 words)
Yet some recorded sieges were prolonged affairs going on for months and even years, and a few of them are important markers in Egyptian history: For example, the successful siege of Hatwaret (Avaris) by Ahmose I signalled the end of the Hyksos presence in Egypt.
When sieges were called for, depictions of such campaigns, such as those in Merenptah's campaign in Palestine recorded in the annals, display soldiers assaulting the fortifications by scaling ladders, sometimes on wheels and by infantry using axes to break into the wooden gates, all backed up by a hail of arrows from Egyptian archers.
Early siege warfare was undoubtedly a costly affair from the standpoint of human life, though in some situations the king's may have looked upon this as simply a loss of resources.
Beware of the Dog | Main / HomePage (278 words)
SIEGE is an http regression testing and benchmarking utility.
It was designed to let web developers measure the performance of their code under duress, to see how it will stand up to load on the internet.
Those users place the webserver "under siege." The duration of the siege is measured in transactions, the sum of simulated users and the number of times each simulated user repeats the process of hitting the server.
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