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Encyclopedia > Sicily

Coordinates: 37°38′33″N, 14°11′34″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Regione Autonoma Siciliana
Flag of Sicily
Image:Italy Regions Sicily Map.png
Map highlighting the location of Sicilia in Italy
Capital Palermo
President Salvatore Cuffaro
(UDC-CdL)
Provinces Agrigento
Caltanissetta
Catania
Enna
Messina
Palermo
Ragusa
Syracuse
Trapani
Comuni 390
Area 25,708 km²
 - Ranked 1st (8.5 %)
Population (2006 est.)
 - Total 5,017,212
 - Ranked 4th (8.5 %)
 - Density 195/km²

Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. miles) and five million inhabitants. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Salvatore Totò Cuffaro (born February 21, 1958 in Raffadali, Agrigento) is an Italian politician, and the current President of Sicily. ... The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Italian: Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e Democratici di Centro) is a political party in Italy formed by a merger of the former Centro Cristiano Democratico and Christiani Democratici Uniti parties. ... Casa delle Libertà (CDL; literally translated from Italian to English as House of the Liberties but most often translated as House of Freedoms), is a major Italian center-right political alliance led by national media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Agrigento (It. ... The Province of Caltanissetta is a province in the southern part of Sicily, Italy. ... Catania (Italian: Provincia di Catania) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Enna (Italian: Provincia di Enna) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Messina (It. ... Palermo (It. ... The Province of Ragusa (Provincia di Ragusa) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Syracuse (It. ... Trapani (Italian: Provincia di Trapani) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. ... These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Article 116 of the Italian Constitution contemplates that five of the 20 Italian regions shall benefit of particular conditions of autonomy. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...

Contents

Geography

Sicily is directly adjacent to the region of Calabria via the Strait of Messina to the east. The early Roman name for Sicily was Trinacria, alluding to its triangular shape. Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina with names. ... The armoured triskelion on the flag of the Isle of Man Triskelion (or triskele, from Greek τρισκελης three-legged) is a symbol consisting of three bent human legs, or, more generally, three interlocked spirals, or any similar symbol with three protrusions exhibiting...


The volcano Etna, situated close to Catania, is 3,320 m (10,900 ft) high, making it the tallest active volcano in Europe. It is also one of the world's most active volcanoes. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Mount Etna (also known as Mongibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a combination of Latin mont- meaning mountain and the local word for beautiful) is an active volcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. ... The Roman Odeon. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


The Aeolian islands to the north are administratively a part of Sicily, as are the Aegadian Islands and Pantelleria Island to the west, Ustica Island to the north-west, and the Pelagian Islands to the south-west. The Aeolian Islands. ... A map showing the Aegadian Islands. ... ... Ustica is the name of a small island, about 9 km across, situated 52 km north of Capo Gallo, Italy. ... The Pelagie Islands. ...


Sicily has been noted for two millennia as a grain-producing territory. Oranges, lemons, olives, olive oil, almonds, and wine are among its other agricultural products. The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta district became a leading sulfur-producing area in the 19th century but have declined since the 1950s. Orange blossoms and oranges on tree For other uses of orange, see orange (disambiguation) The Orange Citrus x sinensis is a Citrus tree, and the fruits of this tree. ... Binomial name Citrus X limon {{{author}}} Lemons are the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus X limon. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. ... This article refers to the plant. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Enna, the ancient Haenna, is a city located in the center of Sicily in the province of Enna, towering above the surrounding countryside. ... Caltanissetta is located on the western interior of Sicily, an area of rolling hills with small villages and towns. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ...

Sicily is divided into nine provinces: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x769, 251 KB) This map shows the provinces of the Italian region of Sicily. ...

Agrigento (It. ... The Province of Caltanissetta is a province in the southern part of Sicily, Italy. ... Catania (Italian: Provincia di Catania) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Enna (Italian: Provincia di Enna) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Messina (It. ... Palermo (It. ... The Province of Ragusa (Provincia di Ragusa) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Syracuse (It. ... Trapani (Italian: Provincia di Trapani) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ...

History

Main article: History of Sicily

Ruins of a temple at Solunto. ...

Natives

The original inhabitants of Sicily, long absorbed into the population, were tribes known to Greek writers as the Elymians, the Sicani and the Siculi or Sicels. Of these, the last were clearly the latest to arrive on this land and were related to other Italic peoples of southern Italy, such as the Italoi of Calabria, the Oenotrians, Chones, and Leuterni (or Leutarni), the Opicans, and the Ausones. It's possible, however, that the Sicani were originally an Iberian tribe. The Elymi, too, may have distant origins outside of Italy, in the Aegean Sea area. The Elymian people (Greek Elymoi, Latin Elymi) were an ancient civilization located in Sicily. ... The Sicani (or Sikanoi) were an ancient people of Italy who dwelt along the Tiber river. ... According to Thucydides (vi:2), before the arrival of Greek colonists, the Sicels (or Siculi) were one of the three tribes who inhabited Sicily: the Sicels (Greek Sikeloi) in eastern Sicily (as well as southern Italy), who spoke an Indo-European language, and the Sicani (Greek Sikanoi) and Elymi (Greek... Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... Ancient Italic people settled in a territory of remarkably big dimensions including todays southern Italian region of Basilicata and the northern part of Calabria. ... Aurunci, the name given by the Romans to a tribe which in historical times occupied only a strip of coast on either side of the Mons Massicus between the Volturnus and the Liris, although it must at an earlier period have extended over a considerably wider area. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ancient Sicily

Main articles: Carthage, Ancient Greece, and Ancient Rome
Greek temple at Selinunte (temple E, dedicated to Hera, built in the 5th century BCE.)
Greek temple at Selinunte (temple E, dedicated to Hera, built in the 5th century BCE.)

In the 8th Century BC Phoenicians, Punic settlers from Carthage, and Greeks began to colonize Sicily. An important colony was established at Syracuse in 734 BC. Other important Greek colonies were Acragas, Gela, Himera, Selinunte, and Zancle or Messene (modern-day Messina not to be confused with the ancient city of Messene in Messenia, Greece). Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 320 KB) Summary Greek temple in Sicily. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 320 KB) Summary Greek temple in Sicily. ... Temple E, the so-called Temple of Hera, at Selinus Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site situated on the south coast of Sicily between the valleys of the rivers Belice and Modione in the province of Trapani. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon & Syria [2] Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC, between... The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Colonization is the act where life forms move into a distant area where their kind is sparse or not yet existing at all and set up new settlements in the area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC Events and Trends 739 BC - Hiram II becomes king of Tyre 738 BC - King Tiglath-Pileser III... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). ... Gela is a city in the province of Caltanissetta in the south of Sicily, Italy. ... Himera is located on the northern coast of Sicily. ... Temple E, the so-called Temple of Hera, at Selinus Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site situated on the south coast of Sicily between the valleys of the rivers Belice and Modione in the province of Trapani. ... Location within Italy Messina with a population of about 260,000 is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, Italy and the capital of the province of Messina. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messínî or Messénê ) was an ancient Greek city, the capital of Messenia (until the modern prefecture was created). ... Messenia (Greek: , in Modern Greek Messinia; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a prefecture in the Peloponnese, a region of Greece. ...


Classical Greek civilization included Sicily as part of Magna Graecia and these city states were an important part of it. The scientist Archimedes was from Syracuse and the philosopher Empedocles was from Agrigentum. Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: c. ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ...


Sicilian politics was intertwined with politics in Greece. In 415 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, Syracuse became an object of Athenian imperialism. The resulting Sicilian Expedition was inconclusive at first, but after Syracuse gained Sparta and Corinth as allies, the events ended in disaster for Athens. The Syracusan fleet destroyed or captured the Athenian ships and the Athenian army was destroyed, with most of the survivors being sold into slavery. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC - 415 BC - 414 BC 413 BC... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ...

The Punic cities of Sicily had ties to Carthage, which was on the African mainland, not far from the southwest corner of the region, and had its own colonies on Sicily. The Carthaginian city of Palermo was founded in the 8th century BC, named Zis or Sis ("Panormos" to the Greeks). Hundreds of Phoenician and Carthaginian grave sites have been found in necropoli over a large area of Palermo, now built over, south of the Norman palace, where the Norman kings had a vast park. In the far west, Lilybaeum (now Marsala) never was thoroughly Hellenized. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (605 × 866 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (605 × 866 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was an Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... Saint Agatha (died AD 251) is a Christian saint. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon & Syria [2] Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC, between... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... Marsala is a seaport city located in the Province of Trapani on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


In the First and Second Sicilian Wars, Carthage was in control of all but the eastern part of Sicily, which was dominated by Syracuse. Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ...


In the 3rd century BC the Messanan Crisis motivated Roman Republic to intervene in Sicilian affairs, and led to the First Punic War between Rome and Carthage. By the end of war (242 BC) all Sicily was in Roman hands, becoming Rome's first province outside of the Italian peninsula. The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Marcus Atilius Regulus Gaius Lutatius Catulus Gaius Duilius Hamilcar Barca Hanno the Great Hasdrubal Xanthippus The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 247 BC 246 BC 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC - 242 BC - 241 BC 240 BC... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...

