FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sick sinus syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome
[[Image:{{{Image}}}|190px|center|]]
ICD-10 I49.5
ICD-O: {{{ICDO}}}
ICD-9 427.81
OMIM {{{OMIM}}}
MedlinePlus {{{MedlinePlus}}}
eMedicine {{{eMedicineSubj}}}/{{{eMedicineTopic}}}
DiseasesDB {{{DiseasesDB}}}

Sick sinus syndrome, also called Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is a group of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's "natural" pacemaker. Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is a variant of sick sinus syndrome where atrial flutter and fibrillation alternate with prolonged periods of asystole. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... The sinoatrial node (abbreviated SA node, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart. ... In medicine, asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, hence no contractions of the myocardium and no cardiac output or blood flow. ...

Contents


Causes

Sick sinus syndrome is a relatively uncommon syndrome. It can result in many abnormal heart rhthyms (arrhythmias), including sinus arrest, sinus node exit block, sinus bradycardia, and other types of bradycardia (slow heart rate). Sinus bradycardia is a rhythm that originates from the sinus node and has a rate of under 60bpm. ... Bradycardia, as applied in adult medicine, is defined as a heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min [1]. It is also less commonly known as brachycardia. ...


Sick sinus syndrome may also be associated with tachycardias (fast heart rate) such as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and atrial fibrillation. Tachycardias that occur with sick sinus syndrome are characterized by a long pause after the tachycardia. A supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid rhythm of the heart in which the origin of the electrical signal is either the atria or the AV node. ...


Abnormal rhythms are often caused or worsened by medications such as digitalis, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, sympatholytic medications, and anti-arrhythmics. Disorders that cause scarring, degeneration, or damage to the conduction system can cause sick sinus syndrome, including sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, Chagas' disease, and cardiomyopathies. Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous biennials, perennials and shrubs that was traditionally placed in... Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs with effects on the muscle of the heart and the muscles of the rest of the body. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ...


Sick sinus syndrome is more common in elderly adults, where the cause is often a non-specific, scar-like degeneration of the cardiac conduction system. Cardiac surgery, especially to the atria, is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome in children. The normal electrical conduction in the heart allows the impulse that is generated by the SA node of the heart to be propagated to (and stimulate) the myocardium (muscle of the heart). ... Atria may refer to: Atria is an alternative spelling for the Etruscan city that is now Adria in the Veneto region of Northern Italy. ...


Coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and aortic and mitral valve diseases may be associated with sick sinus syndrome, although this association may only be incidental. Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ...


Symptoms

Even though many types of sick sinus syndrome produce no symptoms, patients may present with fainting or near fainting episodes, dizziness or light-headedness, palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, and

  • Chest pain or angina
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue

angina tonsillaris see tonsillitis. ...

Diagnosis

Ambulatory monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) may be necessary arrhythmias are transient. The ECG may show any of the folliwing Lead II An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG, abbreviated from the German Elektrokardiogramm) is a graphic produced by an electrocardiograph, which records the electrical voltage in the heart in the form of a continuous strip graph. ...

  • Inappropriate sinus bradycardia
  • Sinus arrest
  • Sinoatrial block
  • Atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response
  • A prolonged asystolic period after a periof of tachycardias
  • Atrial flutter
  • Ectopic atrial tachycardia
  • Sinus node reentrant tachycardia

Electrophysiologic tests are no longer used for diagnostic purposes because of their low specificity and sensitivity. Cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor forms of sick sinus syndrome may be revealed by tilt table testing.


Treatment

Bradyarrhythmias are well controlled with pacemakers, while tachyarrhytmias respond well to medical therapy. However, because both bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias may be present, drugs to control tachyarrhythmia may exacerbate bradyarrhythmia. Therefore, a pacemaker is implanted before drug therapy is begun for the tachyarrhythmia.


External link

  • NIH website

References

  • Adan V, Crown LA (2003). Diagnosis and treatment of sick sinus syndrome. Am Fam Physician 67 (8): 1725-32. PMID 12725451

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sick sinus syndrome (286 words)
Sick sinus syndrome is a group of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's "natural" pacemaker.
Sick sinus syndrome is a relatively uncommon syndrome.
Sick sinus syndrome may also be associated with tachycardias (fast heart rate) such as PSVT and atrial fibrillation.
Sick sinus syndrome (227 words)
Sick sinus syndrome, also called Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is a group of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's "natural" pacemaker.
Sick sinus syndrome is more common in elderly adults, where the cause is often a non-specific, scar-like degeneration of the cardiac conduction system.
Cardiac surgery, especially to the atria, is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome in children.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m