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Encyclopedia > Sibiu
Sibiu
Hermannstadt
Skyline of Sibiu

Coat of arms
Sibiu (Romania )
Sibiu
Location of Sibiu within Romania (in red)
Coordinates: 45°47′45″N 24°09′08″E / 45.79583, 24.15222
Country Romania
Sibiu County Municipality of Sibiu
Founded 1191 (first official record)
Government
 - Mayor Klaus Johannis
Area
 - Total 121 km² (46.7 sq mi)
Elevation 190 - 240 m (-597 ft)
Population (2002)
 - Total 154.892
 - Density 1,273/km² (3,297.1/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal Code 0xxxxx
Area code(s) +40 269
Car Plates SB
Website: www.sibiu.ro

Sibiu (IPA: [si'biw], German: Hermannstadt; Hungarian: Nagyszeben; Yiddish: סזעבען, הערמאנשטאדט) is one of the largest cities in Transylvania, Romania with a population of about 160,000. It straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. It is the capital of Sibiu County and is located some 282 km NW of Bucharest. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1800 pixel, file size: 463 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Sibiu (IPA: ; Hungarian: Szeben) is a county (judeÅ£) in the center of Romania, in Transylvania region, with the capital city Sibiu (population: 170,038). ... Klaus Johannis (born June 13, 1959) is a Romanian teacher and politician of German ethnicity. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... Standard Romanian license plate as seen in 2007 The standard Romanian License plate consists of a blue vertical strip (the European strip) on the left side of the plate displaying the 12 stars of the European Union and the country code of Romania (RO), always followed on a white surface... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Cibin (Romanian; in German: Zibin) is a river in central Romania, in the South part of Transylvania. ... The Olt (Romanian and Hungarian; in German: Alt; in Latin: Aluta) is a river in Romania. ... Sibiu (IPA: ; Hungarian: Szeben) is a county (judeÅ£) in the center of Romania, in Transylvania region, with the capital city Sibiu (population: 170,038). ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ...


It is one of the most important cultural and religious centres in Romania as well a major transportation hub in central Romania. The city used to be the centre of the Transylvanian Saxons in Romania until World War II. The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ...


Sibiu was designated European Capital of Culture for the year 2007 together with Luxembourg.

Contents

Geography and climate

Climate diagram of Sibiu
Climate diagram of Sibiu

Sibiu is situated near the geographical center of Romania at 45.792784° N 24.152069° E. Set in the Cibin Depression, the city is about 20 km from the Făgăraş Mountains, 12 km from the Cibin Mountains, and about 15 km from the Lotrului Mountains, which border the depression in its southwestern section. The northern and eastern limits of Sibiu are formed by the Târnavelor Plateau, which descends to the Cibin Valley through Guşteriţei Hill. The FăgăraÅŸ Mountains viewed from the train FăgăraÅŸ Mountains are the highest mountains of the Southern Carpathians, in Romania. ... Cindrel Mountains (also known as Cibin Mountains) are a group of mountains in central Romania in the center of the Southern Carpathians, in the North-East of the Parâng Mountains group. ...


The Cibin river runs through Sibiu, as well as some smaller streams. The geographical position of Sibiu makes it one of the most important transportation hubs in Romania with important roads and railway lines passing through it.


Sibiu's climate is temperate-continental with average temperatures of 8 to 9°C. The multi-annual average of rainfall is 662 l/mp, and there are about 120 days of hard frost annually. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...


History

Main article: History of Sibiu
Historic Center Skyline, 2004
Historic Center Skyline, 2004
Numerous street signs in Sibiu are bilingual (Romanian and German)
Numerous street signs in Sibiu are bilingual (Romanian and German)

The city was founded in 1190 by German settlers. It was probably built near a Roman settlement, one that would be known during the early Middle Ages as Caedonia. ImageMetadata File history File links Sibiu. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Sibiu. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SibiuHermannstadtSchild. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SibiuHermannstadtSchild. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ...


In the 14th century, it was already an important trade center. In 1376, the craftsmen were divided in 19 guilds. Sibiu became the most important ethnic German city among the seven cities that gave Transylvania its German name Siebenbürgen (literally seven castles), and it was home to the Universitas Saxorum, the assembly of Germans in Transylvania. Common opinion in the 17th century ascribed Sibiu the quality of being the easternmost city to be part of the European sphere; it was also the eastern terminus of postal routes. A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ...


