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Encyclopedia > Sidney Reilly
Sidney Reilly
"The Ace of Spies"

Salomon Rosenblum, later known as Sidney Reilly, circa 1899.
Birth name: Shlomo Rosenblum
Born: 24 March 1873 (?)
Odessa, Czarist Russia
Died: 5 November 1925 (?)
Moscow, Soviet Union
Height: 5' 9" (1.75 m)
Spouse(s):
  • Margaret C. Thomas
  • Nadine Massino
  • Nelly "Pepita" Burton
  • Purportedly Others

Lieutenant Sidney George Reilly, MC (c. March 24, 1873? – November 5, 1925), famously known as the Ace of Spies, was a Russian-born adventurer and secret agent employed by the British Secret Intelligence Service. He is alleged to have spied for at least four nations.[1] His notoriety during the 1920s was owed in part to his friend, British diplomat and journalist Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, who sensationalised their thwarted operation to overthrow the Bolshevik government in 1918. After Reilly's death, the London Evening Standard published in May, 1931, a Master Spy serial glorifying his exploits. Later, Ian Fleming would use Reilly as a model for James Bond. Today, many historians consider Reilly to be an exemplary prototype of the first 20th century super-spy. Image File history File links Sidneyreilly. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Ukraine with Odesa highlighted. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Secret Agent is a 1936 British film directed by Alfred Hitchcock based on a novel by W. Somerset Maugham. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Sir Robert Hamilton Bruce Lockhart, (2 September 1887 - 27 February 1970), was a journalist, author, secret agent, British diplomat in Moscow and footballer. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Evening Standard is a newspaper published in London. ... Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, journalist and Second World War Naval Officer. ... A number of real life inspirations have been suggested for James Bond, the sophisticated fictional character and British spy, created by Ian Fleming. ... Flemings image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ...

Contents

Origins and youth

The origins, identities and activities of Sidney George Reilly have befuddled researchers and intelligence agencies for over a century; hence, much of his reported life and infamous exploits should be taken with a grain of salt. Reilly himself told various tales regarding his origins in order to confuse and mislead investigators. At different times in his life, Reilly disparately claimed to be the son of an Irish merchant seaman, an Irish clergyman or an aristocratic landowner who frequented the Imperial court of Tzar Alexander III of Russia. Alexander III (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ...


A commonly-accepted belief is that Reilly was born Georgi Rosenblum in Odessa, former Russian Empire (now Ukraine), on March 24, 1874 (Lockhart 1986). However, several alternative theories as to Reilly's birthplace and origins exist. Map of Ukraine with Odesa highlighted. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly (pg. 28), author Andrew Cook claims that Reilly was born on March 24, 1873 under the name Salomon (Shlomo) Rosenblum in the Jewish Kherson gubernia of Czarist Russia. Sidney Reilly (Salomon / Shlomo Rosenblum) is alleged by Cook to have been the illegitimate offspring of his mother, Paulina (Perla), and a Dr. Mikhail Abramovich (Son of Abraham) Rosenblum, the trusted first cousin of Reilly's assumed father Grigory (Hersh) Rosenblum (Cook 2004). is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Kherson (Ukrainian and Russian Херсон) is a city in southern Ukraine, the capital of Kherson Oblast, with 303,900 inhabitants (2004). ... Guberniya (also gubernia, guberniia, and gubernya) (Russian: губе́рния) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as province or Governorate General. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


Early life

An 1880s portrait of Salomon Rosenblum photographed in his youth.
An 1880s portrait of Salomon Rosenblum photographed in his youth.

According to Reilly, he was arrested as a young man by the Imperial Russian Secret Police (Czarist Ochrana) in 1892 for carrying messages for a student revolutionary group called The Friends of Enlightenment. When he was released, Reilly was told by his assumed father Grigory that his mother Paulina (Perla) was dead and that his real, biological father was actually her Jewish doctor Mikhail A. Rosenblum. "Re-christening" himself as Sigmund Rosenblum, Reilly claimed to have faked his death in Odessa Harbour and stowed away on a British ship bound for South America (Lockhart 1986). Image File history File links Reilly_youth. ... Image File history File links Reilly_youth. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... A stowaway (also stoweaway) is a person who travels illegally, by airplane, bus, ship or train. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


In Brazil, Reilly supposedly adopted the name Pedro. He worked odd jobs as a dock worker, road-mender, plantation laborer and, in 1895, became a cook for a British intelligence expedition (Deacon 1987). Reilly allegedly saved the expedition and the life of a Major Charles Fothergill when hostile natives attacked them. According to this suppositious tale, Reilly seized a British officer's pistol and, with expert marksmanship, single-handedly eliminated the attacking natives (Cook 2004). Appropriately for such a fantastic story, British agent Major Charles Fothergill rewarded him with £1500, arranged for him to receive a British passport and a trip to Britain where Reilly adopted the name Sidney Rosenblum (Lockhart 1986).


Evidence asserted in Andrew Cook's Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly (pg. 32) contradicts the aforementioned Brazilian scenario and declares the British expedition incident to be unsubstantiated. Instead, Cook states that the arrival of Sidney Reilly in London in December 1895 was via France and due to Reilly's unscrupulous acquisition of a large sum of money in Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, a residential suburb of Paris; hence, necessitating a hasty departure from that nation. According to Cook, Reilly and a Russian accomplice, Yan Voitek, waylaid two Italian anarchists on December 25, 1895, and robbed them of a substantial amount of revolutionary funds. One anarchist had his throat slit; the other, Constant Della Cassa, died from knife wounds in Fontainebleau Hospital three days later. By the time Della Cassa's death appeared in the newspapers, police had learned that one of the assailants, whose physical description matched Reilly, was already en route to England. Reilly's accomplice, Voitek, would later relate this incident and his other dealings with Reilly to the British Secret Intelligence Service (Cook 2004). Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ...