The Roman amphitheatre
The Roman amphitheatre

During the Second Punic War, initial Carthaginian successes encouraged many of the Sicilian cities to revolt against Roman rule. Rome sent troops to put down the rebellions. Archimedes was killed during the siege of Syracuse. Carthage briefly took control of parts of Sicily, but was eventually driven off. Many Carthaginian sympathizers were killed— in 210 BC the Roman consul M. Valerian told the Roman Senate that "no Carthaginian remains in Sicily". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Author : Urban Description : Amphithéâtre romain, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Syracuse, Italy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Author : Urban Description : Amphithéâtre romain, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Syracuse, Italy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... A troop is a military unit. ... A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC - 210 BC - 209 BC 208 BC... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


Sicily was a province of the Roman Empire for the next 6 centuries. It was something of a rural backwater, but its grainfields which were a mainstay of the food supply of the city of Rome. The empire made little effort to Romanize the region, which remained largely Greek. During this period, in 70 BC, Cicero condemned the misgovernment of Verres in his oration, In Verrem. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... Backwater can mean: Water held or pushed back by or as if by a dam or current. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Gaius Verres (c. ... In Verremis a series of speeches made by Marcus Tullius Cicero, // Background to the Case Main article: Gaius Verres Gaius Verres was the Governor of Sicily in the latter half of the 70s BC, Courtroom politics Verres was able to secure the services of the finest orator of his day...


The Barbarian Invasion and Byzantine Reconquest

Main article: Byzantine empire

In 440 AD Sicily fell to a Barbarian Germanic tribe the Vandals under king Geiseric. The Vandals, now seated in Carthage, invaded and occupied several of the islands in the Western Mediterranean. However they soon lost these newly acquired possessions to the Goths.[1] Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ...


In 488, Ostrogothic, under Theodoric the Great began the conquest of Italy and Sicily. Most of the Goths setttled in the north, in the south they formed little more than garrisons. Theodoric sought to revive Roman culture and government and allowed freedom of religion. This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ...


In 535, seeing the Ostrogothic position in Italy was now weaker, the Eastern Emperor Justinian of Constantinople commissioned Byzantine general Belisarius to attack the Ostrogoths. Justinian’s reputation owed perhaps less to his own qualities than those to his empress Theodora, and two generals, Belisarius and Narses.[2] This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Theodora can refer to any of the following: Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximian and second wife of the Emperor Constantius I Chlorus. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ...


Belisarius quickly captured Sicily and then crossed into Italy where he captured Naples and Rome in 536 and then marched north, taking Mediolanum (Milan) and the Ostrogoth capital of Ravenna in 540. But a new Ostrogothic king, Totila, drove down the Italian peninsula and then plundered and conquered Sicily in 550. Totila, in turn, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Taginae by the Byzantine general, Narses, in 552. This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Totila, born in Treviso, was king of the Ostrogoths, chosen after the death of his uncle Ildibad, having engineered the assassination of Ildibads short-lived successor his cousin Eraric in 541. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob) is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophy or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack [4]. The term... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Commanders Narses Totila† Strength 20,000 unknown infantry 2,000 horsemen Casualties unknown 6,000 At the battle of Taginae (also known as the battle of Busta Gallorum) in July of 552, the Byzantine Empire under General Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ...


Although the Byzantine campaigns proved successful, in the long term it proved impossible for them to retain control of the old provinces around the Mediterranean and the Byzantines lost them to the Arabs after 50 years of fighting.


In 660, Byzantine Emperor Constans II decided to move from the capital, Constantinople, to Syracuse in Sicily. In 661 Constans launched an assault from Sicily, against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which then occupied most of Southern Italy. Rumours that Constans was going to move the capital of the empire to Syracuse were probably fatal for him and he was assassinated in 668. His son Constantine succeeded him as Constantine IV, a brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius being quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Constans and his son Constantine. ... Clinton Square in Downtown Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York. ... Look up Lombard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ... Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685); sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatus, meaning the Bearded, like his father; was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ... Mezezius also known as Mecetius, Bizantine usurper in Sicily from 668 to 669. ...


Contemporary accounts report that Sicilians spoke Greek or Italo-Greek dialects until at least the 10th century, and in some regions for several more centuries. [citation needed] There are still today speakers of a very old dialect of Greek in Sicily.


Arab Sicily

Main articles: Siculo-Arabic and Emirate of Sicily
A tomb of a Noble Norman Sicilian woman from 1148AD. Written in Hebrew (top),Greek (right), Latin(left) and Arabic (bottom)

As the power of the Byzantine Empire waned, Sicily was invaded by the Arabs in 652 AD. However, this was a short lived invasion and the Arabs left soon after. Instead, trading arrangements were agreed and Arab merchants established themselves in Sicilian ports. Then, in 827 a Sicilian coup against an unpopular Byzantine governor failed. Euphemius, a wealthy landowner, who overcame the imperial garrison in Siracusa, declared himself Emperor and invited the Aghlabid Emir of Tunisia to help him. The response was a fleet of 100 ships and 10,000 troops under the command of Asad ibn al-Furat, which consisted largely of Arabs and Berbers from North Africa and Spanish Muslims.[3] After resistance at Siracusa, the Arabs gained a foothold in Mazara del Vallo. Palermo fell after a long siege in 831, but Siracusa held out until 878. From 842 to 859 the Arabs captured Messina, Modica, Ragusa and Enna. In 902 Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold, also fell to Arabs and by 965 all of Sicily was under Arab control and Palermo became one of the largest cities in the world. Siculo-Arabic was a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries. ... Italy in 1000. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Events Succession of Pope Valentine, then Pope Gregory IV. Arabs invade Sicily. ... Euphemius of Constantinople (died 515) was patriarch of Constantinople (490 - 496). ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Syracuse on the island of Sicily. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Asad ibn al-Furat (759-828) was an important jurist and theologian in Ifriqiya, who began the Muslim conquest of Sicily. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Mazara del Vallo is a town in South-Western Sicily, Italy, which lies mainly on the left bank at the mouth of the Mazaro river, administratively part of the province of Trapani. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Malamir succeeds Omurtag as Khan of Bulgaria The Saracens capture Palermo. ... Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Country Italy Region Sicily Province Ragusa (RG) Mayor Pietro Torchi Lucifora (since May 28, 2002 Elevation 296 m Area 290. ... Ragusa can refer to: The city of Ragusa in Sicily, Italy. ... Enna, the ancient Haenna, is a city located in the center of Sicily in the province of Enna, towering above the surrounding countryside. ... Isola Bella from the North Isola Bella Bay from the south Greek theatre in Taormina Taormina is a small town in the island of Sicily in Italy. ... March 1 - Pope Leo VIII is restored in place of Pope Benedict V October 1 - Pope John XIII succeeds Pope Leo VIII as the 133rd pope. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


In succession Sicily was ruled by the Sunni Aghlabid dynasty in Tunisia and the Shiite Fatimids in Egypt. The Byzantines took advantage of temporary discord to occupy the eastern end of the island for several years. After suppressing a revolt, the Fatimid caliph appointed Hassan al-Kalbi (948–964) as Emir of Sicily. He successfully managed to control the Byzantines and founded the Kalbid dynasty. Raids into southern Italy continued under the Kalbids into the 11th century, and in 982 a German army under Otto II was defeated near Crotone in Calabria. With Emir Yusuf al-Kalbi (990–998) a period of steady decline began. Under al-Akhal (1017–1037) the dynastic conflict intensified, with factions within the ruling family allying themselves variously with Byzantium and the Zirids. By the time of Emir Hasan as-Samsam (1040–1053) the island had fragmented into several small fiefdoms. As a virtually independent emirate, Sicily played a privileged role as bridge between Africa and Europe. Trade flourished and taxes were low. The tolerant regime allowed subjects to abide by their own laws. Despite freedom of worship, Christians converted to Islam and there were soon hundreds of mosques in Palermo alone. An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Kalbids were a Muslim dynasty in Sicily, which ruled from 948 to 1053. ... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


The Arabs were to completely dominate Sicily for a relatively short period of time, but the changes they brought to the island were far reaching, long lasting and overwhelmingly positive in economic terms, those taxes that were detrimental to agriculture were removed. The Arabs called Saracens at the time, represented a highly developed civilization that was superior in many ways, to the Christian cultures of western Europe and the Mediterranean.[4] There were many positive features to Arab conquest of Sicily, and their contribution was in the form of improved practices, such as irrigation, science, commerce and the arts. For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...