During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became the second and later the first most important center of Transylvanian Romanian ethnics. The first Romanian-owned bank had its headquarters here (The Albina Bank), as did the ASTRA (Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Romanian's People Culture). After the Romanian Orthodox Church was granted status in the Habsburg Empire from the 1860s onwards, Sibiu became the Metropolitan seat, and the city is still regarded as the third most important center of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Between the 1848 Hungarian Revolution and 1867 (the year of the Ausgleich), Sibiu was the meeting-place of the Transylvanian Diet, which had taken its most representative form after the Empire agreed to extend voting rights in the region. Languages Romanian language Religions Predominantly Romanian Orthodox, but also including Romanian Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Atheist. ... ASTRA Palace in Sibiu Asociaţia Transilvană pentru Literatura Română şi Cultura Poporului Român (abbreviated ASTRA; in English, The Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and the Culture of the Romanian People) is a cultural association founded in 1861 in Sibiu. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburgs Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ...


After World War I, when Austria-Hungary was dissolved, Sibiu became part of Romania; the majority of its population was Romanian and counted large ethnic German and Hungarian communities. Starting from the 1950s and until after 1990, most of the city's ethnic Germans emigrated to Germany. Among the roughly 2,000 who have remained is Klaus Johannis, who is currently mayor of Sibiu City. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Klaus Johannis (born June 13, 1959) is a Romanian teacher and politician of German ethnicity. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Milestones in Sibiu's history

  • 1191 - Mentioned for the first time in a document of the Vatican, under the name "Cibinium" ( due to the river Cibin that flows through the city)
  • 1292 - The first hospital in present-day Romania was opened.
  • 1380 - The first documented school in present-day Romania.
  • 1494 - The first pharmacy in present-day Romania.
  • 1534 - The first paper mill in present-day Romania.
  • 1544 - The first book in the Romanian language was printed in Sibiu.
  • 1570 - Transylvania became an independent principality
  • 1551 - Conrad Haas' experiment with rockets.
  • 1671 - Methane gas was discovered near Sibiu.
  • 1782 - Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein discovered the chemical element tellurium.
  • 1788 - First theatre in present-day Romania.
  • 1795 - The first lightning rod in Southeastern Europe was installed in Cisnădie.
  • 1797 - Samuel Hahnemann opened the world's first homeopathic laboratory.
  • 1817 - The Brukenthal Museum, the first museum in present-day Romania, was opened.
  • 1867 - Union of Transylvania and Hungary
  • 1896 - The first use of electricity in present-day Romania, and the first power line in Southeastern Europe.
  • 1904 - The second city in Europe to use an electric-powered trolley.
  • 1918 - Union of Transylvania and Romania. Sibiu became part of Romania
  • 1928 - The first zoo in Romania.
  • 1941 - Saxons lost their historical majority in the population
  • 1989 - The third city to take part in the Romanian Revolution.
  • 2007 - European Capital of Culture 2007

For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ... Conrad Haas (1509–1576) was an Austrian military engineer and is believed to be the first person to describe a multi-stage rocket in writing. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. ... Baron Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein discovered Tellurium in 1782. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10th April 1755 in Meißen, Saxony, Holy Roman Empire - 2nd July 1843 in Paris, France) was a physician who, beginning with an article he published in a German medical journal in 1796, coined homoeopathic medicine. ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... The Brukenthal National Museum (Romanian: Muzeul Naţional Brukenthal) is a museum in Sibiu, Romania, housed in the palace of Samuel von Brukenthal — who was Habsburg governor of Transylvania and who established its first collections around 1790. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-Ceauşescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae Ceauşescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the...

Cityscape

Sibiu Skyline from left to right Council Tower, Evengelical Lutheran Church, Catholic Church, Reformed (Calvinist) Church, Orthodox Church and in the background the highest peak Negoiu.
Sibiu Skyline from left to right Council Tower, Evengelical Lutheran Church, Catholic Church, Reformed (Calvinist) Church, Orthodox Church and in the background the highest peak Negoiu.

Făgăraş mountain range Negoiu is a mountain peak in the Făgăraş mountains of the Southern Carpathians of Sibiu county in Romania, with an altitude of 2535 metres. ...

Population

As of approximately 2002, Sibiu has a population of about 160,000. The ethnic breakdown is as follows: 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ...

Population dynamics

  • 1850: || 12.765 inhabitants
  • 1900: |||| 21.465
  • 1930: |||||||||| 49.345
  • 1948: |||||||||||||| 60.602
  • 1966: |||||||||||||||||||||| 109.515
  • 1977: |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 151.005
  • 1992: |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 169.610
  • 2002: ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 154.892
  • 2007: |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 159.000 (aprox.)
Census[1] Ethnical structure
Year Population of
Sibiu
Romanians Hungarians Germans
1850 12.765 2.089 977 8.790
1880 19.446 2.810 2.065 14.327
1890 21.465 4.581 3.199 13.148
1900 29.577 7.106 5.747 16.141
1910 33.489 8.824 7.252 16.832
1920 32.748 8.553 4.291 18.218
1930 49.345 19.006 6.782 22.045
1941 63.765 33.829 4.262 23.574
1948 60.602 37.371 5.060 16.359
1956 90.475 60.526 4.772 24.636
1966 109.515 78.548 5.124 25.387
1977 151.005 119.507 5.111 25.403
1992 169.610 158.863 4.163 5.605

For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ...