Regardless of whether Reilly arrived in England via Brazil or France, Reilly was residing under the name of Sigmund Rosenblum at the Albert Mansions, a prestigious apartment block in Rosetta Street, Waterloo, London, in early 1896 (Cook 2004). Now settled in England, Reilly created the Ozone Preparations Company which peddled miracle cures. Due to his knowledge of languages, Reilly became a paid informant for the émigré intelligence network of William Melville who was the superintendent of Scotland Yard's Special Branch and, according to Cook, was later the clandestine head of the early British Secret Service using the code name "M." [2] Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... Intelligence is a property of mind that encompasses many related mental abilities, such as the capacities to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... Special Branch is the arm of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police forces that deals with national security matters. ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ...


In London: 1890s

William Melville, the alleged first Director General of MI5, and purportedly the man who created the cover identity of Sidney Reilly for Salomon Rosenblum.
William Melville, the alleged first Director General of MI5, and purportedly the man who created the cover identity of Sidney Reilly for Salomon Rosenblum.

In 1897, Sidney Reilly was suspiciously involved in the sudden death of the elderly Reverend Hugh Thomas and, verifiably, had a torrid affair with Hugh Thomas' youthful wife, Margaret Callaghan, just prior to Thomas' demise (Cook 2004). Image File history File links Williammelville. ... Image File history File links Williammelville. ... Director-general is the professional head of a UK Executive Agency which contains other agencies headed by directors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Reverend Hugh Thomas and Sidney Reilly, identifying himself as Sigmund Rosenblum, first met in London via Reilly's Ozone Preparations Company. Reverend Hugh Thomas had a kidney inflammation and was intrigued by the miracle cures peddled by Reilly. Thomas introduced Rosenblum to his young wife, Margaret Callaghan, at his Manor House and an affair between the two developed over the next half year (Cook 2004). Ightham Mote For the London district, see Manor House, London. ...


On March 4, 1898, Thomas altered his will and appointed Margaret as an executor. A week after the making of the new will, Reverend Thomas and his nurse arrived at Newhaven Harbor Station. On March 12, 1898, in that same hotel, Reverend Thomas was found dead in his bed. A mysterious Dr. T.W. Andrew, who matched the physical description of Sidney Reilly, appeared on the scene to certify Thomas' death as generic influenza and, signing the relevant documents, proclaimed that there was no need for an inquest. Records indicate that no such person called Dr. T.W. Andrew existed in Great Britain circa 1897 (Cook 2004). Margaret Callaghan insisted Thomas' body be ready for burial a mere day and a half after his death. Six weeks later, Margaret inherited roughly £800,000. Neither the illusionary personage of Dr. T.W. Andrew who matched Reilly's description nor the fact that the nurse Margaret had hired was previously linked to the arsenic poisoning of a former employer were investigated by the Metropolitan Police (Cook 2004). Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ...


Four months later, on August 22, 1898, Reilly married Margaret Callaghan Thomas. The two witnesses at the ceremony were Charles Cross and Joseph Bell. Bell was an Admiralty clerk, while Charles Cross was a government official. Both eventually married daughters of Henry Freeman Pannett, a close associate of William Melville. The marriage brought not only the wealth Reilly desired but provided a false pretext to discard Sigmund Rosenblum and, with the help of Melville, assume the identity of Sidney George Reilly, husband of Margaret Thomas Reilly. This new identity was the key to achieving his desire to return to Czarist Russia and voyage to the Far East (Cook 2004).


Czarist Russia and the Far East

A ukiyoe print of the night attack on Port Arthur by the Japanese Navy. The surprise attack was allegedly made possible by the intelligence gathering of Sidney Reilly and Ho-Liang-Shung.
A ukiyoe print of the night attack on Port Arthur by the Japanese Navy. The surprise attack was allegedly made possible by the intelligence gathering of Sidney Reilly and Ho-Liang-Shung.
[Sidney Reilly's role] is one of the unsolved riddles about the Russo-Japanese War.[3]
— Professor Ian H. Nish, London School of Economics[4]

In June 1899, Sidney Reilly and his first wife Margaret Callaghan Thomas traveled to Czarist Russia using Reilly's new British passport – a cover identity purportedly created by William Melville (Cook 2004). While Margaret remained in St. Petersburg, Reilly is alleged to have reconnoitered the Caucasus for its oil deposits and compiled a resource prospectus. He reported his findings to the British government which paid him for completing the assignment. In early 1901, Reilly and his wife voyaged from Port Said, Egypt, across the globe to the Far East (Lockhart 1986). Image File history File links Port_Arthur_MTB_attack. ... Image File history File links Port_Arthur_MTB_attack. ... Ukiyo-e (浮世絵, a Japanese term meaning pictures of the floating world) is a style of painting, but is more commonly associated with a type of woodcut printmaking that became popular in Japan in the 18th and 19th centuries. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...


Shortly before the Russo-Japanese War, Reilly appeared in Port Arthur, Manchuria, as a double-agent serving both the British and the Japanese interests (Deacon 1987). As the Russian-controlled Port Arthur lay under the ever-darkening specter of Japanese invasion, Reilly and business co-partner Moisei (Moses) Akimovich Ginsburg turned the precarious situation to their financial benefit and – by purchasing enormous amounts of food, raw materials, medication and coal – acquired a small fortune as war profiteers (Cook 2004). Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... A war profiteer is any person or organization that makes profits (rightly or wrongly) from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to one or even both of the parties at war in their own or in foreign countries. ...


