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Encyclopedia > Siberian Tiger
Siberian Tiger

Conservation status
Image:Status iucn3.1 CR.svg <br / Critically endangered
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Pantherinae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Subspecies: P. tigris altaica
Trinomial name
Panthera tigris altaica
Temminck, 1884
Distribution of the Siberian tiger (in red)
Distribution of the Siberian tiger (in red)

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (P. tigris). Also known as the Amur, Manchurian, Korean, Altaic, or North China tiger, it is confined completely to the Amur region in the Far East, where it is now protected. It is considered to be the largest of the six tiger subspecies and the largest taxon cat in the world. The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Genera Neofelis Panthera Uncia Pantherinae is a sub-family of the family Felidae which include the genera Panthera, Uncia and Neofelis. ... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family, one of four big cats that belong to the Panthera genus. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Coenraad Jacob Temminck (March 31, 1778 - January 30, 1858) was a Dutch aristocrat and zoologist. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 25 KB) Lebensraum des Sibirischen Tigers Quelle: Selbst angefertigt Lizenz: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amur Tiger ... This article is about the zoological term. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the worlds ten longest rivers, located between the Russian Far East and Manchuria of... This article is about the Asian regions. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...

Contents

Physical features

The Siberian tiger is typically 2-4 inches taller at the shoulder than the Bengal Tiger, which is about 107-110 cm (42-43 in) tall .[1] Old Males reach normally a head and body length of 190-220 centimetres (75-97 in). The largest male with largely assured references was 350 cm (138 in) "over curves" (3,30 m/130 in. between pegs) in total length.[2] (The tail length in old males is about one m/39 in.) A maximum body weight of up to 306 kg (675 lbs) is recorded[2] and exceptionally large males weighing up to 384 kg (847 lbs) are mentioned in the literature but, according to Mazak, none of these cases were confirmed via reliable sources.[2] Females are normally smaller than males and weigh 100-167 kg (220-368 lbs),[3] probably up to 180 kg (400 lbs).[4] Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris or Panthera tigris bengalensis), is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in Bangladesh, India, and also Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and southern Tibet. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...

Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger

The "Siberian Tiger Project", which has operated from Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik since 1992, found that 215 kg (474 lbs) seemed to be the largest that they were able to verify, albeit from a limited number of specimens.[5] According to modern research of wild Siberian tigers in Sikhote-Aline, an average adult male tiger (>35 months) weighs 167,3 - 185,7 kg (the average asymptotic limit, computed by use of the Michaelis-Menten formula, gives 222,3 kg for male tigers) and an adult tigress – 117,9 – 122,6 kg, respectively. The mean weight of historical Siberian tigers is supposed to be higher: 215,3-226,7 kg for male tigers. [6] At least one authority suspects that this is the difference between real weights and hunter's estimates.[7] Dale Miquelle, program director of the Siberian Tiger Project, writes that, despite repeated claims in the popular literature that the Siberian is the largest of all tigers, their measurements on more than fifty captured individuals suggest that body size is, in fact, similar to that of Bengal tigers.[8] The Sikhote-Alin (also spelled Sikhotae-Alin) is a mountain range in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krais, Russia, extending about 900 km to the northeast of the Russian Pacific seaport of Vladivostok. ...


Apart from its size, the Siberian tiger is differentiated from other tiger subspecies by its mane of fur around the neck, which is much more developed than in other subspecies as an adaptation against the cold. The fur of this subspecies grows longer and thicker than that of other tigers. During cold winter months, the fur can measure as long as 21 inches with 3,000 hairs over every square centimetre of its surface. The paws have extra fur to provide insulation against the snow. Siberian tigers have more white in their coats than other subspecies and coat colour is more gold than orange. Compared to other subspecies, the Siberian tiger has less striping, the stripes being more brown than black. Stripes appear largely absent on the outer area of the front legs.[9]


Distribution and population

The Siberian tiger is critically endangered. In the early 1900s, it lived throughout northeastern China, the Korean Peninsula, northeastern Mongolia and southeastern Russia. Today, the majority of the population is confined to a tiny part of Russia's southern Far East: the Amur-Ussuri region of Primorsky and Khabarovsky Krai. There are very few tigers in northeastern China and fewer still in North Korea. The South Korean population died out in 1922. An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... The Ussuri River (Chinese: Wūsūlǐ Jīang 乌苏里江, Russian: река Уссури) is a river in south east Russia, flowing north, forming part of the Chinese border, to the Amur River. ... For other uses, see Primorsky. ... Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: ) (1995 pop. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ...

