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Encyclopedia > Sibling

One's sibling is one's brother or sister, respectively meaning a male or female with whom one shares at least one parent. This is usually taken to mean that the two people are genetically very close, though it is not always necessarily the case, for example one or more siblings may have been adopted by their parents. Look up brother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up sister in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (1227x1736, 514 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1227x1736, 514 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... William-Adolphe Bouguereau, self-portrait (1886). ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Genetic distance is a measure of the disimilarity of genetic material between different species or individuals of the same species. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ...


In most societies throughout the world, siblings will usually grow up together and spend a good deal of their time during childhood together. They may have conflicts during their childhood years, but usually resolve them later in life. This closeness may be marked with the development of strong emotional associations such as love and enmity. The sibling bond is often complicated and is influenced by factors such as parental treatment, birth order, personality, and people and experiences outside the family. [1] For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The phrase birth order is defined as a persons rank by age among his or her siblings. ... Know Your Personality - a poster describing some of the theoretical aspects in the personality research. ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ...

Contents

Types of siblings

Full sibling

A full sibling (full brother or full sister), is a sibling that shares both biological or adoptive parents. In law, the terms brother German and sister German are used.


Siblings (Sister) could be anyone, could also be an respectful and a affectionate term to address older people.


Half sibling

A half sibling (half brother or half sister) is a sibling with one shared biological or adoptive parent. A half sibling that shares the same mother (but different fathers) is known as a uterine sibling, whereas one that shares the same father is known as an agnate sibling. In law, the term consanguine is used in place of agnate. Half siblings can have a wide variety of interpersonal relationships, from a bond as close as any full siblings, to total strangers. For half siblings in twins, see semi-identical twin. A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up mother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Twin (disambiguation). ...


At law (and especially Inheritance law) half siblings were often accorded unequal treatment. Old English Common Law at one time incorporated inequalities into the laws of intestate succession, with half siblings taking only half as much property of their intestate siblings' estates as other siblings of full-blood. Unequal treatment of this type has been almost wholly abolished in England and throughout much of the United States. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Intestacy is the condition of the estate of a person who dies owning property greater than the sum of his or her enforceable debts and funeral expenses without having made a valid will or other binding declaration; alternatively where such a will or declaration has been made, but only applies... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Stepsibling

A stepsibling (stepbrother or stepsister) is a sibling with whom an individual bears no blood or equivalent adoptive relation, and is related by the marriage or relationship of one parent of the individual to one parent of the sibling.

See also: stepfamily, step-sib q&a, , step-sib articles

“Stepmom” redirects here. ...

Siblings through breast feeding

Milk brothers or milk sisters are children breastfed by a woman other than their biological mother, a practice known as wetnursing and once widespread. An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... A wet nurse is a woman who nurses a baby not her own. ...


In Islam those who are fed in this way become siblings to the biological children of their wetnurse, provided that they are less than two years old and have been breastfed five times or more by her. According to shariah (Islamic law) these siblings are mahram, meaning that they are not allowed to marry each other. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ...


Birth order

Main article: Birth order
The Benzon Daughters by Peder Severin Krøyer.
The Benzon Daughters by Peder Severin Krøyer.

Birth order is a person's rank by age among his or her siblings. Typically, researchers classify siblings as “eldest”, “middle child”, and “youngest” or simply distinguish between “firstborn” and “later born” children. The phrase birth order is defined as a persons rank by age among his or her siblings. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (880x1082, 135 KB) Peter Severin Krøyer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (880x1082, 135 KB) Peter Severin Krøyer. ... Peder Severin Krøyer (July 23, 1851-November 21, 1909), known as P.S. Krøyer, Denmark painter, was born in Stavanger, Norway to Ellen Cecilie Gjesdal. ...