Reilly would have an even greater success in January 1904 when he and a Chinese engineer acquaintance, Ho-Liang-Shung, allegedly stole the Port Arthur harbor defense plans for the Japanese Navy. Guided by these stolen plans, the Japanese Navy navigated through the Russian minefield protecting the harbor and launched a surprise attack on Port Arthur. Over 31,000 Russians would ultimately perish defending Port Arthur against the Japanese invaders assisted by Ho-Liang-Shung and, his acquaintance, Sidney Reilly (Cook 2004), although it did not help the Japanese much -- they themselves suffered much higher casualties which all but undermined their war effort. Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku...


Upon leaving Port Arthur, Manchuria, historian Winfried Ludecke suggests that Reilly voyaged to Imperial Japan in the company of an unknown mistress. If Reilly did visit Japan and assumedly received pay for his espionage activities, he could not have stayed there very long for, in June 1904, Reilly appeared in Paris, France (Cook 2004). During the brief time Reilly spent in Paris, he renewed his close acquaintance with William Melville, the first Director General of MI5, whom Reilly had last seen in 1899 just prior to his departure from London. Reilly's meeting with Melville is most significant for within a matter of weeks Melville was to use Reilly's expertise in what would later become known as The D'Arcy Affair (Lockhart 1986). Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ... Director-general is the professional head of a UK Executive Agency which contains other agencies headed by directors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


D'Arcy Affair

In 1904, the Board of the Admiralty projected that petroleum would surpass coal as the primary source of fuel for the British Navy. In the course of their investigation, the British Admiralty learned that William Knox D'Arcy — who later founded the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) in April 1909 — had secured a valuable concession from the Persian government regarding the oil rights in southern Persia, and that D'Arcy was negotiating a similar concession from the Turkish Government for oil rights in Mesopotamia. Purportedly, the British Admiralty initiated efforts to entice D'Arcy to sell his newly-acquired oil rights to the British Government rather than the French de Rothschilds (Lockhart 1986). For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The entrepreneur William Knox DArcy (October 11, 1849 - May 1, 1917) was one of the main founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia (Iran). ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Reilly: Ace of Spies, Robin Bruce Lockhart repeats one of Reilly's often-recited tales of how, at the British Admiralty's request, Reilly located William Knox D'Arcy in the south of France and clandestinely approached him in disguise. According to Reilly, he boarded Lord de Rothschild's yacht attired as a Catholic priest, secretly persuaded D'Arcy to terminate negotiations with the French Rothschilds and return to London to meet with the British Admiralty (Lockhart 1986). Biographer Andrew Cook claims that Reilly's involvement in the D'Arcy Affair is questionable for, in February 1904, Reilly was purportedly still in Port Arthur, Manchuria. Cook further claims that it was Reilly's intelligence chief, William Melville, and a British intelligence officer, Henry Curtis Bennett, who undertook the D'Arcy assignment instead (Cook 2004). This region consists of the southern part of France. ... This article is about the sacrament. ... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ...


Although the extent of his involvement in the D'Arcy Affair is unknown, Reilly verifiably stayed in the French Riviera on the Côte d'Azur following the incident – a location very near the Rothschild yacht. Following the conclusion of the D'Arcy Affair, Reilly journeyed to Brussels, and, shortly thereafter, Reilly arrived in St. Petersburg, Russia, in January 1905 (Cook 2004). The Quai des États-Unis in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ... Location Administration Capital Marseille Regional President Michel Vauzelle (PS) (since 1998) Départements Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes Var Vaucluse Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Statistics Land area1 31,400 km² Population (Ranked 3rd)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: , Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


An alternative scenario put forward in The Prize by Daniel Yergin sees the Admiralty putting forward a "Syndicate of Patriots" to keep D'Arcy's concession in British hands, apparently with the full and eager co-operation of D'Arcy himself.[5]


Frankfurt International Air Show

In Ace of Spies, biographer Robin Bruce Lockhart recounts Reilly's alleged involvement in obtaining a newly developed German magneto at the first Frankfurt International Air Show ("Internationale Luftschiffahrt-Ausstellung") in 1909. ILA2004 display area The Berlin Air Show ILA2006 belongs to the most important aerospace trade-fairs in the world and takes place in Berlin, Germany. ... The UK Utterly Butterly wing-walking display team flying Boeing Stearman PT-17 biplanes An airshow is an event at which aviators display their flying skills and the capabilities of their flying machines to the crowd. ...


According to Robin Bruce Lockhart, a German plane lost control on the fifth day of the air show and plummeted to the ground, killing the pilot. The plane's engine was alleged to have used a new type of magneto that was far ahead of other designs. Sidney Reilly and a British SIS agent, posing as one of the exhibition pilots, diverted public attention while they removed the magneto from the wreck of the plane, substituting another. Later, the SIS agent made rapid but detailed drawings of the German magneto and, when the engine had been removed to its rightful place in the hangar of the late German pilot, the British SIS agent and Reilly managed to switch the magnetos once again, restoring the original (Lockhart 1986). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Secret Agent is a 1936 British film directed by Alfred Hitchcock based on a novel by W. Somerset Maugham. ...


In contrast, biographer Andrew Cook has countered that this incident never happened and, according to 1909 documentation regarding the air show, no plane crashes occurred at any point during the event (Cook 2004).


Stealing Weapon Plans

According to biographer Lockhart, the German Kaiser was escalating the war machine of Imperial Germany in 1909, and British intelligence had scant knowledge regarding the type of weapons being forged inside Germany's sprawling war plants. At the behest of British intelligence, Reilly was sent to obtain such plans (Lockhart 1967). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence [section] 6), or Her Majestys Secret Service or just the Secret Service, is the British external security agency. ...


