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Encyclopedia > Siberian Traps

The Siberian Traps (Russian: Сибирские траппы) form a large igneous province in Siberia. The massive eruptive event spans the Permian-Triassic boundary and was essentially co-incident with the Permian-Triassic extinction event in what was one of the largest known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history. A large igneous province (LIP) is an extensive region of basalts resulting from flood basalt volcanism. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 200 Ma (million years ago). ... The Permian-Triassic extinction event, labeled End P here, is the most significant extinction event in this plot for marine fossiliferous genera. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... World geologic provinces Oceanic crust  0-20 Ma  20-65 Ma  >65 Ma Geologic provinces  Shield  Platform  Orogen  Basin  Large igneous province  Extended crust Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason))[1] is the science and study of the solid matter of a celestial body, its composition...

Contents

Geographical extent

Vast volumes of basaltic lava paved over a large expanse of primeval Siberia in a flood basalt event. Today the area covered is about 2 million km² and estimates of the original coverage are as high as 7 million km². The original volume of lava is estimated to range from 1 to 4 million km³. Basalt Columnar basalt at Sheepeater Cliff in Yellowstone Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A flood basalt is a giant volcanic eruption that coats large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava. ...


The area covered lies between 50 and 75 degrees north latitude and 60 to 120 degrees east longitude. The volcanism continued for a million years and spanned the P-Tr Boundary. There is no firm evidence that this event caused (or helped cause) the Permian extinction, but the timing of the two events is provocative.


Reason for formation

The source of the Siberian Traps basalt is considered to be a mantle plume which impacted the base of the crust and erupted through the Siberian Craton. Helium isotope geochemistry from the basalts indicates a plume origin. The scientific debate continues, however. A mantle plume is an upwelling of molten rock within the Earths (or another planets) mantle. ... World geologic provinces. ... Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of Geology based upon study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the Earth. ...


Siberian Traps and nickel

The Siberian Traps are considered to have erupted via a vent at Norilsk in Siberia, and the giant Norilsk-Talnakh nickel-copper-palladium deposit formed within the magma conduits which formed the eruptive centre. Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ...


External links

  • The Siberian Traps
  • The Siberian Traps, by Richard Cowen
  • Mantle Plumes geology. Map and detailed geologic evidence for non-plume origin.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Siberian Traps - Introduction (337 words)
The Siberian Traps are the remnants of widepread volcanic activity that occurred in northern Pangea, about 250 m.y.
The Siberian Traps have attracted considerable study, not least around the region of the Noril'sk Ni sulfide deposit, the largest in the world, where the Traps gain their maximum known thickness.
Similar 'coincidences' exist between the Deccan Traps and the end-Cretaceous extinction (at 65 Ma), and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province and the end-Triassic extinction (at 200 Ma).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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