Population by confession

Today, most of the population is of the Romanian Orthodox religion. Protestants and Roman Catholics represent about 5% of the population. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

Confessions in Sibiu
Confession 1910 2002
Eastern Orthodox 18 % 91 %
Greek-Catholic (Uniate) 8 % 1 %
Roman-Catholic 20 % 2 %
Evangelical Lutheran 42 % 2 %
Reformed 7 % 1 %
Jewish 4 % < 1 %
Other 1 % 4 %

The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. ... The Catholic Church, (also known as the Roman Catholic Church), is the Christian Church led by the Pope, currently Benedict XVI, and whose adherents constitute almost half of all Christians worldwide. ... The Evangelical Church or Evangelical Association was founded by Jacob Albright, a German-speaking Christian influenced by John Wesley and the Methodist movement. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...

Politics

Sibiu city council composition:      Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania      Social Democratic Party      National Liberal Party      Democratic Party
Sibiu city council composition:      Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania      Social Democratic Party      National Liberal Party      Democratic Party

The mayor of Sibiu is Klaus Johannis, the president of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR). He was elected in 2000, being the first German mayor of a city in Romania since World War II. Johannis was overwhelmingly reelected in 2004 with 88.7% of votes and his party gained an absolute majority in the city council. The German Forum also won the elections for mayor in the second and third most important towns in Sibiu county, Medias and Cisnadie, as well as one third (11 out of 33) of the seats in the county council. The Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (German: Demokratisches Forum der Deutschen in Rumänien, DFDR; Romanian: Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România) is a political party representing the German minority in Romania. ... The Social Democratic Party of Romania (in Romanian, Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) is a major political party of Romania. ... The Partidul Naţional Liberal (National Liberal Party) is a liberal party in Romania, and the second largest party in parliament, being edged out only by the Social Democratic Party. ... The Democratic Party (Romanian: Partidul Democrat, PD) is a centre-right (formerly social democrat) party of Romania. ... Klaus Johannis (born June 13, 1959) is a Romanian teacher and politician of German ethnicity. ... The Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (German: Demokratisches Forum der Deutschen in Rumänien, DFDR; Romanian: Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România) is a political party representing the German minority in Romania. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Cisnădie (German Heltau, Transylvanian Saxon: Hielt, Hungarian Nagydisznod) is a town in Transylvania located at 10 km of Sibiu. ...


This may seem surprising, as the Germans make up less than 2% of Sibiu's population and less than 3% of the county population, but the outcome is possibly due to popular perception of the territorial leaders of Romanian parties as being corrupt.


Prefecture and County Council

The leadership of the 2 county institutions based in Sibiu was elected in 2004:

  • Prefect: Ilie Mitea (PNL)
  • Viceprefect: Marin Craciun (PNL)
  • President of the County Council: Martin Bottesch (FDGR/DFDR)
Central Square
Central Square

A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ...

City districts

The following districts are part of Sibiu. Some were villages annexed by the city but most were built as the city developed and increased its surface.

  • Centru (Centre)
  • Oraşul de Jos (Lower Town)
  • Lupeni
  • Trei Stejari (Three Oaks)
  • Sub Arini (Under Alders)
  • Vasile Aaron
  • Hipodrom I, II, III, IV
  • Valea Aurie (Golden Valley)
  • Tilişca
  • Ştrand I, II
  • Turnişor (Little Tower)
  • Piaţa Cluj (Cluj Plaza)
  • Ţiglari
  • Terezian
  • Reşiţa
  • Lazaret
  • Guşteriţa
  • Broscărie

Two main industrial areas are located within the city limits:

  • Eastern industrial zone, alongside the railway to Braşov and Râmnicu Vâlcea
  • Western industrial zone, near the exit to Sebes, close to the Airport

The Southern part, including the ASTRA National Museum Complex and the zoo, also falls inside the city limits. Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... County Status County capital Mayor Mircia Gutău, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 89. ... Sebeş (Hungarian: Szászsebes, German: Mühlbach) is a town in Alba county, Romania, located on the Sebeş river. ... ASTRA Palace ASTRA National Museum Complex (in Romanian: Complexul NaÅ£ional Muzeal ASTRA) is a museum complex in Sibiu, Romania, which gathers under the same authority four ethnology and civilisation museums in the city, a series of laboratories for conservation and research and a documentation centre. ...