As such, in 1909, Reilly arrived in Essen, Germany, disguised as a Baltic shipyard worker by the name of Karl Hahn. Having prepared his cover identity by learning the welding craft at a Sheffield engineering firm, Reilly obtained a low-level position as a welder at the plant and, shortly thereafter, joined the plant fire brigade. Reilly then persuaded the foreman in charge of the fire brigade that a set of plant schematics were needed to indicate the position of fire extinguishers and hydrants. These schematics were soon lodged in the foreman's office for members of the fire brigade to consult, and Reilly set about locating the weapon plans (Lockhart 1967). Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Fish ladder and shipyard in Grave, the Netherlands Construction hall of Schichau Seebeck Shipyard, Bremerhaven Gdynia Shipyard Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. ...


In the early morning hours, Reilly used lock-picks to break into the office where the weapon plans were kept but was discovered by the foreman. Reilly strangled the foreman and completed the theft. From Essen, Reilly took a train to Dortmund to a safe house, and tearing the plans into four pieces, mailed each one separately. If one was lost, the other three would still reveal the gist of the plans (Lockhart 1967).


In Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly, biographer Andrew Cook casts doubt on the validity of this reported incident; however, Cook does confirm that German factory records show a Karl Hahn was indeed employed by the Essen plant during this time period and a plant fire brigade was in formal operation (Cook 2004).


Lockhart Plot

From the London Evening Standard's Master Spy serial: Reilly, disguised as a member of the Cheka, bluffs his way through a Red Army checkpoint.
From the London Evening Standard's Master Spy serial: Reilly, disguised as a member of the Cheka, bluffs his way through a Red Army checkpoint.
In 1918, behind-the-scenes helpers such as [...] Sidney Reilly, the erstwhile Russian double agent who was operating on Britain's behalf, were involved in the formulation and execution of various attempts to snatch both Russia and the [Romanov family] from the Bolsheviks.[6]
— Shay McNeal, historical researcher on Russian history and contributor to BBC[7]

The endeavor to depose the Bolshevik Government and assassinate Vladimir Ilyich Lenin is considered by biographers to be Reilly's most daring scheme. The Lockhart Plot or, more accurately, the Reilly Plot, has sparked debate over the years: Did the Allies launch a clandestine operation to overthrow the Bolsheviks? If so, did the Cheka uncover the coup at the eleventh hour or had they unmasked the conspirators from the outset? Some historians have suggested the Cheka orchestrated the conspiracy from beginning to end, and, possibly, that Reilly was a Bolshevik agent provocateur (Cook 2004). Image File history File links Reilly_masterspyserial. ... Image File history File links Reilly_masterspyserial. ... Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was...


In May 1918, Robert Bruce Lockhart, an agent of the British Secret Intelligence Service, and Reilly repeatedly met with General Boris Savinkov of the Union for the Defense of the Fatherland and Freedom (UDFF). Savinkov had been War Minister in the Provisional Government of Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky, and a key opponent of the Bolsheviks. A former Social Revolutionary Party member, Savinkov had formed the UDFF consisting of several thousand Russian fighters. Lockhart and Reilly then contacted anti-Bolshevik collectives linked to Savinkov and supported these factions with SIS funds, as well as liaisoned with the intelligence operatives of the French and U.S. Consuls in Moscow (Cook 2004). Sir Robert Hamilton Bruce Lockhart, (2 September 1887 - 27 February 1970), was a journalist, author, secret agent, British diplomat in Moscow and footballer. ... Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian:Борис Викторович Савинков) (1879-1925) was a Russian writer and terrorist. ... ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexander Kerensky Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian: , Aleksandr Fëdorovič Kerenskij; May 2 [O.S. April 22] 1881 – June 11, 1970) was a Russian revolutionary leader who was instrumental in toppling the Russian monarchy. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...


In June, disillusioned Latvians, desiring to revolt, began appearing in anti-Bolshevik opposition circles in Petrograd and were eventually directed to Captain Cromie, a British Naval Attaché, and "Mister Constantine," a false identity of a Turkish merchant used by Reilly. As Latvians were deemed the Praetorian Guard of the Bolsheviks and entrusted with the security of the Kremlin, Reilly believed their participation in the pending coup to be vital and arranged their meeting with Lockhart at the British Mission in Moscow. At this stage, Reilly planned a coup against the Bolshevik government and drew up a list of Soviet generals ready to assume responsibilities on the fall of the Bolshevik government. While the coup was prepared, an Allied force landed on August 4, 1918, at Arkhangelsk, Russia, beginning a famous military expedition dubbed Operation Archangel. Its objective was to prevent the German Empire from obtaining Allied military supplies stored in the region. In retaliation for this incursion, the Bolsheviks raided the British diplomatic mission on August 5th; disrupting a meeting Reilly had arranged between the anti-Bolshevik Latvians, UDFF officials, and Lockhart (Cook 2004). The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Moscow Kremlin in the 19th century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Arkhangelsk Oblast The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was part of the Allied Intervention in Russia after the October Revolution. ... - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ...


On August 17th, Reilly conducted meetings between Latvian regimental leaders and liaisoned with Captain George Hill, another British agent operating in Russia. They agreed the coup would occur the first week of September during a meeting of the Council of People's Commissars and the Moscow Soviet at the Bolshoi Theatre. However, on the eve of the coup, unexpected events thwarted the operation (Cook 2004). Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссаров, Sovet Narodnykh Komissarov, the Council of Peoples Commissars, sometimes... The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ...


