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Encyclopedia > Sichuan pepper
Sichuan Pepper
Chinese name
Simplified: 花椒
Traditional: 花椒
Hanyu Pinyin: huājiāo

Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. Despite the name, it is not related to black pepper or to chili peppers. It is widely used in the cuisine of Sichuan, China, from which it takes its name, as well as Tibetan, Bhutani, and Japanese cuisines, among others. Image File history File links Szechuan pepper (chin. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Species See text Zanthoxylum (from the Greek ξανθὸν ξύλον, yellow wood) is a genus of about 250 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs in the family Rutaceae, native to warm temperate and subtropical areas worldwide. ... Binomial name Zanthoxylum simulans Hance Zanthoxylum simulans (Chinese Prickly-ash or Flatspine Prickly-ash), is a flowering plant in the family Rutaceae, native to eastern China and Taiwan. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... The chili pepper, chile pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chilli, chili or chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... (Chinese: 四川; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Motto: One Nation, One People Anthem(s): Druk tsendhen Capital Thimphu Largest city Thimphu Dzongkha, English Government Monarchy  - King Jigme Singye Wangchuck  - Prime Minister Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk Formation    - Wangchuk Dynasty 1907-12-17  Area  - Total 47,000 km² (131st) 18,147 sq mi   - Water (%) negligible Population  - 2005 est. ...


It is known in Chinese as huājiāo (花椒; literally "flower pepper"); a lesser-used name is shānjiāo (椒; literally "mountain pepper"; not to be confused with Tasmanian mountain pepper). In Japanese, it is 山椒 sanshō, using the same Chinese characters as shanjiao. In Tibetan, it is known as emma. Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...

Contents

Culinary uses

Enlarge
Seeds & stems (left) and husks (right)

Sichuan pepper has a unique aroma and flavour that is not hot or pungent like black or white pepper, or chili peppers, but has slight lemony overtones and creates in the mouth a kind of tingly numbness (caused by its 3% of hydroxy-alpha-sanshool) that sets the stage for these hot spices. Recipes often suggest lightly toasting and then crushing the tiny seedpods before adding them to food. Only the husks are used; the seeds are stone-like and are discarded. It is generally added at the last moment. Star anise and ginger are often used with it and it figures prominently in spicy Sichuan cuisine. It is considered to go well with fish, duck, and chicken dishes, as well as with fried eggplant. It has an alkaline pH and a numbing effect on the lips when eaten in larger doses. Ma la (Chinese: 麻辣; pinyin: málà), a flavor common in Sichuan cooking, is a combination of Sichuan pepper and chili pepper. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1903x911, 271 KB) Photo of a pile of spice sold as SZECHWAN PEPPER in a Chinese shop in Melbourne, Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1903x911, 271 KB) Photo of a pile of spice sold as SZECHWAN PEPPER in a Chinese shop in Melbourne, Australia. ... Binomial name Illicium verum Hook. ... Sichuan Cuisine or Szechuan Cuisine (川菜, pinyin: chuān cài), originating in the Sichuan province of western China, has an international reputation for being spicy and flavorful. ... Binomial name Solanum esculentum Drege ex Dun. ... pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution in terms of activity of hydrogen (H+). For dilute solutions, however, it is convenient to substitute the activity of the hydrogen ions with the molarity (mol/L) of the hydrogen ions (however, this is not necessarily accurate at higher concentrations... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme...


It is also available as an oil (marketed as either "Sichuan pepper oil" or "Hwajiaw oil"). In this form it is best used in stir fry noodle dishes without hot spices. The preferred recipe includes ginger oil and brown sugar to be cooked with a base of noodles and vegetables, with rice vinegar and Sichuan pepper oil to be added after cooking.


Hua jiao yan (Simplified Chinese: 花椒盐, Traditional Chinese: 花椒鹽; pinyin: huājiāoyán) is a mixture of salt and Sichuan pepper, roasted and browned in a wok and served as a condiment to accompany chicken, duck and pork dishes. The peppercorns can also be lightly fried in order to make a spicy oil with various uses. Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... Cooking in a wok The wok is a versatile round-bottomed cooking vessel (see cooking utensil) originating in China. ...


Sichuan pepper is one of the few spices important for Tibetan and Bhutanese cookery of the Himalayas, because few spices can be grown there. One Himalayan specialty is the momo, a dumpling stuffed with vegetables, cottage cheese or minced yak meat, beef or pork and flavoured with Sichuan pepper, garlic, ginger and onion. The noodles are steamed and served dry, together with a fiery sauce. Tibetans believe it can sanitize meat that may not be so fresh. In reality it may only serve to mask foul flavors. Perhaps it is because of the foul smell masking property of sichuan pepper that made it popular in dishes made of visceral organs of slaughtered animals. This article is becoming very long. ... Momos are a kind of dumpling popular in Nepal, Sikkim and Tibet, similar to Chinese potstickers. ... For the film, see Dumplings (movie) Dumplings may be any of a wide variety of dishes, both sweet and savoury, in several different cuisines. ... Binomial name Bos grunniens Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies Bos grunniens grunniens Bos grunniens mutus The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south central Asia, as well as in Mongolia. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe Though called a root, it is actually the rhizome of the monocotyledonous perennial plant Zingiber officinale. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa, also called the garden onion. ...