Economy

Sibiu is one of the most prosperous cities of Romania, and also receives one of the highest rates of foreign investment in the country. It is an important manufacturer of automotive components (Bilstein-Compa, Takata, Continental, and SNR 'Ball bearing'). Other local industries are machine components, textiles, agro-industry, and electrical components (Siemens). The Kaufunger Wald is a range of steep, wooded hills straddling the border between the states of Hesse and Lower Saxony in central Germany. ... Working principle for a ball bearing. ... Siemens redirects here. ...


One of the main concerns for the city is attracting new investors to locate their businesses in Sibiu, and an industrial park has been recently completed. The city also contains Romania's largest stock exchange outside Bucharest, the Sibiu Stock Exchange. An industrial park (or industrial estate in British English) is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... The Sibiu Monetary Financial and Commodities Exchange (Bursa Monetar Financiarã ÅŸi de Mãrfuri Sibiu or BMFMS in Romanian) is a stock exchange in Sibiu, Romania. ...


Employment breakdown by economic sector

  • Industry - 49%
  • Commerce - 15%
  • Construction - 7.5%
  • Health - 7.5%
  • Education - 7%
  • Transport - 6.5%

Transport

Sibiu is well served in terms of transport and infrastructure, although the road traffic is congested because of the lack of a city bypass.


Air

Sibiu International Airport Location
Sibiu International Airport Location

Sibiu has an international airport with direct connections to Germany and Austria as well as to other Romanian cities. The airport is one of the most modern in Romania and the runway will be able to receive all types of commercial aircraft, including the Airbus A380, from 2008. Sibiu Airport serves the historical city of Sibiu; it is located in southern Transilvania, about 260 km north west of city capital of Bucharest. ... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ...


Direct flights from Sibiu:

For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried (second is Air France - KLM), and the flag carrier of Germany. ... TAROM is the flag carrier airline of Romania. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Airbus A320 Fokker 70 (superseded colour scheme) Airbus A321-100 landing Austrian Airlines AG is the flag carrier airline of Austria, headquartered in Vienna. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... County MureÅŸ County Status County capital Mayor Dorin Florea, Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 149,577 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... For other uses of TimiÅŸ, see TimiÅŸ (disambiguation). ... Carpatair is the largest regional airline in Eastern Europe, based in TimiÅŸoara, Romania. ...

Road

Sibiu is an important node in the European road network, being on two different European routes (E68 and E81). At a national level, Sibiu is located on three different main national roads, DN1, DN7 and DN14.


The Romanian Motorway A1 will link the city with Piteşti and the Romanian western border, near Arad. Funding for the project is assured and work is projected to be complete by 2014. County ArgeÅŸ County Status County capital Mayor Tudor Pendiuc, Social Democratic Party, since 1992 Population (2002) 168,458 171,498 - National Institute of statistics, July 1, 2004 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... County Arad County Status County capital Mayor Gheorghe Falcă, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 46. ...


Sibiu is also an important hub for the international bus links with the biggest passenger transporter in Romania, Atlassib[2], based here. Transport companies are also providing coach connections from Sibiu to a large number of locations in Romania.


Rail

Sibiu is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways Main Line 200 (Brasov - Făgăraş - Sibiu - Simeria - Arad - Romanian Western Border) and on Line 206 (Sibiu - Mediaş).


The city is served by three rail stations: the Main Station, the Little Station (Gara Micǎ) and Sibiu Turnişor. It has an important diesel-powered locomotives depot and a freight terminal.


Numerous InterCity trains (nicknamed Blue Arrows) connect Sibiu to other major cities in Romania: Cluj-Napoca, Braşov, Craiova, Timişoara and Bucharest.


Internal

Tursib[3] is the city's transport system and operates one tramway line to Răşinari, 5 trolleybus lines and about 25 bus lines. Tursib is the local public transport operator in Sibiu, Romania. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... The new church in Răşinari as of January 2005 Răşinari (German: Städterdorf, Hungarian: Resinár) is a village in the Sibiu County, Transylvania, Romania. ... A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ...


Taxi companies are very strong in Sibiu with about 2000 taxis operating. The fares are the same for every company: 1.5 RON/km and 1 RON starting price. The city council regulations are very strict and impose the yellow colour for all taxis (as well as for all buses).