On August 30, a military cadet shot and killed Moisei Uritsky, head of the Petrograd Cheka. On this same day, Fanya Kaplan, a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, shot and wounded Lenin as he left a meeting at the Michelson factory in Moscow. These events were used by the Cheka to implicate any malcontents in a grand conspiracy that warranted a full-scale campaign: the "Red Terror." Thousands of political opponents were seized and executed. Using lists supplied by undercover agents, the Cheka arrested those involved in Reilly's pending coup. They raided the British Embassy in Petrograd and killed Cromie, Reilly's accomplice, who put up an armed resistance. Lockhart was arrested, but later released in exchange for Litvinov, a Soviet spy who had been arrested in London in a reprisal. Elizaveta Otten, Reilly's chief courier, was arrested as well as his other mistress Olga Starzheskaya. Another courier, Maria Fride, with papers she carried for Reilly, was arrested at Otten's flat (Cook 2004). Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader whose assassination helped precipitate the Red Terror. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan, in 1907 Faina Yefimovna Kaplan (Фаина Ефимовна Каплан; 1883–September 3, 1918), a. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Essaires; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... The name Michelson can refer to: Albert Abraham Michelson, the 19th/20th century physicist, or: Leo Michelson, the 20th century artist. ... The Red Terror was a campaign of mass arrests and deportations targeted against counterrevolutionaries in Russia during the Russian Civil War. ... Maxim Litvinov Maxim Maksimovich Litvinov (ru: Макси́м Макси́мович Литви́нов) (July 17, 1876–December 31, 1951) was a Russian revolutionary and prominent Soviet diplomat. ... Coming to power as a clandestine organization, having been schooled in the secret police tactics of the Czarist Okhranka the new Soviet government of the Soviet Union tended to overestimate the degree to which the other European powers of the day, especially Britain were plotting its destruction. ...


On September 3, the aborted coup was sensationalized by the Russian press; Reilly was identified as a leader; a dragnet ensued. The Cheka raided his assumed refuge, but Reilly avoided capture and met with Captain Hill. Hill proposed that Reilly escape Russia via the Ukraine using their network of British agents for safe houses and assistance. Reilly instead chose a shorter, more dangerous route north to Finland. With the Cheka closing in, Reilly, carrying a Baltic German passport, posed as a legation secretary and departed Moscow in a railway car reserved for the German Embassy. In Kronstadt, Reilly sailed by ship to Helsinki and reached Stockholm. He arrived in London on November 8th (Cook 2004). The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), or Kronshtadt, Cronstadt, is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Kristina Axén Olin (m) Population (March 2007)  - City 786,509  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The day before Reilly and Hill met with Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming ("C") in London for their debriefing, the Russian Izvestia newspaper reported that both Reilly and Lockhart had been sentenced to death in absentia by a Revolutionary Tribunal for their roles in the attempted coup of the Bolshevik government. Their sentence was to be carried out immediately should either of them be apprehended on Soviet soil. This sentence would later be served on Reilly when he was caught by the OGPU in 1925. Ironically, within the week of their debriefing, the British Secret Intelligence Service and the Foreign Office resent Reilly and Hill to Russia under the cover of British trade delegates. Their assignment was to uncover information about the Black Sea coast needed for the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 (Cook 2004). Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming (died 1923) was the first director of what would become MI6. ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ...


Career with British Intelligence

Sidney Reilly, candidly photographed in 1924, a year before his demise.
Sidney Reilly, candidly photographed in 1924, a year before his demise.

Throughout his life, Sidney Reilly maintained a close yet tempestuous consanguinity with the British intelligence community. Image File history File links Sidneyolder. ... Image File history File links Sidneyolder. ...


In the late 1890s, Reilly was recruited by Superintendent William Melville for the émigré intelligence network of Scotland Yard's Special Branch. Through his working relationship with Melville, Reilly would later be employed as a clandestine operative for the Secret Service Bureau which the War Office created in October 1909. In 1918, Reilly began to work for "MI1(c)," an early designation[8] for the British Secret Intelligence Service, under Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming. Reilly was allegedly trained by the latter organization and then sent to Moscow in March 1918 to purportedly assassinate Vladimir Ilyich Lenin or attempt to overthrow the Bolsheviks. He had to escape after the Cheka unraveled the so-called Lockhart Plot against the Bolshevik government. Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... Intelligence is a property of mind that encompasses many related mental abilities, such as the capacities to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... Special Branch is the arm of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police forces that deals with national security matters. ... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ... Old War Office Building, seen from Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming (died 1923) was the first director of what would become MI6. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir Robert Hamilton Bruce Lockhart, (2 September 1887 - 27 February 1970), was a journalist, author, secret agent, British diplomat in Moscow and footballer. ...


Reilly told various tales about his espionage deeds and adventurous exploits. According to Reilly, he earned and lost several fortunes in his lifetime, had many wives and numerous mistresses. He claimed: in the Second Boer War he had disguised himself as a Russian arms merchant to spy on Dutch weapons shipments to the Boers; the so-called D'Arcy Affair where he procured Persian oil concessions for the British Admiralty; reporting to the Kempeitai — the Japanese secret police — on the Russian military presence in Port Arthur, Manchuria, in the disguise of a timber company owner; spying on the Krupp armaments plant in Germany; volunteering for the Royal Flying Corps in Canada at the start of the World War I; seducing the wife of the Russian minister to obtain information regarding German weapons shipments to Russia; attending a German Army High Command meeting in a German officer's uniform during World War I; saving diplomats in Brazil, South America, and his thwarted attempts to engineer the downfall of the Russian Bolshevik government. British intelligence followed its policy of saying nothing about anything. Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 20,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede... The AK-47 has been produced in greater numbers than any other assault rifle and has been used in conflicts all over the world. ... The entrepreneur William Knox DArcy (October 11, 1849 - May 1, 1917) was one of the main founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia (Iran). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. Origin and Early History Formed by Royal Warrant on May 13, 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