Birth order is commonly believed in pop psychology and popular culture to have a profound and lasting effect on psychological development and personality. For example, firstborns are seen as conservative and high achieving, middle children as natural mediators, and youngest children as charming and outgoing. In his book Born to Rebel, Frank Sulloway argues that firstborns to be more conscientious, more socially dominant, less agreeable, and less open to new ideas compared to laterborns. Literature reviews that have examined many studies and attempted to control for confounding variables tend to find minimal effects for birth order on personality. [2][3] In her review of the scientific literature, Judith Rich Harris suggests that birth order effects may exist within the context of the family of origin, but that they are not enduring aspects of personality. [4] Popular psychology refers to concepts and theories about human mental life and behaviour that come from outside the technical study of psychology, but purport to go beyond everyday knowledge. ... Know Your Personality - a poster describing some of the theoretical aspects in the personality research. ... Fank Sulloway is a Historian of Science and Behavioral Scientist in California. ... A Literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. ... Judith Rich Harris (February 10, 1938 - ) is a psychologist and the author of The Nurture Assumption, a book criticizing the belief that parents are the most important factor in child development. ...


Some research has found that firstborn children have slightly higher IQs on average than later born children. [5] However, other research finds no such effect. [6] IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...


In practice, systematic birth order research is a challenge because it is difficult to control for all of the variables that are statistically related to birth order. For example, large families are generally lower in socioeconomic status than small families, so third born children are more likely than firstborn children to come from poorer families. Spacing of children, parenting style, and gender are additional variables to consider.


Regressive behavior at the birth of a new sibling

The arrival of a new baby is especially stressful for firstborns and for siblings between 3 and 5 years old. Regressive behavior and aggressive behavior, such as handling the baby roughly, can also occur. All of these symptoms are considered to be typical and developmentally appropriate for children between the ages of 3-5. While some can be prevented, the remainder can be improved within a few months. Regressive behavior may include demand for a bottle, thumb sucking, requests to wear diapers (even if toilet-trained), or requests to carry a security blanket. A security blanket is any familiar object whose presence provides comfort or security to its owner, such as the literal blankets often favored by small children. ...


Regressive behaviors are the child’s way of demanding the parents’ love and attention. Parents can deal with these behaviors by explaining to the older child their new sibling role, making this role sound exciting, answering questions about the baby and the process of birth (as appropriate), or reserving time each day just for the parent and older child.


The AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics [1]) suggests that instead of protesting or telling children to act their age, parents should simply grant their requests without becoming upset. The affected children will soon return to their normal routine when they realize that they now have just as important a place in the family as the new sibling. Most of the behaviors can be improved within a few months.


The University of Michigan Health System [2] advises that most occurrences of regressive behavior are mild and to be expected; however, it recommends parents to contact a pediatrician or child psychologist if the older child tries to hurt the baby, if regressive behavior does not improve within 2 or 3 months, or if the parents have other questions or concerns.


Sibling rivalry

Main article: Sibling rivalry
Portrait of Lady Cockburn and her Three Eldest Sons , by Joshua Reynolds.
Portrait of Lady Cockburn and her Three Eldest Sons , by Joshua Reynolds.

Sibling rivalry is a type of competition or animosity among brothers and sisters. It appears to be particularly intense when children are very close in age and of the same gender.[7] Sibling rivalry can involve aggression; however, it is not the same as sibling abuse where one child victimizes another. This article is about the human condition. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 1621 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sibling rivalry ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 1621 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sibling rivalry ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Sibling abuse is the physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse of one sibling by another. ...


Sibling rivalry usually starts right after, or before, the arrival of the second child. While siblings will still love each other, it is not uncommon for them to bicker and be malicious to each other. [8] Children are sensitive from the age of one year to differences in parental treatment and by three years they have a sophisticated grasp of family rules and can evaluate themselves in relation to their siblings. [1] Sibling rivalry often continues throughout childhood and can be very frustrating and stressful to parents. [9] One study found that the age group 10 to 15 reported the highest level of competition between siblings [10] Sibling rivalry can continue into adulthood and sibling relationships can change dramatically over the years. Approximately one-third of adults describe their relationship with siblings as rivalrous or distant. However, rivalry often lessens over time and at least 80 percent of siblings over age 60 enjoy close ties. [1]


According to researchers, each child in a family competes to define who they are as individuals and want to show that they are separate from their siblings. Sibling rivalry increases when children feel they are getting unequal amounts of their parents’ attention, where there is stress in the parents’ and children’s lives, and where fighting is accepted by the family as a way to resolve conflicts. [9] Sigmund Freud saw the sibling relationship as an extension of the Oedipus complex, where brothers were in competition for their mother's attention and sisters for their fathers. [11] Evolutionary psychologists explain sibling rivalry in terms of parental investment and kin selection: a parent is inclined to spread resources equally among all children in the family, but a child wants most of the resources for him or herself. [10] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Robert Trivers theory of parental investment predicts that the sex making the largest investment in lactation, nurturing and protecting offspring will be more discriminating in mating and that the sex that invests less in offspring will compete for access to the higher investing sex. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ...