Tourism

Historic house in Sibiu
Historic house in Sibiu

In 2007, Sibiu was the European Capital of Culture (together with Luxembourg). It is the most important cultural event that has ever happened in the city and a great number of tourists are expected, both domestic and foreign. [4] Image File history File links Sibiu,_Cseh-Domo. ... Image File history File links Sibiu,_Cseh-Domo. ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


The city of Sibiu and its surroundings are one of the most visited areas in Romania. It holds one of the best preserved historical sites in the country, many of its medieval fortifications having been kept in excellent state. Its old center has begun the process for becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. Sibiu and its surrounding area have many significant museums, with 12 institutions housing art collections, paintings, and exhibits in decorative arts, archaeology, anthropology, history, industrial archeology and history of technology and natural sciences. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


The city also lies close to the Făgăraş Mountains - a very popular trekking destination, close to the Păltiniş resort - a popular winter holiday destination, and it is at the heart of the former Saxon communities in Transylvania renowned for its fortified churches. The FăgăraÅŸ Mountains viewed from the train FăgăraÅŸ Mountains are the highest mountains of the Southern Carpathians, in Romania. ... PăltiniÅŸ is a resort in Transylvania, Romania, 35km soth-west from Sibiu in the Cândrel Mountains. ... The Transylvanian villages with fortified churches provide a vivid picture of the cultural landscape of southern Transylvania. ...


Accommodation

There are over 35 hotels in Sibiu, with different classifications. The most exquisite hotels are the Împăratul Romanilor hotel, located in the center of the old part of the city and the Ramada hotel, located near the Unirii Plaza. Continental Hotels Romania owns two important hotels in the city and has upgraded one of them to the Continental Forum name. Two brand new hotels were scheduled to open in 2007.


Places of interest

The Evangelical Cathedral viewed from the Lower City
The Evangelical Cathedral viewed from the Lower City

Much of the city's aspect is due to its position, easily defensible, but allowing horizontal development. The old city of Sibiu lies on the right bank of the Cibin River, on a hill situated at about 200 m from the river. It consists of two distinct entities: the Upper City and the Lower City. Traditionally, the Upper City was the wealthier part and commercial outlet, while the Lower City served as the manufacturing area. Image File history File links Sibiu,_Pfarrkirche1. ... Image File history File links Sibiu,_Pfarrkirche1. ...


The Lower City

The Lower City (Romanian: Oraşul de jos) comprises the area between the river and the hill, and it developed around the earliest fortifications. The streets are long and quite wide for medieval city standards, with small city squares at places. The architecture is rather rustic: typically two-storey houses with tall roofs and gates opening passages to inner courts.


Most of the exterior fortifications were lost to industrial development and modern urban planning in the late 19th century; only one or two towers still exist. A building associated with newer urbanism of the period is the Independenţa Highschool.


This area has the oldest church in the city, dating back to 1386.


The Upper City

The Upper City (Romanian: Oraşul de sus) is organised around three city squares and a set of streets along the line of the hill. As the main area for burgher activities, the area contains most points of interest in Sibiu. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Large Square

Piaţa Mare (Large Square)
Piaţa Mare (Large Square)

The Large Square (Romanian: Piaţa Mare, German: Großer Ring) is, as its name suggests, the largest square of the city, and has been the center of the city since the 16th century. 142 m long and 93 m wide, it is one of the largest ones in Transylvania. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 528 KB) Summary Made by me, December 2005 Licensing Categorie:Sibiu File links The following pages link to this file: Sibiu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 528 KB) Summary Made by me, December 2005 Licensing Categorie:Sibiu File links The following pages link to this file: Sibiu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Tiananmen Square, Beijing The Macroplaza, Monterrey Prato della Valle, Padova Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan Place de la Concorde, Paris Palace Square, St. ...


Brukenthal Palace, one of the most important Baroque monuments in Romania, lies on the north-western corner of the square. It was erected between 1777 and 1787 as the main residence for the Governor of Transylvania Samuel von Brukenthal. It houses the main part of the National Brukenthal Museum, opened in 1817. Next to the palace is the Blue House, an 18th century Baroque house bearing the old coat of arms of Sibiu on its façade. The Brukenthal National Museum (Romanian: Muzeul NaÅ£ional Brukenthal) is a museum in Sibiu, Romania, housed in the palace of Samuel von Brukenthal — who was Habsburg governor of Transylvania and who established its first collections around 1790. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Samuel von Brukenthal Samuel von Brukenthal (1721, Nocrich-1803, Sibiu) was the governor of The Great Principality of Transylvania between July 6, 1774 and January 9, 1787. ...

Sibiu city centre
Sibiu city centre

On the north side is the Jesuit Church, along with its dependencies, the former residence of the Jesuits in Sibiu. Also on the north side, at the beginning of the 20th century an Art Nouveau building was constructed on the west part, now it houses the mayor's office. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...


Next to the Jesuit Church on the north side is the Council Tower, one of the city's symbols. This former fortification tower from the 14th century has been successively rebuilt over the years. The building nearby used to be the City Council's meetingplace; beneath it lies an access way between the Large Square and the Small Square.