Despite the lack of such public confirmation, Reilly's espionage successes did garner indirect recognition. After a formal recommendation by Sir Mansfield "C" Smith-Cumming, Reilly was awarded the Military Cross on January 22, 1919, "for distinguished services rendered in connection with military operations in the field."[9] Biographer Cook claims the medal was bestowed due to Reilly's anti-Bolshevik operations in southern Russia; however, espionage historian Richard Deacon states the award was given for Reilly's previous clandestine activities in World War I. Reilly had allegedly parachuted behind German lines on a number of occasions. Once, disguised as a German officer, he spent three weeks inside the German Empire (Deutsches Reich) gathering information about the next planned thrust against the Allies.[10] Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming (died 1923) was the first director of what would become MI6. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... George Donald King McCormick (December 11, 1911 - January 2, 1998) was a British journalist and popular historian, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Richard Deacon and Lichade Digen. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Deutsches Reich was the official name for Germany from 1871 to 1945 in the German language. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...


Historian Deacon asserts in History of the Russian Secret Service that Reilly was, in April 1912, an Ochrana agent with the task of befriending and profiling Sir Basil Zaharoff, the international arms salesman and representative of Vickers-Armstrong Munitions Ltd. Another Reilly biographer, Richard B. Spence, claims in Trust No One: The Secret World Of Sidney Reilly that during this assignment Reilly learned from Zaharoff "le systeme." To Zaharoff, "le systeme" was the strategy of playing all sides against each other in order to maximize financial profit. In contrast, biographer Andrew Cook counters in Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly (pg. 104) that there is no evidence of any relationship between Sidney Reilly and Sir Basil Zaharoff. The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Sir Basil Zaharoff, originally Basileios Zacharias, (b. ... Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004. ...


According to the research of Andrew Cook, Reilly was more of a con artist. Although Reilly claimed to have been employed by the British Secret Intelligence Service since the 1890s, he had volunteered his services and was accepted as an agent on March 15, 1918, but was effectively fired in 1921 due to his tendency to be a rogue operative. Nevertheless, Reilly had been a renowned operative for Scotland Yard's Special Branch and the Secret Service Bureau which were the early forerunners of the British intelligence community. A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... Special Branch is the arm of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police forces that deals with national security matters. ... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ...


Author Michael Kettle has claimed in Sidney Reilly: The True Story of the World's Greatest Spy (pg. 121) that Reilly was possibly involved with Sir Stewart Graham Menzies in the forging of The Zinoviev Letter in 1924 — by which stage SIS had already fired him.[11] Sir Stewart Graham Menzies (January 30, 1890 - May 29, 1968) was the Chief of MI6, British Secret Intelligence Service, during and after the World War II. Stewart Graham Menzies was born in London into a wealthy family. ... The Zinoviev Letter is thought to have been instrumental in the Conservative Partys victory in the United Kingdom general election, 1924, which ended the countrys first Labour government. ...


Death

Following execution in a forest near Moscow, the alleged corpse of Sidney Reilly (Salomon Rosenblum) was photographed in OGPU headquarters by Soviet personnel circa November 5, 1925.
Following execution in a forest near Moscow, the alleged corpse of Sidney Reilly (Salomon Rosenblum) was photographed in OGPU headquarters by Soviet personnel circa November 5, 1925.

In September, 1925, undercover agents of the OGPU, the intelligence successor of the Cheka, lured Reilly to Bolshevik Russia ostensibly to meet the supposed anti-Communist organization The Trust – in reality, an OGPU deception existing under the code name Operation Trust. At the Russian border, Reilly was introduced to undercover OGPU agents posing as senior Trust representatives from Moscow. One of these undercover Soviet agents, Alexander Yakushev, later recalled the meeting: Image File history File links Reilly_corpse. ... Image File history File links Reilly_corpse. ... Obedinennoe Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie (or OGPU) (Combined State Political Directorate, also translated as All Union State Political Board) was the name of the secret police in the Soviet Union in one of the stages of its development. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Trust or Trest Operation (операция Трест) was an operation presented as a spectacular counterintelligence success of OGPU in 1921-1926. ...

The first impression of [Sidney Reilly] is unpleasant. His dark eyes expressed something biting and cruel; his lower lip drooped deeply and was too slick — the neat black hair, the demonstratively elegant suit. [...] Everything in his manner expressed something haughtily indifferent to his surroundings. [12]

After Reilly crossed the Finnish border, the Soviets captured, transported and interrogated him at Lubyanka Prison. On arrival Reilly was taken to the office of Roman Pilar, a Soviet official who had arrested and ordered the execution of Boris Savinkov, a close friend of Reilly, the previous year. Pilar reminded Reilly that he had been sentenced to death by a 1918 Soviet tribunal for his participation in a counter-revolutionary plot against the Bolshevik government. Asynchronous to his interrogation, the Soviets falsely claimed in propaganda reports that Reilly had been shot trying to cross the Finnish border. Lubyanka was one of the most infamous NKVD prisons in Soviet Union. ... Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian:Борис Викторович Савинков) (1879-1925) was a Russian writer and terrorist. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ...