Their agricultural methods were far more advanced than any found elsewhere. Much of the island's agricultural base that exists to this day consists of plants that were introduced by the Saracens, including oranges,lemons, pistachio and sugar cane.[5] The Arabs did not conscript the Sicilians into the armies as the Byzantines had and under Arab rule taxes were lower. Approximately 300 words of Arabic origin remain in the Sicilian language, the vast bulk of these are agricultural terms. In the mid 11th century, Sicily was on the verge of entering its most prosperous period in its entire history. Palermo became not only a trading post, but also a centre of a rich, cosmopolitan, civilization. Hundreds of mosques were built, and the elegant Arabic style of architecture was to survive as an influence after Sicily became a Christian country. There was no harsh persecution of Christians by their Moslem conquerors, who nevertheless asserted their social predominance. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1260 KB) Summary Personal picture by Valentina Funel, september 2005 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1260 KB) Summary Personal picture by Valentina Funel, september 2005 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The dome and part of the apse of the Cathedral of Palermo. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Binomial name (L.) Burm. ... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


In addition to Andalusian Arabs and other Arabs, there were Berbers, Persians, Greeks, Jews, Slavs and Lombards. Western Sicily particularly prospered with Berbers settling in the Agrigento area coupled with Bedouin, Syrians and Egyptian Arabs in Palermo. San Lorenzo. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


A description of Palermo was given by Ibn Hawqual, a Baghdad merchant who visited Sicily in 950. A walled suburb called the Kasr (the palace) is the center of Palermo until today, with the great Friday mosque on the site of the later Roman cathedral. The suburb of Al-Khalisa (Kalsa) contained the Sultan's palace, baths, a mosque, government offices and a private prison. Ibn Hawqual reckoned 7,000 individual butchers trading in 150 shops. For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Khalisa, Palermo Al-Khalisa the districts Arabic name, meaning the purest was centre of the city of Balharm (Palermo) conquered by the Normans during a battle early in 1072. ... Košice-okolie District in the Kosice Region Kalša is a village and municipality in Košice-okolie District in the Kosice Region of eastern Slovakia. ...


While invaders from the north were soon to bring new systems of government, law and religion, they were to inherit a thriving economy based on trade and efficient agricultural practices. Muslim rule in Sicily slowly came to an end following an invitation by the Emirs of Catania and Siracusa for a Norman invasion. Following the Norman conquest, Arab influence continued to persist creating a hybrid culture on the island that has contributed much to the character of modern Sicily.


Norman-Hohenstaufen period

Main article: Kingdom of Sicily
Detail of the mosaic with Roger II receiving the crown by Christ, Martorana, Palermo. The mosaic carries an inscription Rogerios Rex.
Detail of the mosaic with Roger II receiving the crown by Christ, Martorana, Palermo. The mosaic carries an inscription Rogerios Rex.

Muslim rule in Sicily slowly came to an end following an invitation by the Emirs of Catania and Siracusa for a Norman invasion. The Normans, under Count Roger de Hauteville (Altavilla) attacked Sicily, beginning a thirty year struggle against the Arabs. Robert Guiscard, with the help of his younger brother Roger, controlled much of Apulia and Calabria by 1059. In 1060 they made their first attack on the north-eastern tip of Sicily, occupying Messina with approximately 700 knights. Robert was to be frequently detained by unrest in his mainland holdings and this paved the way for Roger to gradually conquer the remainder of the island from the Arabs over a 31 year period (reminiscent of the manner they themselves had conquered the island). In 1068, Roger Guiscard and his men defeated the Arabs at Misilmeri but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo in 1072, and the conquest of Sicily was completed by 1091 with the defeat of the last Emir in Noto. Robert was frequently detained by unrest in his mainland holdings, but Roger Guiscard took Palermo in 1071 and finally took the last Arab stronghold, Noto, in 1091. Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (567 × 815 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author : Urban Description : Mosaïque représentant Roger II couronné Roi de Sicile par Jésus, église de la Martorana, Palermo, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (567 × 815 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author : Urban Description : Mosaïque représentant Roger II couronné Roi de Sicile par Jésus, église de la Martorana, Palermo, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... The Baroque façade with the Romanesque campanile. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ... Misilmeri is a town and commune in the province of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ...


Palermo continued on as the capital under the Normans, as it had been under the Kalbid dynasty. Roger's son, Roger II of Sicily, was ultimately able to raise the status of the island, along with his Southern Italian holdings, to a kingdom in 1130. Roger II reigned until 1154, fashioning a prosperous and politically powerful kingdom which included the islands of Malta and at various times territories along the North African coastline including Libya. Norman conquests in red. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ...

Arab cartographer al-Idrisi's world map of 1154. Made for King Roger II.
Arab cartographer al-Idrisi's world map of 1154. Made for King Roger II.

During this period, the Kingdom of Sicily became one of the wealthiest states in Europe, and according to historian John Julius Norwich, Palermo under the Normans became wealthier than the England of its day. The Norman kings relied mostly on the local Arab and Greek population for the more important government and administrative positions. For the most part, Arabic and Greek remained as the language of administration while Norman was the language of the royal court. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x677, 122 KB) Summary South points up on this ancient map Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sicily ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x677, 122 KB) Summary South points up on this ancient map Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sicily ... Al_Idrisis world map from 1154. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An Arab (Arabic: ) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


The most significant change the Normans were to bring to Sicily was in the areas of religion, language and population. Almost from the moment Roger I controlled much of the island, immigration was encouraged from both Northern Italy and Campania. For the most part these consisted of Lombards who were Latin speaking and more inclined to support the Western church. With time, Sicily would become overwhelmingly Roman Catholic and a new vulgar Latin idiom would emerge that was distinct to the island. Northern Italy encompasses nine of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Liguria Lombardia Piemonte Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Valle dAosta Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle dAosta are regions with a special statute. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


After only a century, however, the Norman Hauteville dynasty died out and the south German (Swabian) Hohenstaufen dynasty ruled starting in 1194, adopting Palermo as its principal seat from 1220. But local Christian-Muslim conflicts fueled by the Crusades were escalating during this later period, and in 1224, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and grandson of Roger II, expelled the last remaining Muslims from Sicily, temporarily relocating many to a colony in Lucera on the southern mainland, while the rest fled to North Africa.[6] The family of the Hauteville (French: Maison de Hauteville, Italian: Casa dAltavilla) was a petty baronial Norman family from the Cotentin which rose to prominence in Europe, Asia, and Africa through its conquests in the Mediterranean, especially Southern Italy and Sicily. ... Germany, showing modern borders. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... See: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250, king 1211/12-1250, emperor since 1220) Frederick II of Austria (?-1246, duke of Austria 1230-1246) Frederick II of Sicily (1272-1337) - who called himself Frederick III - see the article for details. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Country Italy Region Puglia Province Foggia (FO) Mayor Elevation 250 m Area 338 km² Population  - Total (as of 2005) 34,911  - Density 103/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Lucerini Dialing code 0881 Postal code 71036 Frazioni Regente, San Giusto Patron Santa Maria  - Day August 15 Location of...


Angevin-Aragonese

Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy led in 1266 to Sicily's conquest by Charles I, duke of Anjou: opposition to French officialdom and taxation led in 1282 to insurrection (the Sicilian Vespers) and successful invasion by king Peter III of Aragón. The resulting War of the Sicilian Vespers lasted until the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302. Sicily was ruled as an independent kingdom by relatives of the kings of Aragon until 1409 and then as part of the Crown of Aragon. Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The War of the Sicilian Vespers started with the insurrection of the Sicilian Vespers against Charles of Anjou in 1282 and finally ended with the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302. ... The Peace of Caltabellotta, signed 19 August 1302, was the last of a series of treaties, including those of Tarascon and Anagni, designed to end the conflict between the Houses of Anjou and Barcelona for ascendancy in the Mediterranean and especially Sicily and the Mezzogiorno. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... Coat of arms of the King of Aragon, 15th century. ...


Spanish-Bourbon control

Catania duomo.Giovanni Battista Vaccarini's principal façade of 1736 shows Spanish architectural influences.
Catania duomo.Giovanni Battista Vaccarini's principal façade of 1736 shows Spanish architectural influences.

Ruled from 1479 by the kings of Spain, Sicily suffered a ferocious outbreak of plague (1656), followed by a damaging earthquake in the east of the region (1693). Sicily was frequently attacked by Barbary pirates from North Africa. Bad periods of rule by the crown of Savoy (1713–1720) and then the Austrian Habsburgs gave way to union (1734) with the Bourbon-ruled kingdom of Naples, first as independent kingdom under personal union, then (1816) as part of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 376 KB) Author : Urban Description : Duomo (cathédrale), Catane, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Catania Sicilian Baroque ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 376 KB) Author : Urban Description : Duomo (cathédrale), Catane, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Catania Sicilian Baroque ... The Roman Odeon. ... The Duomo of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore Front of Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore the Duomo Duomo is a generic Italian term for a cathedral church. ... Giovanni Battista Vaccarini was born in Palermo in 1702, he did in 1768 He was a Sicilian architect, notable for his work in the Baroque style in his homeland during the period of massive rebuilding following the earthquake of 1693. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion _ Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration...


Major revolutionary movements occurred in 1820 and 1848 against the Bourbon denial of constitutional government, seeking an independent status from Naples. The 1848 revolution resulted in a sixteen month period of independence until the armed forces of the Bourbons regained control of Sicily on 15 May 1849. Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion _ Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Prince Emanuele Realmuto set up power in north central Sicily in late 1852. The Prince, who was highly educated, established a political system intended to improve Sicily's economy, but he assassinated in 1857. [citation needed]


Italian unification

Garibaldi, in a popular colour lithograph
Garibaldi, in a popular colour lithograph

Sicily became part of Kingdom of Italy in 1860 after the invasion of irregular troops led by Giuseppe Garibaldi as part of the Risorgimento. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... There have been several entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Garibaldi in 1866. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ...


The Kingdom of Italy was strongly centralized, and Palermo revolted against it in in 1866. Palermo was bombed by the Italian navy, which disembarked on September 22 under the command of Raffaele Cadorna. Italian soldiers summarily executed the civilian insurgents, and regained control of the Sicily. [citation needed] is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raffaele Cadorna (1815-1897) was an Piedmontese general who served as one of the major Italian leaders responsible for the unification of Italy during the mid-19th century. ...