On the south and east sides are two- or three-storey houses, having tall attics with small windows known as the city's eyes. Most of these houses are dated 17th to 19th centuries, and most of them are Baroque in style.


The Small Square

Sibiu's fortifications
Sibiu's fortifications

As its name says, the Piaţă Mică is smaller in size, being rather longer than wide. Its north-west side has a curved shape, unlike the Large Square, which has an approximately rectangular shape. Accordingly, Piaţă Mică plays a smaller part in the city's present-day life. ImageMetadata File history File links Sibiu_cetatii. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Sibiu_cetatii. ...


The square is connected to the other two squares and to other streets by small, narrow passages. The main access from the Lower City is through Ocnei Street, which divides the square in two. The street passes under the Liar's Bridge - the first bridge in Romania to have been cast in iron (1859).


To the right of the bridge is another symbol of the city, The House of the Arts, an arched building formerly belonging to the Butchers' Guild. On the left side of the bridge is the Luxemburg House, a Baroque four-storey building, former seat of the Goldsmiths' Guild.


The Huet Square

Huet Square is the third of the three main squares of Sibiu. Its most notable feature is the Evangelical Lutheran Cathedral in its center. It is the place where the earliest fortifications have been built. The buildings around this square are mainly Gothic. On the west side lies the Brukenthal Highschool, in place of a former 15th century school. The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ...


The Fortifications

The Stairs' Passage in February 2006
The Stairs' Passage in February 2006

The city of Sibiu was one of the most important fortified cities in Southeastern Europe. Multiple rings were built around the city, most of them out of clay bricks. The south-eastern fortifications are the best kept, and all three parallel lines are still visible. The first is an exterior earth mound, the second is a 10-meter-tall red brick wall, and the third line comprises towers linked by another 10-meter-tall wall. All structures are connected via a labyrinth of tunnels and passageways, designed to ensure transport between the city and lines of defense. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3840x3840, 1307 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sibiu ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3840x3840, 1307 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sibiu ...


In the 16th century more modern elements were added to the fortifications, mainly leaf-shaped bastions. One of these survived to this day, as the Haller Bastion (all the way down Coposu Boulevard). The point of a bastion on a reconstructed French fort in Illinois. ...


Passage of the Stairs

The steep Passage of the Stairs leads down to the lower section of Sibiu. It descends along some fortifications under the support arches. It is the most picturesque of the several passages linking the two sides of the city.


Culture

Sibiu is one of Romania's most culturally lively cities. It has two theatres and a philharmonic orchestra.


The Radu Stanca National Theatre [5] is one of the leading Romanian theatres. With origins dating back to 1787, it attracts some of the best-known Romanian directors, such as Tompa Gábor and Silviu Purcărete. It has both a Romanian-language and a German-language section, and presents an average of five shows a week.


The Gong Theatre is specialised in puppetry, mime and non-conventional shows for children and teenagers. It also presents shows in both Romanian and German.


The State Philharmonic of Sibiu [6] presents weekly classical music concerts, and educational concerts for children and teenagers. The concerts take place in the newly restored Thalia Hall, a concert and theatre hall dating from 1787, situated along the old city fortifications. Weekly organ concerts are organised at the Evangelical Cathedral during summers, and thematic concerts are presented by the Faculty of Theology choir at the Orthodox Cathedral. The State Philharmonic Orchestra of Sibiu is a well known orchestra from Romania. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


Museums

Brukenthal National Museum
Brukenthal National Museum

Sibiu's museums are organised around two entities: the Brukenthal National Museum and the ASTRA National Museum Complex. The Brukenthal Museum consists of an Art Gallery and an Old Books Library located inside the Brukenthal Palace, a History Museum located in the old town hall building, a Pharmacy Museum located in one of the first apothecary shops in Europe, dating from the 16th century, a Natural History Museum and a Museum of Arms and Hunting Trophies. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Brukenthal National Museum (Romanian: Muzeul Naţional Brukenthal) is a museum in Sibiu, Romania, housed in the palace of Samuel von Brukenthal — who was Habsburg governor of Transylvania and who established its first collections around 1790. ... ASTRA Palace ASTRA National Museum Complex (in Romanian: Complexul Naţional Muzeal ASTRA) is a museum complex in Sibiu, Romania, which gathers under the same authority four ethnology and civilisation museums in the city, a series of laboratories for conservation and research and a documentation centre. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ...