Historians debate whether Reilly was tortured while in OGPU custody. Biographer Andrew Cooke contends that Reilly was not tortured by the OGPU with the exception of psychological "mock execution scenarios" designed to shake the resolve of their prisoners. During OGPU interrogation, Reilly maintained his charade of being a British subject born in Clonmel, Ireland, and would not reveal any intelligence matters (Cook 2004). While facing such daily interrogation, Reilly kept in his cell a diary of tiny handwritten notes on cigarette papers which he hid in the plasterwork of a cell wall. While his Soviet captors were interrogating Reilly, Reilly in turn was analyzing and documenting their techniques. As the diary was a detailed record of OGPU interrogation techniques, Reilly was understandably confident such unique documentation would, if he escaped, be of interest to the British SIS. Later the diary was posthumously discovered when the cell was searched by Soviet guards, and photographic enhancements were made by OGPU technicians (Cook 2004). WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ...


Reilly was executed in a forest near Moscow on November 5, 1925; British intelligence documents released in 2000 confirm this. According to eye-witness Boris Gudz, the execution of Sidney Reilly was supervised by an OGPU officer, Grigory Feduleev. Another OGPU officer, George Syroezhkin, is credited for firing the final shot into Reilly's chest. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the death of Reilly, there were various rumors about his survival. Some, for example, speculated that Reilly had defected and became an advisor to Soviet intelligence. The Soviet Union had a succession of secret police agencies over the course of its existence. ...


Popularity

James Bond

Sam Neill portraying Sidney Reilly in the TV mini-series, Reilly: The Ace of Spies (1983).
Sam Neill portraying Sidney Reilly in the TV mini-series, Reilly: The Ace of Spies (1983).

In Ian Fleming, The Man Behind James Bond by Andrew Lycett, Sidney Reilly is listed as an inspiration for James Bond.[13] Reilly's friend, former diplomat and journalist Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, was a close acquaintance of Sir Ian Fleming for many years and recounted to Fleming many of Reilly's espionage adventures.[14] Lockhart had worked with Reilly in Russia, in 1918, where they became embroiled in an SIS-backed plot to overthrow Lenin's Bolshevik government. Within five years of his disappearance in Soviet Russia in 1925, the press had turned Reilly into a household name, lauding him as a "master spy" and recounting his many espionage adventures. Fleming had therefore long been aware of Reilly's mythical reputation and had listened to the recollections of Lockhart who had not only known Reilly personally but was actually with Reilly during the turmoil and aftermath of the Russian Revolution. Like Fleming's fictional creation, Reilly was multi-lingual with a fascination with the Far East, fond of fine living and a compulsive gambler. He also exercised a Bond-like mastery of women, his many love affairs standing comparison with the amorous adventures of 007 (Cook 2004). Image File history File links Sidney_reilly_8. ... Image File history File links Sidney_reilly_8. ... Sam Neill (born Nigel John Dermot Neill), DCNZM, OBE (born 14 September 1947) is a New Zealand-Australian film and television actor, and owner of the Two Paddocks winery in Central Otago. ... For other uses, see Television (disambiguation). ... A miniseries, in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Sam Neill portraying Sidney Reilly in the television mini-series, Reilly: The Ace of Spies (1983). ... Sir Robert Hamilton Bruce Lockhart, (2 September 1887 - 27 February 1970), was a journalist, author, secret agent, British diplomat in Moscow and footballer. ...


The Gadfly

According to biographer Robin Bruce Lockhart, Reilly encountered in London noted American authoress Ethel Lilian Voynich in 1895. Voynich was a well-known figure in the late Victorian literary scene and in Russian émigré circles. Lockhart claims that Reilly and Voynich had a sexual liaison and voyaged to Italy together. During this dalliance, Reilly allegedly "bared his soul" to Ethel, and revealed to her the peculiar story of his youth in Russia. After their affair had concluded, Voynich published in 1897 her critically-acclaimed novel, The Gadfly, the central character of which, Arthur Burton, was allegedly based on Reilly's early life.[15] Biographer Andrew Cook, however, disputes Lockhart's romanticized version of such events and asserts that Reilly was not the inspiration for The Gadfly. Additionally, Cook ponders that Reilly was perhaps informing on Voynich's radical, pro-émigré activities to William Melville of the Metropolitan Police Special Branch.[16] Ethel Lilian Voynich, née Boole (May 11, 1864, County Cork, Ireland - July 27, 1960, New York City) was a novelist and musician, and a supporter of several revolutionary causes. ... The Gadfly is a novel by Ethel Lilian Voynich (1864-1960). ...


Ace of Spies

In 1983, a television mini-series, Reilly, Ace of Spies, was made dramatizing the historical adventures of Reilly. The program won the 1984 BAFTA TV Award. Reilly was portrayed by actor Sam Neill. Leo McKern portrayed Sir Basil Zaharoff. The series was based on Robin Bruce Lockhart's book, Ace of Spies, which was adapted by Troy Kennedy Martin. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... A miniseries, in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Sam Neill portraying Sidney Reilly in the television mini-series, Reilly: The Ace of Spies (1983). ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... The British Academy Television Awards, also known as the BAFTAs — or, to differentiate them from the BAFTA Film Awards, the BAFTA Television Awards — are the most prestigious awards given in the British television industry, analogous to the Emmy Awards in the United States. ... Sam Neill (born Nigel John Dermot Neill), DCNZM, OBE (born 14 September 1947) is a New Zealand-Australian film and television actor, and owner of the Two Paddocks winery in Central Otago. ... Image:Number Two. ... Sir Basil Zaharoff, originally Zacharias Basileios, (1849, Muğla, Turkey - 1936, Monte Carlo, Monaco) was a Greek arms trader and financier, the director and chairman of the Vickers munitions firm during World War I. // Basil was from a Greek family in Constantinople. ... Troy Kennedy Martin (born 1932; sometimes credited as Troy Kennedy-Martin) is a British film and television scripwriter. ...