Two Siberian tigersin Berlin Tierpark.
Two Siberian tigers
in Berlin Tierpark.

By the 1940s the estimated population was down to fewer than 50 in the Russian Far East, although some hundreds still populated neighbouring China.[10] The number increased to more than 200 in 1982, although in China there are now thought to be no more than a dozen or so Siberian tigers. Poaching has been brought under better control by frequent road inspections. Captive breeding and conservation programs are active.[11] The Hengdaohezi Feline Breeding Centre in the northern Heilongjiang province of China plans to release 620 Siberian tigers after its numbers have increased from 708 to 750.[12] For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... Captive breeding is the process of breeding endangered animals by capturing them from their natural environment, breeding them in restricted conditions in zoos and other conservation facilities, and releasing them back to the wild when the population stabilizes and the threat to the animal in the wild is lessened or...


A 1996 count reported 430 Siberian tigers in the wild. However, Russian conservation efforts have led to a slight increase, or at least to a stable population of the subspecies, as the number of individuals in the Siberian forests was estimated to be between 431 and 529 in 2005.[13] According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the latest Russian Census reports put this number to be anywhere between 480 and 520 without including the small numbers of this subspecies present in mainland China.[14] Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ...


Genetics

Several reports have been published since the 1990s on the genetic makeup of the Siberian tiger and its relationship to other subspecies. One of the most important outcomes has been the discovery of low genetic variability in the wild Far Eastern population, especially when it comes to maternal or mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages [15]. It seems that a single mtDNA haplotype almost completely dominates the maternal lineages of wild Siberian tigers. On the other hand, captive cats appear to show higher mtDNA diversity. This may suggest that the subspecies has experienced a very recent genetic bottleneck caused by human pressure, with the founders of the captive population being captured when genetic variabilty was higher in the wild[16].


However, it may well be that the Siberian tiger population has always shown relatively low genetic diveristy, due to a small number of founders colonising the Far East. Work with the preserved remains of the now extinct Caspian tiger (P.t. virgata) has shown that the two subspecies share a comparatively recent common history, at least when it comes to mtDNA lineages. It appears that tigers colonised central Asia at most 10,000 years ago, and the modern Siberian stock may be the result of a few Caspian tigers subsequently wandering east via northern Asia[17].


Breeding

Siberian tiger cub
Siberian tiger cub

Siberian tigers reach sexual maturity at 3 years of age. They mate at any time of the year. A female signals her receptiveness by leaving urine deposits and scratch marks on trees. She will spend seven days with the male, during which she is receptive for three days. Gestation lasts 3–3½ months. Litter size is normally 3 or 4 cubs but there can be as many as 6. The cubs are born blind in a sheltered den and are left alone when the female leaves to hunt for food. This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... A litter of pigs A litter is a group of newly born, young animals from the same mother and usually from one set of parents. ... Look up lair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cubs are divided equally between genders at birth. However, by adulthood there are usually 2 to 4 females for every male. The female cubs remain with their mothers longer, and later they establish territories close to their original ranges. Males, on the other hand, travel unaccompanied and range farther earlier in their lives, thus making them more vulnerable to poachers and other tigers.[1]


Diet

Like all other cats, the Siberian tiger is a carnivorous predator. It preys primarily on wild boar and red deer, which make up 65-90% of its diet in the Russian Far East. Other important prey species are moose, roe deer, sika deer, musk deer, and goral. Even dangerous animals like adult brown bears are among the prey species of the Siberian tiger. Asiatic black bears and brown bears constitute 5-8% of the Siberian tigers diet,[2]. In particular, the brown bears input is estimated as 1-1.5%.[18] Certain tigers have been reported to imitate the calls of Asiatic black bears to attract them.[19] It will also take smaller prey like lagomorphs (hares, rabbits, and pikas) and fish, including salmon. Because its main prey are red deer and wild boar, protecting these and other prey animals from illegal hunting may be just as important to the tiger's survival as preventing the direct killing of the big cats. In areas where Siberian tigers and wolves share ranges, the tigers depress the number of wolves, either to the point of localized extinction or to such low numbers as to make them a functionally insignificant component of the ecosystem. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion only when human persecution decreases the number of tigers.[20] Carnivorism redirects here. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name Cervus nippon Temminck, 1838 Subspecies The Sika Deer Cervus nippon is a typical member of the family Cervidae. ... The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... Species Nemorhaedus goral Nemorhaedus caudatus Nemorhaedus baileyi Nemorhaedus crispus Nemorhaedus swinhoei Nemorhaedus sumatraensis The genus Nemorhaedus includes six small species of ungulate with a goat-like or antelope-like appearance. ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... Binomial name (G. Cuvier, 1823) Thibetanus bear range Synonyms Selenarctos thibetanus The Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the moon bear, is a medium sized, sharp-clawed, black-coloured bear with a distinctive white or cream... Families Leporidae Ochotonidae The Lagomorphs, order Lagomorpha, are an order of mammals of which there are two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... Type Species Ochotona minor Link, 1795 (= Lepus dauuricus Pallas, 1776) Species See text The name pika (archaically spelled pica) is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Wolves may refer to: Gray Wolf Other uses of Wolf: see Wolf (disambiguation) Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. Category: ...