In Japan the dried and powdered leaves of Zanthoxylum sancho are used to make noodle dishes and soups mildly hot and fragrant. The whole leaves, 木の芽 kinome, are used to flavour vegetables, especially bamboo shoots, and to decorate soups. Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ...


Sichuan peppercorns are one of the traditional ingredients in the Chinese spice mixture five-spice powder and also shichimi togarashi, a Japanese seven-flavour seasoning. Five-spice powder (五香粉, wǔxiāngfěn in hanyu pinyin) is a convenient seasoning for Chinese cuisine, particularly Cantonese cuisine. ... Shichimi, also known as shichimi togarashi, is a common spice mixture from Japan. ...


Composition of various species

A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals. ... Coumarin is a chemical compound found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ... Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is an olefinic natural organic compound. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound which is a colorless liquid. ... Ocimene refers to several isomeric organic compounds. ... Linalool is a common aroma chemical found in many commercial applications. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound which is a colorless liquid. ... Sabinene is a natural bicyclic diterpene with the molecular formula C10H16. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... The chemical compound pinene is a bicyclic terpene known as a monoterpene. ... Cymene, or p-cymene, is a naturally occurring aromatic organic compound. ... The terpinenes are three isomeric hydrocarbons that are classified as terpenes. ... Terpineol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil. ... Terpineol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil. ... Citronellal or rhodinal or 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-al (C10H18O) is is the main component in a mixture of terpene chemical compounds that can be derived from citronella oil. ... Citronellol, or dihydrogeraniol, is a natural acyclic monoterpenoid. ... cis-3-Hexenal, also known as (Z)-3-hexenal and leaf aldehyde, is colorless liquid and an aroma compound with an intense grassy-green odor of freshly cut green grass and leaves. ...

Miscellanea

From 1968 to 2005, the United States Food and Drug Administration banned the importation of Sichuan peppercorns because they were found to be capable of carrying citrus canker (as the tree is in the same family, Rutaceae, as the genus Citrus). This bacterial disease, which is very difficult to control, could potentially harm the foliage and fruit of citrus crops in the U.S. It was never an issue of harm in human consumption. The import ban was only loosely enforced until 2002 [1]. In 2005, the USDA and FDA lifted the ban, provided the peppercorns are heated to around 70 degrees Celsius (160 degrees Fahrenheit) to kill the canker bacteria before importation. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Binomial name Xanthomonas axonopodis (Hasse, 1915) Synonyms Citrus canker is a disease affecting citrus species that is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima- Pomelo Citrus medica- Citron Citrus reticulata- Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus × sinensis- Sweet Orange Citrus × aurantium- Bitter Orange Citrus × paradisi- Grapefruit Citrus × limon- Lemon Citrus × latifolia- Persian lime Citrus × aurantifolia- Key lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus is a common term... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ...


The genus name Zanthoxylum or Xanthoxylum comes from the Greek ξανθὸν ξύλον, "yellow wood".


Other names

It is possible to come across names such as "Szechwan pepper", "Chinese pepper", "Japanese pepper", "Aniseed pepper", "Sprice pepper", "Chinese prickly ash", "Fagara", "Sansho", "Nepal pepper", "Indonesian lemon pepper" and others, sometimes referring to specific species within this group, since this plant is not well known enough in the West to have an established name.


Sichuan pepper is unrelated to black pepper (genus Piper) and to chile peppers, which are also widely used in Sichuan cookery. Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Species See text. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ...


In Nepal, where it is extensively used, it is known as "Timur".


A similar spice by name 'Teppal' is being used in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa in India, by a very small community called Konkani's (they speak a language called Konkani), an official language of Goa and spoken in many parts of these 3 states. 'Teppal' is a fruit which grows on trees full of thorns. It grows in bunch like grapes. Fresh fruits are parrot green in color and is used as a flavoring agent in many curries made with a paste of coconut, chillies and other spices. The fruit is seasonal and available during the monsoon period. When dried, the flesh of the fruit hardens, turns to brownish black color and opens up to show the black seeds within. The seeds are discarded and the dried fruit is stored in containers for use around the year. This spice is mostly used in Fish preparations and a few vegetarian dishes, with the coconut masala. This spice has a very strong woody aroma and is discarded at the time of eating the Veg / Fish curry.


External links and references

  • Gernot Katzer's spice pages (full of information)
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