See also

People

Events Sir Robert Hamilton Bruce Lockhart, (2 September 1887 - 27 February 1970), was a journalist, author, secret agent, British diplomat in Moscow and footballer. ... Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming (died 1923) was the first director of what would become MI6. ... Sir Basil Zaharoff, originally Basileios Zacharias, (b. ... Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian:Борис Викторович Савинков) (1879-1925) was a Russian writer and terrorist. ... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ...

Organizations Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku... The Red Terror was a campaign of mass arrests and deportations targeted against counterrevolutionaries in Russia during the Russian Civil War. ... The Zinoviev Letter is thought to have been instrumental in the Conservative Partys victory in the United Kingdom general election, 1924, which ended the countrys first Labour government. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... ILA2004 display area The Berlin Air Show ILA2006 belongs to the most important aerospace trade-fairs in the world and takes place in Berlin, Germany. ...

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... William Melville (1850-1918), the head of Scotland Yards Special Branch and later the first chief of the British Secret Service. ... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Directorate was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ...

References

  • Andrew Cook, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly; 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2959-0.
  • Andrew Cook, On His Majesty's Secret Service, Sydney Reilly Codename ST1; 2002, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2555-2.
  • Richard Deacon, Spyclopaedia; 1987, Macdonald & Company Publishers Ltd, ISBN 0-356-14600-6.
  • Michael Kettle, Sidney Reilly: The True Story of the World's Greatest Spy; 1986, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-90321-9.
  • Robert Bruce Lockhart, Memoirs of a British Agent (reprint); 2003, Folio Society, ASIN B000E4QXIK.
  • Andrew Lycett, The Man Behind James Bond; 1996, Turner Publishing, ISBN 1-57036-343-9.
  • Robin Bruce Lockhart, Reilly: Ace of Spies; 1986, Hippocrene Books, ISBN 0-88029-072-2.
  • Richard B. Spence, Trust No One: The Secret World Of Sidney Reilly; 2002, Feral House, ISBN 0-922915-79-2.
  • Yergin, Daniel (1991). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. Pocket Books. 

Daniel H. Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author and economic researcher. ... The Prize (1991; ISBN 0671502484) is Daniel Yergins 800-page history of the global oil industry from the 1850s through 1990. ...

Source Notes

  1. ^ Pages 133 to 136, Richard Deacon, Spyclopaedia; 1987, Macdonald & Company Publishers Ltd, ISBN 0-356-14600-6.
  2. ^ Andrew Cook, M: Mi5's First Spymaster (Revealing History), 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2896-9.
  3. ^ Page 56, Andrew Cook, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly, 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2959-0.
  4. ^ Ian Hill Nish, The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War, 1986, Longman Publishing Group, ISBN 0-582-49114-2.
  5. ^ Yergin (1991) p.140
  6. ^ Page 137, Shay McNeal, The Plots to Rescue the Tsar, 2002, Arrow Books, ISBN 0-09-929810-4.
  7. ^ Biographical information about McNeal on HarperCollins' site. Information retrieved on January 25, 2007.
  8. ^ MI6 website. "SIS or MI6. What's In A Name?" Article retrieved on November 14, 2006.
  9. ^ Page 188, Andrew Cook, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly, 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2959-0.
  10. ^ Pages 135, Richard Deacon, Spyclopaedia; 1987, Macdonald & Company Publishers Ltd, ISBN 0-356-14600-6.
  11. ^ Page 121, Michael Kettle, Sidney Reilly: The True Story of the World's Greatest Spy; 1986, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-90321-9.
  12. ^ Page 238, Andrew Cook, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly, 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2959-0.
  13. ^ Pages 118 and 132, Andrew Lycett, Ian Fleming, The Man Behind James Bond, 1996, Turner Publishing, ISBN 1-57036-343-9.
  14. ^ Page 12, Andrew Cook, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly, 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2959-0.
  15. ^ Robin Bruce Lockhart, Reilly: Ace of Spies; 1986, Hippocrene Books, ISBN 0-88029-072-2.
  16. ^ Page 39, Andrew Cook, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly, 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2959-0.

is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

  • SidneyReilly.com: Andrew Cook's website regarding his book about Reilly.
  • IMDB article about the British mini-series, Reilly: The Ace of Spies.
  • List group for Reilly.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sidney Reilly: Information from Answers.com (3159 words)
Sidney Reilly (Salomon Rosenblum) is alleged by Cook to have been the illegimate offspring of his mother, Paulina (Perla), and a Dr. Mikhail Abramovich (Son of Abraham) Rosenblum, the trusted first cousin of Reilly's assumed father Grigory (Gersh) Rosenblum.
Sidney Reilly and a British SIS agent, posing as one of the exhibition pilots, diverted public attention while they removed the magneto from the wreck of the plane, substituting another.
Reilly then persuaded the foreman in charge of the fire brigade that a set of plant schematics were needed to indicate the position of fire extinguishers and hydrants.
Features (556 words)
Reilly and an accomplice entered the compartment - one courier was thrown from the train, the other was stabbed and his throat cut.
These theories are thoroughly examined in light of still closed records and Reilly's activities in Russia in the spring and summer of 1918.
Kenneth Linge, one of Britain's leading forensic experts and a veteran Old Bailey witness has analysed the photographs of Saloman Rosenblum (aka Sidney Reilly) and Boris Rosenblum, using the latest photo-forensic techniques The results indicate that Saloman and Boris are related and almost certainly share a common parent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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