Deforestation and the destruction of the habitats for the tiger's prey animals will also affect the number of tigers in certain regions.


History

Head of a Siberian tiger
Head of a Siberian tiger

Soviet Union

In the early years of the Russian Civil War, both Red and White armies based in Vladivostok nearly wiped out the local Siberian tigers. In 1935, when the Manchurian Chinese were driven back across the Amur and the Ussuri, the tigers had already withdrawn from their northern and western range. The few that remained in the East Manchurian mountains were cut off from the main population by the building of railroads. Within a few years, the last viable Siberian tiger population was confined to Ussuri Land. Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... White Army redirects here. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian tiger (in red) The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, Manchurian, Korean, Altaic, or North China tiger, it is confined completely to the Amur region in the Far East...


Legal tiger hunting within the Soviet Union would continue until 1947 when it was officially prohibited. In 1962, the last tiger in Heilongjiang received protection. In the mid 1980s, it was estimated that the Siberian tiger population consisted of approximately 250 animals. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Post Soviet Era

In 1989, law and order almost entirely broke down due to impending collapse of the Soviet Union. Subsequent illegal deforestation and bribery of park rangers made the poaching of Siberian tigers easier, once again putting the subspecies at risk from extinction.[1] However due to the work of The Siberian Tiger Project, founded in 1992, the Siberian tiger has seen a steady recovery and stabilization after the disastrous post-Soviet years that saw its numbers decline sharply. The basis of the success has largely been on the meticulous research carried out on these tigers which led to the longest ongoing study of a single tiger, Olga Project Tiger #1. Through this the project was able to focus their conservation efforts to decrease tiger mortality and to improve the quality of their habitat, as well. The project included anti-poaching patrols, consultation with local governments regarding human-tiger conflicts, reducing the occurrences of clearcut logging and other habitat depletion activities.[21] Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Captivity

Siberian tigress with cub in captivity
Siberian tigress with cub in captivity

The captive population of Siberian tiger comprises several hundred. A majority of these tigers are found in China, with other populations in Europe and North America. The large, distinctive and powerful cats are popular zoo exhibits. The Siberian tiger is bred within the Species Survival Plan (SSP), a project based on 83 wild caught tigers. According to most experts, this population is large enough to stay stable and genetically healthy. Today, approximately 160 Siberian tigers participate in the SSP, which makes it the most extensively bred tiger subspecies within the programme. There are currently no more than around 255 tigers in the tiger SSP from three different subspecies. Developed in 1982, the Species Survival Plan for the Siberian tiger is the longest running program for a tiger subspecies. It has been very fortunate and productive, and the breeding program for the Siberian tiger has actually been used as a good example when new programs have been designed to save other animal species from extinction. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 476 pixel Image in higher resolution (2008 × 1195 pixel, file size: 386 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Siberian Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Amersfoort Zoo (Netherlands); picture taken by Wilma Verburg, 2005/09/10 The mother, 3-year old Kira... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 476 pixel Image in higher resolution (2008 × 1195 pixel, file size: 386 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Siberian Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Amersfoort Zoo (Netherlands); picture taken by Wilma Verburg, 2005/09/10 The mother, 3-year old Kira... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... The Species Survival Plan helps endangered animals find zoos to live in. ...


The Siberian tiger is not very difficult to breed in captivity, but the possibility of survival for animals bred in captivity released into the wild is small. Conservation efforts that secure the wild population are therefore still imperative. If a captive bred Siberian tiger were to be released into the wild, it would lack the necessary hunting skills and starve to death. Captive bred tigers can also approach humans and villages, since they have learned to associate humans with feeding and lack the natural shyness of the wild tigers. In a worst-case scenario, the starving tigers could even become man-eaters. Since tigers must be taught how to hunt by their mothers when they are still cubs, a program that aimed to release captive bred Siberian tigers into the wild would face great difficulties. Captive breeding is the process of breeding endangered animals by capturing them from their natural environment, breeding them in restricted conditions in zoos and other conservation facilities, and releasing them back to the wild when the population stabilizes and the threat to the animal in the wild is lessened or...