Westermarck effect and its opposite

Anthropologist Edvard Westermarck found that children who are brought up together as siblings are desensitized to form sexual attraction later in life. This is known as the Westermarck Effect. It can be seen in biological and adoptive families, but also in other situations where children are brought up in close contact, such as the Israeli kibbutz system and the Chinese Shim-pua marriage.[12][13] Edvard Alexander Westermarck (November 20, 1862 - September 3, 1939) was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist. ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Shim-pua marriage (Taiwanese: sin-pū-á, sim-pū-á) was a Taiwanese tradition of arranged marriage, where a poor family (burdened by too many children) would sell a young daughter to a richer family for labour, and in exchange, the poorer family would be married into the richer family, through the...


The opposite phenomenon, when relatives do fall in love, is known as genetic sexual attraction. This can occur between siblings brought up apart from each other, for example, adoptees who are re-united in adulthood. Genetic sexual attraction (GSA) is sexual attraction between close relatives, such as brother and sister, who first meet as adults. ...


See also

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Look up Sibling in
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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... “Nephew” redirects here. ... The theory of kin selection may be seen as a genetically-mediated altruistic response within closely-related individuals whereby the fitness conferred by the altruist to the recipient outweighs the cost to itself or the sibling/parent group. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Mersky Leder, Jane. Adult Sibling Rivalry. Psychology Today, Jan/Feb 1993. Retrieved on November 28, 2006.
  2. ^ Ernst, C. & Angst, J. (1983). Birth order: Its influence on personality. Springer.
  3. ^ Jefferson, T., Herbst, J. H., & McCrae, R. R. (1998). Associations between birth order and personality traits: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 498-509.
  4. ^ Harris, J. R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press.
  5. ^ Carey, Benedict. Family dynamics, not biology, behind higher IQ. International Herald Tribune, June 21, 2007. Retrieved on July 15, 2007.
  6. ^ Rodgers, J. L., Cleveland, H. H., van den Oord, E. and Rowe, D. (2000). Resolving the Debate Over Birth Order, Family Size and Intelligence. American Psychologist, Vol. 55.
  7. ^ The Effects of Sibling Competition Syliva B. Rimm, Educational Assessment Service, 2002.
  8. ^ New Baby Sibling University of Michigan Health System, June 2006
  9. ^ a b Sibling Rivalry University of Michigan Health System, October 2006
  10. ^ a b Sibling Rivalry in Degree and Dimensions Across the Lifespan Annie McNerney and Joy Usner, 30 April 2001.
  11. ^ Freud Lecture: Juliet Mitchell, 2003
  12. ^ Westermarck, E. A. (1921). The history of human marriage, 5th edn. London: Macmillan, 1921.
  13. ^ Arthur P. Wolf. Childhood Association and Sexual Attraction: A Further Test of the Westermarck Hypothesis. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 72, No. 3 (Jun., 1970), pp. 503-515. Retrieved on November 29, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sibling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (330 words)
Sibling is a generic term meaning brother or sister; that is, someone who shares a father and a mother with the person being referenced.
A step-sibling (stepbrother or stepsister), is a sibling to whom you bear no blood relation, but one of whose parents has remarried to one of yours; see stepfamily.
While many half-siblings are step-siblings and vice versa, someone may have either relationship without the other: step-siblings each have a parent married to a parent of the other but not necessarily a parent in common, and half-siblings not living in the same household are not always considered step-siblings.
AboutOurKids.org | New Baby Sibling: What's a Parent to Do? (774 words)
Siblings who seemed locked in constant battle as youngsters can grow to be the best of friends, mentors, teachers, role models, and confidantes for their sibling mates.
The siblings to be would prefer their parents were interested in the current events in their lives.
But blood is thicker than water and often the siblings who fought it out in the backyard turn to their siblings most often when older - a shared history is a strong bond.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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