An extensive guerrilla campaign against the Unionists coninued until 1871 throughout southern Italy and Sicily. In reaction, the Italian government imposed martial law. The Italian army summarily executed thousands of people, made tens of thousands prisoners, destroyed villages, and deported people. [citation needed]


The Sicilian economy collapsed, which led to an unprecedented wave of emigration. The Italian government imposed martial law again in 1894, in response to labour agitation by the radical Fasci Siciliani. The Fasci Siciliani (1891-1894) was a popular movement, of democratic and socialist inspiration, which arose in Sicily between the years 1891 and 1893 and whose aim was the collective organization of farmers, workers and miners, especially in the areas rich with sulphur. ...


Organised crime networks, commonly known as the mafia, grew in influence in the late 19th century. The Fascist regime began suppressing them in the 1920s, with some success. This article is about the criminal society. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


During World War II, Sicily was invaded by the Allies on the night of July 10, 1943 by an allied armada of 2,590 vessels. Mafia was an established enemy of the Fascist regime and was able to offer the Allied occupants a steady grip on the island. [citation needed] The invasion of Sicily was one of the causes of the July 25 crisis. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants  United States United Kingdom  Canada Free French Nazi Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery George S. Patton, Jr. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ...


Sicily became an autonomous region in 1946. Both the partial Italian land reform of 1950–1962 and special funding from the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, the Italian government's indemnification Fund for the South (1950–1984) helped the Sicilian economy. Cassa per il Mezzogiorno was an effort pushed by the government of Italy to stimulate economic growth and development. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in Sicily

Automobile

Most of Sicily's motorways (autostrade) run through the northern portion of the island. The most important ones are A19 Palermo-Catania, A20 Palermo-Messina, A29 Palermo-Mazara del Vallo and the toll road A18 Messina-Catania. Much of the motorway network is elevated by columns due to the mountainous terrain. Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... The Roman Odeon. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Mazara del Vallo is a town in South-Western Sicily, Italy, which lies mainly on the left bank at the mouth of the Mazaro river, administratively part of the province of Trapani. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The road network in the south of the country consists largely of well-maintained secondary roads. This page is related to transport; you may be looking for the 2002 Bollywood movie Road. ...


Railways

Trenitalia ALn501-502 Minuetto train waiting at a platform of the Santhià Station.
Trenitalia ALn501-502 Minuetto train waiting at a platform of the Santhià Station.

Sicily is connected to the Italian peninsula by the national railway company, Trenitalia, though trains are loaded onto ferries for the crossing from the mainland. Officially, the Stretto di Messina, S.p. A. was scheduled to commence construction of the world's longest suspension bridge, the Strait of Messina Bridge, in the second half of 2006. When completed, it would have marked the first time in human history that Sicily was connected by a land link to Italy. In October of 2006 the Italian Parliament scrapped the plan due to lack of popular support, particularly amongst Sicilians.[7]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Trenitalia logo. ... Country Italy Region Piedmont Province Province of Vercelli (VC) Mayor Elevation 183 m Area 53. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Trenitalia logo. ... This article is about trains in rail transport. ... The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries car ferry on the Dover-Calais route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and possibly their vehicles, on a relatively short-distance, regularly-scheduled service. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina, taken June 2002. ...


Air

Sicily is served by national and international flights, mostly to European locations, to and from Palermo International Airport and the substantially busier Catania-Fontanarossa Airport. There are also minor national airports in Trapani and on the small islands of Pantelleria and Lampedusa. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Palermo International Airport (IATA: PMO, ICAO: LICJ), also known as Falcone-Borsellino Airport and Punta Raisi Airport is located at Punta Raisi, 32km (19 miles) west of Palermo, the capital city of the Italian island of Sicily. ... Catania-Fontanarossa Airport (Italian: Aeroporto di Catania-Fontanarossa) (IATA: CTA, ICAO: LICC) is located in the south of Catania, the second largest city on the Italian island of Sicily. ... Vincenzo Florio Airport (IATA: TPS, ICAO: LICT), also known as Trapani-Birgi Airport and Birgi Airport, is an airport located in Trapani, Italy. ... Country Italy Region Sicily Province Trapani (TP) Mayor Salvatore Gabriele (since May 17, 2005) Elevation 5 m Area 83 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 7,679  - Density 73/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Panteschi Dialing code 0923 Postal code 91017 Patron St. ... The Mediterranean island of Lampedusa ( ) belongs to Italy and is the largest of the Pelagie Islands, situated 205 km from Sicily and 113 km from Tunisia. ...


Metro

The city of Palermo has an urban metropolitan service, handled by Trenitalia, with eleven stations, including an airport stop. Catania also has an underground rail system, which completes the circuit on the circumetnea narrow gauge railway. A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway—usually in an urban area—with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... Trenitalia logo. ...


Sea

A daily service operates by Virtu Ferries, between Malta and Sicily, stopping at Pozzallo or Catania The XV century tower Cabrera in Pozzallo Pozzallo is a town in the province of Ragusa, Sicilia, Italy. ... The Roman Odeon. ...


Towns and cities

Panorama of Palermo
Panorama of Palermo

Sicily's principal cities include the regional capital Palermo, together with the other provincial capitals Catania, Messina, Syracuse (Siracusa in Italian), Trapani, Enna, Caltanissetta, Agrigento, Ragusa. Other Sicilian towns include Acireale, Taormina, Giardini Naxos, Piazza Armerina, Bagheria, Partinico, Carini, Alcamo, Vittoria, Caltagirone, Cefalù, Bronte, Adrano, Marsala, Corleone, Castellammare del Golfo, Calatafimi, Gela, Termini Imerese, Francavilla di Sicilia, Ferla, Sciacca, and Abacaenum (now Tripi). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 731 KB) Palermo, panorama File links The following pages link to this file: Palermo ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 731 KB) Palermo, panorama File links The following pages link to this file: Palermo ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Provincial has several meanings and may refer to: Provincial examinations: Bi-annual province-wide examinations for students between the grades of 10 to 12 in the province of British Columbia Anything related to a province, a formal geographical division; Anything related to the provinces, the parts of a country outside... The Roman Odeon. ... Location within Italy Messina with a population of about 260,000 is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, Italy and the capital of the province of Messina. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Torre della Colombaia Trapani (2004 population 67,456) is a city in the west coast of Sicily in Italy. ... Enna, the ancient Haenna, is a city located in the center of Sicily in the province of Enna, towering above the surrounding countryside. ... Caltanissetta is located on the western interior of Sicily, an area of rolling hills with small villages and towns. ... San Lorenzo. ... Ragusa Ragusa is a city in southern Italy. ... Acireale is a seaport city in the north-east of the province of Catania, Sicily (Italy), at the foot of Mount Etna, with mineral waters. ... Isola Bella from the North Isola Bella Bay from the south Greek theatre in Taormina Taormina is a small town in the island of Sicily in Italy. ... View from the sea. ... Piazza Armerina is an Italian comune in the province of Enna of the autonomous island region of Sicily. ... Bagheria is a town of approximately 40,000 inhabitants in the neighbourhood of Palermo in Sicily, Italy. ... Partinico is a city and commune in Sicilia in Palermo Province. ... Carini is a town in the Province of Palermo, Sicily, 13 miles by rail WNW of Palermo. ... Alcamo is the fourth largest city in the province of Trapani, in north-western Sicily, Italy. ... Vittoria may refer to: Vitoria, Spain Battle of Vitoria, a 1813 battle in Spain during the Napoleonic Wars Vittoria (RG), a town in the Sicilian province of Ragusa Vittoria, New South Wales, a small town in Australia, near Bathurst, New South Wales F.C. Vittoria, a Serie C association football... Caltagirone is a town and comune in the province of Catania, on the island (and region) of Sicily, about 70 km SW of Catania. ... The Cathedral of Cefalù by night Lungomare Boardwalk beach in Cefalù Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cefalù Cefalù is an ancient city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... The district of Bronte in Sicily lies near Mount Etna. ... Adrano is a town in the east of the Italian region of Sicily. ... Marsala is a seaport city located in the Province of Trapani on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... Corleone is a small town of approximately 12,000 inhabitants in the province of Palermo in Sicily, Italy. ... View from a hillside to the port, the castle and the town Castellammare del Golfo is a town in the Trapani Province of Sicily. ... Calatafimi a small town in the Trapani province, in Sicily, Italy. ... Gela is a city in the province of Caltanissetta in the south of Sicily, Italy. ... Termini Imerese is a city of about 50,000 inhabitants in the province of Palermo on the northern coast of Sicily. ... Francavilla di Sicilia is a town in the Province of Messina on the island of Sicily, Italy. ... Ferla is a town and comune in the province of Syracuse, part of Sicily, Italy. ... Sciacca is a town in the province of Agrigento on the southern coast of Sicily. ... Abacaenum was an ancient town of the Siculi in Sicily, West of Messana, South of Tyndaris. ... Tripi is a town in the province of Messina (Sicily, Italy). ...