The ASTRA National Museum Complex focuses on ethnography, and consists of a Traditional Folk Civilisation Museum—a 96-hectare open-air museum located on a forest south of Sibiu—a Universal Ethnography Museum, a Museum of Transylvanian Civilisation and a Museum of Saxon Ethnography and Folk Art. It also has a project of opening a Museum of the Culture and Civilisation of the Romany People. ASTRA Palace ASTRA National Museum Complex (in Romanian: Complexul NaÅ£ional Muzeal ASTRA) is a museum complex in Sibiu, Romania, which gathers under the same authority four ethnology and civilisation museums in the city, a series of laboratories for conservation and research and a documentation centre. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ...


There is a Steam Locomotives Museum close to the railway station, sheltering around 40 locomotives, two of which are functional. The Steam Locomotives Museum (Romanian: Muzeul locomotivelor cu abur) is a museum in Sibiu, Romania. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ...


Events

Several festivals are organised yearly in Sibiu, the most prestigious of them being the Theatre Festival, organised each spring at the end of May. The ArtMania rock festival is held every Summer since 2006. The oldest Jazz Festival in Romania is organised here, as well as the "Carl Filtsch" festival for young classical piano players, the "Astra Film" documentary film festival, the Transylvania calling Festival a Multi Cultural 6 day Open Air Music festival! 26-31 July 2007, a medieval arts festival and many more smaller cultural events. [7] is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


European Cultural Capital

The designation as a European Cultural Co-Capital for 2007, owed greatly to the excellent collaboration with Luxembourg, but also to what many regard as a miraculous social rebirth taking place in the city during the last years. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


The Cultural Capital status was expected to bring about an abrupt increase in quantity and quality of cultural events in 2007. The long term effects, on the other hand, and the impact on the city's inhabitants are quite disputed. Some people consider the status of Cultural Capital a natural recognition of the city's merits, while young intellectuals consider it less of a recognition and more of a chance that has been generously granted to Sibiu.[8]


Education

Gheorghe Lazăr High School, the former Jesuit College of Sibiu
Gheorghe Lazăr High School, the former Jesuit College of Sibiu
The Lucian Blaga University
The Lucian Blaga University

Sibiu is an important centre of higher education, with over 34,000 undergraduate students in 2007 (counting for almost one fourth of the entire population). Image File history File links Lazar8. ... Image File history File links Lazar8. ... Jesuits have founded and managed a number of institutions, notably universities, which have produced many well-known alumni. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 289 KB) Summary Lucian-Blaga-Universität in Hermannstadt (RO). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 289 KB) Summary Lucian-Blaga-Universität in Hermannstadt (RO). ...


The Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu[9] was founded in 1990, with five faculties: Engineering and Sciences; Letters; History and Law; Medicine; Food and Textile Processing Technology. Nowadays, it has many departments. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Andrei Şaguna Faculty of Theology
  • Faculty of Letters and Arts
  • Nicolae Lupu Faculty of History and Patrimony
  • Simion Bărnuţiu Faculty of Law
  • Hermann Oberth Faculty of Engineering[10]
  • Faculty of Sciences
  • Victor Papilian Faculty of Medicine
  • Faculty of Economics
  • Faculty of Journalism
  • Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Food Industry and Environmental Protection
  • The University College
  • Department for Distance and E-Learning[11]

Sibiu also houses the Nicolae Bălcescu Land Forces Military Academy, as well as some private universities.


In Sibiu there are 20 educational institutions on the secondary level, the most prestigious of which are:

  • Gheorghe Lazăr National College - mainly sciences and informatics, with some bilingual classes
  • Samuel von Brukenthal National College - German language high school
  • Octavian Goga National College - social sciences, sciences and informatics
  • Onisifor Ghibu Theoretical Highschool - informatics, social sciences and sports
  • Andrei Şaguna National College - training for schoolteachers, informatics, social sciences and sports
  • Constantin Noica Theoretical Highschool - social sciences and sciences

Gheorghe Lazăr, 5 June 1779 - 17 September 1821 was a romanian scholar, the founder of the first romanian speaking school in Bucharest in 1818. ... Samuel von Brukenthal Samuel von Brukenthal (1721, Nocrich-1803, Sibiu) was the governor of The Great Principality of Transylvania between July 6, 1774 and January 9, 1787. ... Octavian Goga Octavian Goga (April 1, 1881—May 7, 1938) was a Romanian nationalist politician, poet, playwright, journalist, and translator. ... Onisifor Ghibu (May 31, 1883 - October 3, 1972) was a Romanian teacher of pedagogy, member of the Romanian Academy and politician. ... Andrei Åžaguna (1809, Miskolc, Hungary—1873, Sibiu) was a Metropolitan bishop of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Transylvania, and one of the Romanian community political leaders in the Habsburg Monarchy, especially active during the 1848 Revolution. ... Constantin Noica Constantin Noica (July 12/25 1909, Vităneşti - December 4, 1987, Păltiniş) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist. ...