Attacks on humans

Unlike the Bengal tiger, the Siberian tiger very rarely becomes a man-eater. There are currently only six cases in Russia of unprovoked attacks leading to man-eating behaviour. Provoked attacks are however more common, usually the result of botched attempts at capturing them.[1] Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris or Panthera tigris bengalensis), is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in Bangladesh, India, and also Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and southern Tibet. ... Look up man-eater in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In an incident at the San Francisco Zoo on 25 December 2007, a Siberian tiger named Tatiana escaped and killed one visitor, injuring two others. The animal was shot dead by the police. Investigators believe the three visitors, whose blood tests showed they had consumed illegal drugs and sufficient alcohol to be above the legal driving limit, had climbed onto the rail by the animal's enclosure and provoked it with taunts and projectiles.[22] Whether the tiger was provoked with projectiles is very much in dispute. Recent reports say police did not find any evidence that the tiger had been provoked by the use of projectiles.[23] is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


See also

  • Tatiana (tiger)
  • Operation Amba

References

  1. ^ a b c d Matthiessen, Peter; Hornocker, Maurice (2001). Tigers In The Snow. North Point Press. ISBN 0865475962. 
  2. ^ a b c d Vratislav Mazak: Der Tiger. Nachdruck der 3. Auflage von 1983. Westarp Wissenschaften Hohenwarsleben, 2004 ISBN 3 894327596
  3. ^ Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  4. ^ Sunquist, Mel; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7. 
  5. ^ Prynn, David (2002). Amur Tiger. Russian Nature Press. ISBN 0953299031. 
  6. ^ Miquelle, D.G., Smirnov, E.N., Goodrich, J.M. (2005). Tigers of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: ecology and conservation. Vladivostok, Russia: PSP, 25-35. 
  7. ^ Matthiessen, Peter (2001). Tigers in the Snow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0865475962. 
  8. ^ Thapar, Valmik (2004). Tiger: The Ultimate Guide. CDS Books. ISBN 1593150245. 
  9. ^ Amur or the amur tiger - Panthera tigris altaica
  10. ^ National Fish and Wildlife Foundation | Amur Tiger
  11. ^ See, for instance, the Siberian Tiger Project of the Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  12. ^ Baby boom for endangered tigers. BBC News (2007-06-17). Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  13. ^ Siberian Tigers Stable, According to Landmark Survey. National Geographic (2005-06-16). Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  14. ^ World's biggest tiger winning extinction fight. The Telegraph (2007-04-14). Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
  15. ^ Luo SJ, Kim JH, Johnson WE, Walt Jvd, Martenson J, et al.(December 2004). Phylogeography and Genetic Ancestry of Tigers (Panthera tigris). PLoS Biol 2(12): e442 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020442
  16. ^ Russello, M. A., E. Gladyshev, D. Miquelle, and A. Caccone.(January 2005). Potential genetic consequences of a recent bottleneck in the Siberian tiger of the Russian Far East. Conservation Genetics, Volume 5, Number 5, Pages 707-713.
  17. ^ Carlos Driscoll.(January 2008). Caspian tiger phylogeography.[1]Abstract of unpublished report
  18. ^ Seryodkin, Ivan (2006). The ecology, behavior, management and conservation status of brown bears in Sikhote-Alin (in Russian). pp.1-252. Far Eastern National University, Vladivostok, Russia.
  19. ^ Brown, Gary (1996). Great Bear Almanac, pp.340. ISBN 1558214747. 
  20. ^ Matthiessen, Peter (2005). Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity: Biodiversity, pp.526. ISBN 1559630809. 
  21. ^ "Siberian Tiger Project", Wildlife Conservation Society
  22. ^ AP, "Tiger attack victim admits taunting, police say; Teen attacked by Tatiana reportedly says young men yelled, waved at cat", MSNBC.com (January 17, 2008)
  23. ^ Jaxon Van Derbeken, "S.F. Zoo mauling investigation winding down" San Francisco Chronicle (January 19, 2008)
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The Wildlife Conservation Society, (WCS), endeavours to save wildlife and wild lands though careful use of science, conservation around the world, education and through a system of urban wildlife parks. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

General references

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...

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