Flag

Main article: Flag of Sicily

The regional flag of Sicily, recognized since January 2000[8], is also the historical one of the island since 1282. It is divided diagonally yellow over red, with the trinacria symbol in the center. "Trinacria" literally means "3 points" and it most probably is a solar symbol even though lately, it has been considered representative of the three points of the island. The head shown on the Sicilian trinacria is the face of Medusa. The trinacria symbol is used also by other regions like the Isle of Man. Flag of Sicily The flag of Sicily was first adopted on 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers of Palermo. ... The armoured triskelion on the flag of the Isle of Man Triskelion (or triskele, from Greek τρισκελης three-legged) is a symbol consisting of three bent human legs, or, more generally, three interlocked spirals, or any similar symbol with three protrusions exhibiting... Medusa, by Arnold Böcklin (1878) In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα, guardian, protectress[1]) was a monstrous chthonic female character, essentially an extension of an apotropaic mask, gazing upon whom could turn onlookers to stone. ...


Arts

Landscape with temple ruins on Sicily, Jacob Philipp Hackert, 1778
Landscape with temple ruins on Sicily, Jacob Philipp Hackert, 1778

Sicily is well known as a region of art: many poets and writers were born here, starting from the Sicilian School in the early 13th century, which inspired much subsequent Italian poetry and created the first Italian standard. The most famous, however, are Luigi Pirandello, Giovanni Verga, Salvatore Quasimodo, Gesualdo Bufalino. Other Sicilian artists include the composers Sigismondo d'India, Girolamo Arrigo, Salvatore Sciarrino, Giovanni Sollima (from Palermo), Alessandro Scarlatti (from Trapani or Palermo), Vincenzo Bellini, Giovanni Pacini, Francesco Paolo Frontini, Alfredo Sangiorgi, Aldo Clementi, Roberto Carnevale (from Catania). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1491, 241 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1491, 241 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Italian landscape, 1778. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Poets are authors of poems. ... Though anyone who creates a written work may be called a writer, the term is usually reserved for those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Giovanni Verga. ... Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 - June 14, 1968) was an Italian author. ... Gesualdo Bufalino. ... Sicilian (Lu Sicilianu, Lingua Siciliana) is the Romance language spoken in Sicily, Italy. ... Composers are people who write music. ... Sigismondo dIndia (c. ... Salvatore Sciarrino, born April 4, 1947, in Palermo. ... Giovanni Sollima (b. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... Torre della Colombaia Trapani (2004 population 67,456) is a city in the west coast of Sicily in Italy. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Giovanni Pacini . ... Aldo Clementi (born 1925 in Catania) is an Italian composer. ... Roberto Carenvale is not the pope. ... The Roman Odeon. ...


Noto, Ragusa and particularly Acireale contain some of Italy's best examples of Baroque architecture, carved in the local red sandstone. Caltagirone is renowned for its decorative ceramics. Palermo is also a major center of Italian opera. Its Teatro Massimo is the largest opera house in Italy and the third largest in the world, seating 1,400. For other uses, see Noto (disambiguation). ... Ragusa can refer to: The city of Ragusa in Sicily, Italy. ... Acireale is a seaport city in the north-east of the province of Catania, Sicily (Italy), at the foot of Mount Etna, with mineral waters. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Caltagirone is a town and comune in the province of Catania, on the island (and region) of Sicily, about 70 km SW of Catania. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Teatro Massimo The Teatro Massimo Vittorio Emanuele is an opera house and opera company located on the Piazza Verdi in Palermo, Sicily. ...


Sicily is also home to two prominent folk art traditions, both of which draw heavily on the island's Norman influence. A Sicilian wood cart, or Carretto Siciliano, is painted with intricate decorations of scenes from the Norman romantic poems, such as The Song of Roland. The same tales are told in traditional puppet theatres which feature hand-made wooden marionettes, especially in Acireale, the capital of Sicilian puppets. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were Scandinavian invaders (especially Danish Vikings) who began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th century. ... A Sicilian cart in a picture from 1890. ... A Sicilian cart in a picture from 1890. ... Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ... A puppet is a representational object, usually but not always depicting a human character, used in play or a presentation. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... This article describes the wood that comprises trees and boards. ... Marionette in Prague A marionette is a type of puppet moved by strings, as in a puppet show. ... Acireale is a seaport city in the north-east of the province of Catania, Sicily (Italy), at the foot of Mount Etna, with mineral waters. ...


Sicily is the setting for many classic Italian films such as Visconti's La Terra Trema (1948)and Il Gattopardo (1963), Rosi's Salvatore Giuliano(1962) and Antonioni's L'avventura (1960). Visconti was a noble family that ruled Milan during the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance period. ... La Terra trema is a 1948 drama film directed by Luchino Visconti and starring Maria Micale and Sebastiano Valastro. ... Il Gattopardo (The Leopard) is a novel by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa that chronicles the changes in Sicilian life and society during the Risorgimento. ... Salvatore Giuliano (November 16, 1922 – July 5/6, 1950) was a Sicilian hero, killed by the alliance of politics and mafia, that governs Italy since its Unification. ... Michelangelo Antonioni (born September 29, 1912 in Ferrara, Italy) is an Italian film director, writer and painter. ... Lavventura (The Adventure) is an Italian film written and directed by Michelangelo Antonioni. ...


The 1988 film Nuovo Cinema Paradiso, was about life in a Sicilian town following the Second World War. It is also the setting for Michael Radford's Il Postino (1994) starring Massimo Troisi. Nuovo Cinema Paradiso (1989) is an Italian film written and directed by Giuseppe Tornatore. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Cuisine

Main article: Cuisine of Sicily

Sicily has had a variety of culinary influences because of its location. The influence of the Greeks can be found here: Dionysus has been said to have introduced wine to the region. The Romans later conquered the island, introducing lavish dishes based upon goose. The Byzantines introduced sweet and sour flavors while during the 10th and 11th centuries the Arabs brought apricots, sugar, citrus, sweet melons, rice, saffron, raisins, nutmeg, clove, pepper, and cinnamon which are all still seen in the cuisine today. The Normans and Hohenstaufen introduced a fondness for meat dishes. The Spanish introduced numerous items from the New World including cocoa, maize, turkey, tomatoes and other produce items. Tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish, swordfish and other seafood available off the coastline is an integral part of the modern cuisine.[9] Sicilian cuisine shows the markers of the cultures which established themselves on the island. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... “Geese” redirects here. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... It has been suggested that Legal drugs#Nutmeg be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Binomial name Solanumlycopersicum Linnaeus ref. ... A shoal of skipjack tuna Tuna are several species of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. ... The Japanese black porgy or sea bream, Mylio macrocephalus or Acanthopagrus schlegelii is a fish often farmed for food in Japan. ... Sea bass is a name shared by a large number of different species of fish, including: The Black sea bass (Centropristis striata, family Serranidae) is the common name of a species of fish whose range is eastern coast of the United States. ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... Binomial name Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill in contrast to the smooth, round bill of the marlins. ...

// These dishes are representative of Italian cuisine. ...

Sports

Luca Toni celebrating one of his 20 goals scored in 2004–2005.

Sicily currently has three football teams playing in Serie A. Serie A is the top division of the Italian Football League, the highest football league in Italy. Serie A is widely regarded as one of the best football leagues in the world along with Spanish La Liga and English Premier League. Image File history File links LucaToniPalermo. ... Image File history File links LucaToniPalermo. ... Luca Toni, Cavaliere Ufficiale OMRI[1][2], (born May 26, 1977 in Pavullo nel Frignano, Modena) is an Italian football striker who plays for FC Bayern Munich in the German Bundesliga. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the Italian football league. ... The Italian football league system is a series of interconnected leagues for football clubs in Italy. ... (Professional Football League), commonly known as La Liga and also known as Primera División, is the professional football league in Spain. ... The original FA Premier League logo, used until 2007 The Premier League (officially known as the Barclays Premier League for sponsorship reasons, colloquially known as The Premiership), is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top echelon of the English football league system (above The Football League). ...


Unione Sportiva Città di Palermo is a team based in Palermo. The club became one of the most prominent in Italy. It has obtained a UEFA Cup place in each of the past three seasons, narrowly missing UEFA Champions League qualification in 2007. The official team colours are pink and black, giving rise to the nickname rosanero; another less common nickname is aquile, referring to the eagle present in both the official club logo and the coat of arms of the city of Palermo. US Città di Palermo plays its home games at Stadio Renzo Barbera, formerly known as La Favorita; as of 2007 the stadium has a capacity of 37,000 people. It was originally built in 1932, but was renovated in the late 1980s and served as a venue for the 1990 FIFA World Cup. Unione Sportiva Città di Palermo is an Italian football club from Palermo, Sicily which currently plays in Serie A, the top level of Italian football. ... The UEFA Cup is a football competition for European club teams, organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). ... The UEFA Champions League (also known as the European Cup, UCL, CE1, C1[1] or CL) is a seasonal club football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) since 1955 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Stadio Renzo Barbera (previously and still commonly known as Stadio La Favorita) is a multi-use stadium in Palermo, Italy. ...