Sports teams

Football (soccer)
  • FC Sibiu
  • Atletic Sibiu
Rugby
  • CSM Sibiu
Volleyball
  • CSM Sibiu (men)
  • CSS Sibiu (women)
Basketball
  • CSU Atlassib Sibiu (men)
Handball
  • CSM Sibiu (women)
  • CSM Sibiu (men)

Natives

  • Arthur Arz von Straussenburg, Austro-Hungarian general
  • Miklós Borsos, Hungarian sculptor
  • Andrei Codrescu, American writer
  • Sabina Cojocar, Romanian gymnast
  • Sándor Domanovszky, Hungarian historian
  • Steve Holmes, German pornographic actor
  • Iancu Sasul, Moldavian ruler
  • Hermann Kusmanek von Burgneustädten, Austro-Hungarian general
  • Hermann Oberth, German space flight technology pioneer
  • Nicolaus Olahus, Hungarian archbishop
  • Oskar Pastior, Romanian-German poet and translator
  • Dan Perjovschi, Romanian artist
  • Lia Perjovschi, Romanian artist
  • János Márton Stock, Hungarian painter
  • Tobias Stranovius, Saxon painter
  • Viorel Tilea, Romanian diplomat

Arthur Freiherr Arz von Straussenburg 1917 Arthur Arz von Straussenburg (June 16, 1857, Hermannstadt, present day Sibiu – June 1, 1935, Budapest) was the last military leader of the Austro-Hungarian Army, until the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Miklós Borsos Miklós Borsos(1906 - 1990) was a twentieth century Hungarian sculptor. ... Andrei Codrescu (born December 20, 1946), born in Sibiu, Romania. ... Sabina Carolina Cojocar (born October 23, 1985, Sibiu, Romania) is a retired international elite gymnast from Romania. ... Steve Holmes (b. ... Iancu Sasul (John the Saxon) or Ioan Vodă V (Voivode John V; d. ... Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees. ... Nicolaus Olahus Nicolaus Olahus (Nicholas, the Vlach; Romanian: Nicolae Olahus; Hungarian: Miklós Oláh) was the Archbishop of Gran and Primate of Hungary and a distinguished prelate. ... Oskar Pastior (October 20, 1927, Sibiu - October 4, 2006, Frankfurt) was a German-Romanian writer and the only German member of Oulipo. ...

Twinned towns

Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Bauru is a Brazilian city and municipality in the state of São Paulo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: Country United States State Missouri County Boone Government  - Mayor Darwin Hindman Area  - City  59 sq mi (138. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Deventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Lindwurm fountain in the center of Klagenfurt Klagenfurt (Slovene: Celovec), officially known as Klagenfurt am Wörthersee,[1] is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia in Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany both belonging to Eastern and Southern Bavaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... , Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Rennes (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Valencia is the capital city of Carabobo State, Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Wirral is a metropolitan borough in Merseyside, North West England, which occupies the northern part of the Wirral Peninsula, more commonly known as The Wirral. ...

Legations

Currently there are two legations in Sibiu:

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a tiny landlocked state in the north-west of the continental Europe, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium. ...

References

is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Varga E. Árpád: Statistici etnice şi confesionale pentru Transilvania
  2. ^ Atlassib - Official Site
  3. ^ Tursib - Official Site
  4. ^ Sibiu - European Capital of Culture - Official Site
  5. ^ Radu Stanca National Theatre - Official Site
  6. ^ State Philharmonic of Sibiu - Official Site
  7. ^ 2006 Cultural Programme
  8. ^ R. Al. Nica: Mirajul schimbării la faţă a Sibiului (Interviu) - Sibiu
  9. ^ Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu - Official Site
  10. ^ Hermann Oberth Faculty of Engineering - Official Site
  11. ^ Department for Distance and E-Learning - Official Site
  12. ^ (Romanian)Sibiu Town Hall Official Site, Acordul de infratire intre Sibiu si orasul Deventer din Olanda, 23 May, 2007

Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sibiu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2222 words)
Common opinion in the 17th century ascribed Sibiu the quality of being the easternmost city to be part of the European sphere; it was also the eastern terminus of postal routes.
Sibiu is one of the most prosperous cities of Romania, and also receives one of the highest rates of foreign investment in the country.
Sibiu's museums are organised around two entities: the Brukenthal National Museum and the ASTRA National Museum Complex.
Sibiu (346 words)
Sibiu also known by its German name as Hermannstadt and is located in the very heart of Romania.
Sibiu became a prosperous commercial center in the XIV century.
Surrounding Sibiu are a number of lovely villages with fortified churches and rows of houses presenting a highly coloured, but solid wall to the street.
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