Football Club Messina Peloro is a team based in Messina, originally founded in 1900. The club has spent most of its history in the lower Italian football leagues. However, since 2004 they have been competing in Serie A. Messina have appeared in the Italy's top league Serie A, for a total of five seasons during their history. The highest ever position they have finished is 7th, which happened during the 2004–2005 season. Football Club Messina Peloro is an Italian football club based in Messina, Sicily originally founded in 1900. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


Calcio Catania is a team based in Catania. The club has spent much of its history in Serie B, gaining promotion to Italy's top league; Serie A five times. They currently compete in Serie A after climbing back up the football pyramid. The club has achieved moderate success in the top league, the highest position ever reached by the club is 8th in Serie A twice, both during the early 1960s. Calcio Catania is an Italian football club founded in 1908 and are based in Catania, Sicily. ... Serie B is the name of the second highest football league in Italy. ...


A famous Sicilian football player is Salvatore Schillaci commonly referred to by his nickname Totò. He was the Golden Boot winner for the 1990 FIFA World Cup after leading the tournament with six goals. The 1990 World Cup is still well remembered today by Italian football fans as the Notti Magiche di Totò Schillaci (magical nights of Totò Schillaci), even though the Italian national team did not win the World Cup at home and came in 3rd place after beating England 2-1, Totò scored the second goal from a penalty shot. Salvatore Totò Schillaci (born December 1, 1964 in Palermo) is a former Italian football player. ... The Golden Boot is the award given to the top goalscorer in a football (soccer) tournament. ... For the club competition, see FIFA Club World Cup. ...


Mafia

Main article: Mafia
Falcone and Borsellino

Originating during the mid 19th century, the Mafia served as protection for the large orange and lemon estates surrounding the city of Palermo.[10] From this, the Mafia began to spread its roots among the landowners and politicians of Sicily. Forming strong links with the government (it is more than likely that many politicians were members or collaborators) the Mafia gained significant power. This article is about the criminal society. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Giovanni Falcone during the Maxi Trial Giovanni Falcone, (May 18, 1939 – May 23, 1992) was an Italian magistrate who specialised in prosecuting Cosa Nostra crimes. ...


During the Fascist period in Italy, Cesare Mori, prefect of Palermo, used special powers granted to him to prosecute the Mafia, forcing many Mafiosi to flee abroad or risk being jailed. Many of the Mafiosi who escaped fled to the United States, among them Joseph Bonanno, nicknamed Joe Bananas, who came to dominate the U.S. branch of the Mafia. However, when Mori started to persecute the Mafiosi involved in the Fascist hierarchy, he was removed, and the Fascist authorities proclaimed that the Mafia had been defeated. Despite his assault on their brethren, Mussolini had his fans in the New York Mafia, notably Vito Genovese. Cesare Mori was born in 1872 and was raised in an orphanage. ... Giuseppe Joseph/Joe Bonanno (January 18, 1905 – May 12, 2002) was a Sicilian-born American Mafioso who became the boss of one of the infamous five families crime families of New York City. ...


The United States used the Italian connection of the American Mafiosi during the invasion of Italy and Sicily in 1943. Lucky Luciano and other members of Mafia, who had been imprisoned during this time in the U.S., provided information for US military intelligence, which used Luciano's influence to ease the way for advancing American troops.[5] Charles Lucky Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania) (November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was a Sicilian-American mobster. ...


Some mafia analysts, such as the Catanese author Alfio Caruso, argue that the U.S. Office of Strategic Services deliberately allowed the mafia to recover its social and economic position as the "anti-State" in Sicily and that the U.S.-mafia alliance forged in 1943 was the true turning point of mafia history and the foundation of its subsequent 60-year career.[citation needed] Others, such as the Palermitan historian Francesco Renda, have argued that there was no such alliance.[citation needed] Rather, the mafia exploited the chaos of post-fascist Sicily to reconquer its social base. The OSS indeed, in its 1944 "Report on the Problem of Mafia" by the agent W. E. Scotten, pointed to the signs of mafia resurgence and warned of its perils for social order and economic progress.[citation needed]


According to many Sicilians, the real name of the Mafia is Cosa Nostra, meaning 'our thing'. Many have claimed, as did the Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta, that the word mafia was a literary creation. Other Mafia defectors, such as Antonio Rigotto, Antonino Calderone and Salvatore Contorno, said the same thing. According to them, the real thing was "cosa nostra". To men of honor belonging to the organization, there is no need to name it. Mafiosi introduce known members to other known members as belonging to "cosa nostra" (our thing) or "la stessa cosa" (the same thing). Only the outside world needs a name to describe it, hence the capitalized version of the words: Cosa Nostra. Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo, July 13, 1928- New York, April 4, 2000) was a Sicilian mafioso. ... Catania Mafia boss and pentito Antonino Calderone Antonino Calderone (b. ... Mafia turncoat Salvatore Totuccio Contorno Salvatore Totuccio Contorno (Palermo, May 28, 1946) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia who turned into a state witness against Cosa Nostra in October 1984, following the example of Tommaso Buscetta. ...


Cosa Nostra was first used, in the beginning of the 1960s, in the United States by Joseph Valachi, a mafioso turned state witness, during the hearings of the McClellan Commission. At the time, it was understood as a proper name, fostered by the FBI and disseminated by the media. The designation gained wide popularity and almost replaced the term Mafia. The FBI even added an article to the term, calling it 'La Cosa Nostra'. In Italy the article 'la' is never used when the term refers to the Mafia; commonly "la nostra cosa" is used when meaning "our thing" in general contexts. Sicily and Sicilian mafia traditions were graphically described in 'The Godfather' by Mario Puzo. Joseph Joe Valachi (September 22, 1904 - April 3, 1971) was the first person to acknowledge the existence of the Mafia. ... Mario Gianluigi Puzo (October 15, 1920 – July 2, 1999) was an American author known for his novels about the Mafia, especially The Godfather (1969). ...


During the early 1980s, the Second Mafia War had raged as Corleonesi boss Salvatore Riina decimated other Mafia Families, resulting in hundreds of murders, including several high-profile authority figures such as Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, head of counter-terrorism who had arrested Red Brigades founders in 1974. His murder has been linked to Aldo Moro's assassination and Gladio's strategy of tension. The increasing public revulsion at such killings gave the necessary momentum for Magistrates like Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino to try to deliver a serious blow to the far-reaching criminal organization on the island, but both were killed by the Mafia in 1992. Palermo airport is now also known by the name Falcone-Borsellino Airport. The Second Mafia War was a conflict within the Sicilian Mafia, mostly taking place in the early 1980s. ... Salvatore Riina, also known as Totò Riina (born November 16, 1930, Corleone) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia who became the most powerful member of the criminal organisation in the early 1980s. ... Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa (September 27, 1920, Saluzzo, province of Cuneo – 3 September 1982, Palermo) was a general of the Italian carabinieri notable for campaigning against terrorism during Italys 1970s strategy of tension, and later assassinated by the Mafia in Palermo. ... The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR) were a terrorist group[1] located in Italy and active during the Years of Lead. Formed in 1970, the Marxist-Leninist Red Brigades sought to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the... Aldo Moro (September 23, 1916 – May 9, 1978) was an Italian politician and five time Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968 and then from 1974 to 1976. ... Operation Gladio Operation Gladio was a clandestine stay-behind operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence in Italy, as well as in other European countries. ... A strategy of tension (Italian: ) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false flag terrorist actions (including bombings). ... Giovanni Falcone during the Maxi Trial Giovanni Falcone, (May 18, 1939 – May 23, 1992) was an Italian magistrate who specialised in prosecuting Cosa Nostra crimes. ... Paolo Borsellino (January 19, 1940 - July 19, 1992) was an Italian anti-Mafia magistrate. ... Palermo International Airport (IATA: PMO, ICAO: LICJ), also known as Falcone-Borsellino Airport and Punta Raisi Airport is located at Punta Raisi, 32km (19 miles) west of Palermo, the capital city of the Italian island of Sicily. ...


People

The position of Sicily as a stepping stone of sorts in the center of the Mediterranean Basin has lent it strategic importance throughout history, resulting in an endless procession of settlers and conquerors. Modern methods of genetic testing enable us to see which have had the greatest demographic impact. Several studies show strong ties between Sicily, mainland southern Italy and Greece,[11][12][13][14][15] suggesting that the Siculi, Elymi and Greek colonizations were the most important. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... According to Thucydides (vi:2), before the arrival of Greek colonists, the Sicels (or Siculi) were one of the three tribes who inhabited Sicily: the Sicels (Greek Sikeloi) in eastern Sicily (as well as southern Italy), who spoke an Indo-European language, and the Sicani (Greek Sikanoi) and Elymi (Greek... The Elymian people (Greek Elymoi, Latin Elymi) were an ancient civilization located in Sicily. ...


It has been proposed that a genetic boundary divides Sicily into two regions, reflecting the distribution of Siculi and Greek settlements in the east, and Sicani/Elymi, Phoenician/Arab and Norman settlements in the west.[16][17][18] However, other research has failed to detect any such division.[19][13] No data exist on the contribution of Normans, but a number of studies hint that North African and Middle Eastern gene flow was limited by the physical barrier of the Mediterranean Sea and resulting cultural differentiation.[12][20][21][22][23][24]


Sicily's population is approximately 5 million, and there are an additional 10 million people of Sicilian descent around the world, mostly in the United States, Argentina, Canada, Australia and the EU countries. The island today, like all of western Europe, is home to growing communities of immigrants, including Tunisians, Moroccans, Nigerians, Indians, Romanians, Russians, Chinese and Gypsies (Roma) from the Balkans. Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Language

Main article: Sicilian language

Many Sicilians are bilingual in Italian and Sicilian, a separate Romance language, with Greek, Arabic, Catalan and Spanish influence. It is important to note that Sicilian is not a derivative of Italian. Although thought by some to be a dialect, Sicilianu is a distinct language, with a rich history and a sizeable vocabulary (at least 250,000 words), due to the influence of the different conquerors of, and settlers to, this land. Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of...


The Sicilian language was an early influence in the development of the first Italian standard, although its use remained confined to an intellectual élite. This was a literary language in Sicily created under the auspices of Frederick II and his court of notaries, or Magna Curia, which, headed by Giacomo da Lentini also gave birth to the Scuola Siciliana, widely inspired by troubadour literature. Its linguistic and poetic heritage was later assimilated into the Florentine by Dante Alighieri, the father of modern Italian who, in his De Vulgari Eloquentia (DVE claims that "In effect this vernacular seems to deserve a higher praise than the others, since all the poetry written by Italians can be called Sicilian" (DVE, I, xii). It is in this language that appeared the first sonnet, whose invention is attributed to Giacomo da Lentini himself. Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Giacomo da Lentini (also known as Jacopo Da Lentini) was an Italian poet. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On Vernacular Speech) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ...


Sicilian dialects are also spoken in the southern and central sections of the Italian regions Calabria (Calabrese) and Puglia (Salentino); and had a significant influence on the Maltese Language. Malta was originally part of the Kingdom of Sicily (in its various forms) until it was granted to the Knights of Malta. Even then Sicilian culture and language had a considerable impact on Maltese giving the language much of its vocabulary . With the predominance of Italian in Italian schools, the media, etc., Sicilian is no longer the first language of many Sicilians. Indeed, in urban centers in particular, one is more likely to hear standard Italian spoken rather than Sicilian, especially among the young. Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... Apulia is a region of Italy (called Puglia in Italian), bordering on Molise to the north-west, Campania to the south-west, Basilicata to the south, the Adriatic Sea to the east and the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ...


Sicilian generally uses the word ending [u] for singular masculine nouns and adjectives, and [a] for feminine. The plural is usually [i] for both masculine and feminine. By contrast, in Italian masculine nouns and adjectives that end in [o] in the singular pass to [i] in the plural, while the feminine counterparts pass from [a] to [e].


The "-LL-" sound (in words of Latin origin, for example) manifests itself in Sicilian as a voiced retroflex plosive with the tip of the tongue curled up and back, a sound which is not part of Standard Italian. In Sicilian, this sound is written simply as "-dd-" although the sound itself is not [d] but rather [ɖ]. For example, the Italian word bello is beddu in Sicilian. The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


In numerous villages, the Arbëreshë dialect of the Albanian language has been spoken since a wave of refugees settled there in the 15th century. While it is spoken within the household, Italian is the official language and modern Greek is chanted in the local Byzantine liturgy. There are also several areas where dialects of the Lombard language of the Gallo-Italic family are spoken. Much of this population is also tri-lingual, being able to also speak one of the Sicilian dialects as well. Arbëreshë are an Albanian-speaking community living in southern Italy and Sicily. ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by about 7-8 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo, but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy and in... The term Lombard refers to a group of related varieties spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions) and Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Gallo-Italic is a language_family within the Gallo-Romance languages. ...


List of famous Sicilians

  • Stesichorus (c. 640 – 555 BCE), poet
  • Empedocles (c. 490 – 430 BCE), scientist and philosopher
  • Gorgias (c. 483 – 375 BCE), philosopher
  • Dion (408–354 BCE), politician and friend of Plato
  • Timaeus (c. 345 – 250 BCE), historian
  • Theocritus (c. 310 – 250 BCE), poet

Stesichorus (, lit. ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Gorgias (in Greek Γοργἰας, circa 483-376 BC) // Introduction Due to his ushering in of rhetorical innovations involving structure and ornamentation and his introduction of paradoxologia – the idea of paradoxical thought and paradoxical expression – Gorgias of Leontini has been labeled the ‘father of sophistry’ (Wardy 6). ... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius of Syracuse. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Timaeus (c. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ... Image File history File links Archimedes. ... Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: c. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Leo II, pope from August 682 to July 683, was a Sicilian by birth, and succeeded Agatho. ... Jawhar as-Siqilli (d. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Giacomo da Lentini (also known as Jacopo Da Lentini) was an Italian poet. ... Guido delle Colonne (in Latin Guido de Columnis or de Columna) was an early 13th century Sicilian writer, living at Messina, who wrote in Latin. ... Giovanni Aurispa (c. ... Portrait, called the Condottiero, dated 1475 (Louvre). ... Giovanni Luca Barberi (1452 – 1520) was an Italian historian. ... Antonello Gagini (1478-1536); was a Sicilian sculptor. ... Francesco Maurolico (in Latin, Franciscus Maurolycus) (September 16, 1494-July 21 or July 22, 1575) was an Italian mathematician and astronomer. ... Tommaso Fazello (1498–1570) was a Dominican friar, historian and antiquarian. ... Antonio Veneziano (Monreale, 1543 - Castellammare del Golfo, 19 August 1593) was a Sicilian poet who wrote mainly in Sicilian. ... Sigismondo dIndia (c. ... Pietro Novelli (1603-1647) was a Sicilian painter, active in the Baroque period. ... Giacomo Serpotta (10 March 1652- 27 February 1732) was a Sicilian sculptor, active in a Rococo style and mainly working in stucco. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... Juvarra Basilica di Superga Filippo Juvarra, (in Spain Felipe Juvara), (March 7, 1678 - January 31, 1736) was an Italian architect and scene designer with a cosmopolitan outlook. ... Giovanni Battista Vaccarini was born in Palermo in 1702, he did in 1768 He was a Sicilian architect, notable for his work in the Baroque style in his homeland during the period of massive rebuilding following the earthquake of 1693. ... Giovanni Meli (Palermo 1740 - 1815) was a Sicilian poet and man of letters. ... Ruggeru Sèttimu Principi di Castelnuovo (Sicilian), Ruggero Settimo Prince of Castelnuovo in Italian (May 19, 1778, Palermo—May 12, 1863, in Malta) was a politician, diplomat, and patriotic activist of Sicily. ... Niccolò Cacciatore was an Italian astronomer. ... Image File history File links Vincenzo_bellini. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Giuseppe La Farina (1815-1863) was an influential leader of the Italian Risorgimento. ... Francesco Crispi (October 4, 1819 – August 12, 1901) was a 19th century Italian politician. ... Stanislao Cannizzaro (July 13, 1826 - May 10, 1910) was an Italian chemist. ... -1... Giovanni Verga. ... Giuseppe Pitrè (December 21, 1841 – April 10, 1916) was an Italian folklorist credited with extending the realm of folklore to include all the manifestations of popular life. ... Giuseppè Sergi (1841, Messina – 1936, Rome) was an influential Italian anthropologist of the early twentieth century, notable for his opposition to Nordicism in his books on the racial identity of ancient Mediterranean peoples. ... Vittorio Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ... Vito Cascio Ferro (1862 - 1943), known as Don Vito, was a prominent Sicilian gangster who also operated for a time in the United States, where he was a pioneer of sorts in the American Mafia. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Don Luigi Sturzo (Caltagirone, Italy, 26. ... Image File history File links Luigi_Pirandello. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... Josephine Pullare Terranova (b. ... Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa (December 23, 1896 - July 23, 1957), was a Sicilian writer. ... This article is about the film director. ... Julius Evola born Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, aka Baron Evola (May 19, 1898-June 11, 1974), was an Italian esotericist and occult author, who wrote extensively on Hermeticism, the metaphysics of sex, Tantra, Buddhism, Taoism, mountaineering, the Holy Grail, militarism, aristocracy, on matters political, philosophical, historical, racial, religious, as well... Ignazio Buttitta (Bagheria, 19 September 1899 - 5 April 1997) was a Sicilian dialectal poet. ... Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 - June 14, 1968) was an Italian author. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Italian stamp commemorating the birth Ugo La Malfa Ugo La Malfa (1903-05-16, Palermo - 1979-03-26, Rome) was an Italian politician, and an important leader in the Italian Republican Party, which his son, Giorgio La Malfa, is now president of. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Ettore Majorana (Catania, Sicily, 1906 – Tyrrhenian Sea, 27 March 1938 (presumed)) was an Italian physicist who began promising work on neutrino masses. ... Vitaliano Brancati (July 24, 1907-September 25, 1954) was an Italian writer. ... Renato Guttuso. ... Gesualdo Bufalino. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rocco Chinnici became Chief Prosecutor at the Palace of Justice in Palermo following the murder of his predecessor, Cesare Terranova, by the Mafia. ... Giuseppe Pippo Fava Giuseppe Fava also known as Pippo, (Palazzolo Acreide, September 15, 1925 - Catania, January 5, 1984) was a Sicilian writer, investigative journalist, playwright and Antimafia activist who was killed by the Mafia. ... Andrea Camilleri (Porto Empedocle, Agrigento, 1925) is a Italian writer. ... Bernardo Provenzano in 1959, aged 26. ... Nino Vaccarella was a Formula One driver from Italy. ... Lando Buzzanca (Palermo, August 24, 1935), is the real name of italian comedy actor Gerlando Buzzanca, a movies, television and theater star. ... Judge Giovanni Falcone. ... Giovanni Falcone during the Maxi Trial Giovanni Falcone, (May 18, 1939 – May 23, 1992) was an Italian magistrate who specialised in prosecuting Cosa Nostra crimes. ... Paolo Borsellino (January 19, 1940 - July 19, 1992) was an Italian anti-Mafia magistrate. ... Salvatore Adamo (born 1 November 1943 in Comiso, Italy) is one of the most commercially successful singers in Europe. ... Franco Battiato (born March 23, 1945) is an Italian singer-songwriter, composer, filmmaker and (as Süphan Barzani) painter. ... Giuseppe Tornatore (born 27 May 1956) is an Italian film director. ... Dolce & Gabbana (pronounced Dol-che Gabb-an-a) is a high-end fashion house started by the Italian designers Domenico Dolce, born near Palermo, Sicily, and Stefano Gabbana, born in Milan, Italy. ... Angelo dArrigo (born April 3, 1961 in Paris; died March 26, 2006) was an Italian aviator who held a number of world records in the field of flight, principally with microlights and hang gliders, with or without motors. ... Salvatore Antibo is a former Italian long distance runner who won a silver medal over 10 000m at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. ... Anna Kanakis (born in Messina, Italy) is an Italian actress and model. ... Salvatore Totò Schillaci (born December 1, 1964 in Palermo) is a former Italian football player. ... Maria Grazia Cucinotta as the Cigar Girl (Giulietta da Vinci) in The World Is Not Enough. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Giuseppe Gibilisco (born January 5, 1979 in Siracusa) is an Italian pole vaulter who won the 2003 World Championships with a personal best of 5. ...

Historical monarchs of Sicily

The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ... Simon of Hauteville, called Simon de Hauteville in French and Simone Daltavilla in Italian, was the eldest son and successor of Roger the Great Count, count of Sicily, and Adelaide del Vasto, under whose regency he reigned. ... Adelaide del Vasto (c. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... William I (d. ... William II crowned by Christ, mosaic in Monreale Cathedral. ... Tancred (d. ... William III of Sicily (1190 - 1198) was briefly king of Sicily for 10 months in 1194. ... Constance of Sicily ( 1154 - November 27, 1198) was in her own right Queen of Sicily, became German Empress as the wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, and was the mother of the Emperor and King of Sicily Frederick II. She was the posthumous daughter of Roger II of... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Conrad IV, Conrad of Hohenstaufen (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy – May 21, 1254, Lavello), was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) 1228–1254, of Germany 1237–1254, and of Sicily (as Conrad I) 1250–1254. ... Conrad IV, Conrad of Hohenstaufen (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy – May 21, 1254, Lavello), was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) 1228–1254, of Germany 1237–1254, and of Sicily (as Conrad I) 1250–1254. ... Portrait of Conradin from the Codex Manesse (Folio 7r). ... Manfred (c. ... Frederick III (or II) (1272 – 1337), King of Sicily, was the third son of King Peter III of Aragon and Sicily, and of Constance, daughter of Manfred. ... Peter II (July 1305-15 August 1342, Calascibetta) was crowned king of Sicily (then called Trinacria) in 1321 and gained full sovereignty when his father died in 1337. ... Louis the Child (1337-16 October 1355) was king of Sicily, then called Trinacria, from 1342 to 1355. ... Frederick III or IV (1 September 1341- 27 January 1377), called the Simple, King of Sicily from 1355 to 1377, was the second son of Peter II of Sicily and Elisabeth of Carinthia. ... Mary of Sicily (c 1370—1402), Queen of Sicily, was the daughter and heir of Frederick III The Simple. As she was very young at the time of her fathers death, her government was effectively taken over by four baronial families who styled themselves vicars. ... Martin I of Sicily (c. ... Martin I (1356—1410), the Elder, the Humane, the Ecclesiastic, King of Aragon (1396 - 1410), King of Sicily (1409 - 1410) was the last direct descendant in legitimate male line of Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, to rule Aragon. ... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ...

Quotes

 , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ...

See also

Sicily Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... Sicily is home to a great variety of Christian music, including a cappella devotional songs from Montedoro and many brass bands like Banda Ionica, who play songs from a diverse repertoire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // External links Americans of Sicilian ancestry The listing of the Italian ancestry of the 108th U.S. Congress See also Category:Sicilian-Americans List of Sicilian-American jazz musicians Category:Sicilian-American jazz musicians Category:Sicilian-American mobsters The List Mimi Aguglia, (December 21, 1884 - July 31, 1970) was born... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... Mount Etna (also known as Mongibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a combination of Latin mont- meaning mountain and the local word for beautiful) is an active volcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... Norman conquests in red. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Acireale is a seaport city in the north-east of the province of Catania, Sicily (Italy), at the foot of Mount Etna, with mineral waters. ... Combatants Roman Republic The forces of Sextus Pompeius Commanders Octavian, Marcus Agrippa, Marcus Antonius, Marcus Aemelius Lepidus Sextus Pompeius Strength More than 200,000 The Sicilian revolt was a revolution against the Second Triumvirate which occurred between 44 BC and 36 BC. The revolt was led by Sextus Pompeius, and...

Notes

  1. ^ J. Privitera, 'Sicily: An illustrated history", (Hippocrene books, 2002)
  2. ^ H. Hearder, "Italy: A short history",(Cambridge University Press, 1990)
  3. ^ J. Privitera, 'Sicily: An illustrated history", (Hippocrene books, 2002)
  4. ^ J. Privitera, 'Sicily: An illustrated history", (Hippocrene books, 2002)
  5. ^ J. Privitera, 'Sicily: An illustrated history", (Hippocrene books, 2002)
  6. ^ Julie Taylor. Muslims in Medieval Italy: The Colony at Lucera. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. 2003.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ (Italian) L.R. 4-1-2000
  9. ^ Piras, Claudia and Medagliani, Eugenio. Culinaria Italy. Cologne: Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbh, 2000, p 423.
  10. ^ John Dickie, Cosa Nostra, Hodder and Stoughton, 2004
  11. ^ L.L. Cavalli-Sforza (1997) Genes, peoples, and languages
  12. ^ a b Vona et al. (1998) Genetic structure of western Sicily
  13. ^ a b Rickards et al. (1998) Genetic history of the population of Sicily
  14. ^ Francalacci et al. (2003) Peopling of Three Mediterranean Islands (Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily) Inferred by Y-Chromosome Biallelic Variability
  15. ^ DiGiacomo et al. (2004) Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe
  16. ^ Ghiani et al. (2002) New data on the genetic structure of the population of Sicily: analysis of the Alia population (Palermo, Italy)
  17. ^ Romano et al. (2003) Autosomal microsatellite and mtDNA genetic analysis in Sicily (Italy)
  18. ^ Calo et al. (2003) Genetic analysis of a Sicilian population using 15 short tandem repeats
  19. ^ Walter et al. (1997) GM and KM allotypes in nine population samples of Sicily
  20. ^ Simoni et al. (1999) Patterns of gene flow inferred from genetic distances in the Mediterranean region
  21. ^ Kandil et al. (1999) Red cell enzyme polymorphisms in Moroccans and Southern Spaniards: New data for the genetic history of the Western Mediterranean
  22. ^ Scozzari et al. (2001) Human Y-chromosome variation in the western Mediterranean area: Implications for the peopling of the region
  23. ^ Cruciani et al. (2004) Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa
  24. ^ Capelli et al. (2005) Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective

References

  • "Il Duecento", in: Antologia della poesia italiana, ed. Cesare Segre and Carso Ossola. Torino, Einaudi, 1997. ISBN 88-06-15341-2
  • Bruno Migliorini, Storia della lingua italiana. Firenze, Sansoni, 1987. ISBN 88-383-1343-1
  • Dante Alighieri, De Vulgari Eloquentia (bilingual, Latin-Italian edition). Milano, garzanti, 1991. ISBN 88-11-36442-6

External links

Maps

  • Location, maps and aerial imagery: 37°36′0″N, 14°10′0″E

Images

Geographic locale

For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Agrigento (It. ... The Province of Caltanissetta is a province in the southern part of Sicily, Italy. ... Catania (Italian: Provincia di Catania) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Enna (Italian: Provincia di Enna) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Messina (It. ... Palermo (It. ... The Province of Ragusa (Provincia di Ragusa) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... Syracuse (It. ... Trapani (Italian: Provincia di Trapani) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Abruzzo is a region of Italy bordering Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... The Aosta Valley (Italian: Valle dAosta, French: Vallée dAoste, Arpitan: Val dOuta) is a mountainous Region in north-western Italy. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Puglia (Apulia) to the east, Calabria to the south, it has one short coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea and another of the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... // The Marche (plural, originally le marche de Ancona = the Marches of Ancona) are a region of Central Italy, bordering Emilia-Romagna north, Tuscany to the north-west, Umbria to west, Abruzzo and Latium to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... Molise is a region of central Italy, the second smallest of the regions. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol[1] (Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut, also Trentin-Sudtirol [2][3]) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...


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