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Encyclopedia > Siberian Intervention

The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 Shiberia Shuppei?) of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Imperial Japanese Army to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by western powers to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the Russian Civil War. The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... Bolsheviks (Russian: IPA , derived from bolshinstvo, majority) were members of the Bolshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction[1] at the Second Party Congress in 1903 and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755...


Background

Following the Russian October Revolution of 1917, the new Bolshevik government signed a separate peace with Germany. The collapse of the Russian front presented a tremendous problem to the Entente powers. Not only was Germany able to shift a large number of troops and war material from its eastern front to the west, Germany was also posed to secure the huge stockpiles of supplies that had been accumulating at Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok. Furthermore, the 50,000 man Czech Legion, fighting on the side of the Allies, was now trapped behind enemy-lines, and was attempting to fight its way out through the east to Vladivostok along the Bolshevik-held Trans-Siberian Railroad. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Bolsheviks (Russian: IPA , derived from bolshinstvo, majority) were members of the Bolshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction[1] at the Second Party Congress in 1903 and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ...


Faced with these concerns, Great Britain and France decided to military intervene in the Russian Civil War against the Bolshevik government. They had three objectives that they hoped to achieve: Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755...

  1. prevent the Allied war material stockpiles in Russia from falling into German hands
  2. rescue the Czech Legion and return it to the European front
  3. resurrect the Eastern Front by installing a White Russian backed government.

Severely short of troops to spare, the British and French requested that the United States provide troops for both the North Russia Campaign and the Siberian Campaign. In July 1918, against the advice of the War Department, President Wilson agreed to send 5,000 U.S. troops as the American North Russia Expeditionary Force (aka the Polar Bear Expedition) and 10,000 U.S. troops as the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... War Department may refer to the military establishments of several different countries: British War Department Confederate War Department United States Department of War, under the leadership of the United States Secretary of War (until 1947) See also: defense minister This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ... The Polar Bear Expedition (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition, the American North Russia Expeditionary Force - ANREF or the American Expeditionary Force North Russia - AEFNR) was a contingent of about 5,000 U.S. troops who landed in Arkhangelsk, Russia and fought the Bolshevik forces in the surrounding region... The American Expeditionary Force Siberia (AEF Siberia) was the involvement of U.S. troops, during the tail end of World War I and the Russian Revolution, in Vladivostok, Russia, from 1918 and 1920. ...


Japanese Participation

In July 1918, President Wilson approached the Japanese government with a request that Japan supply 7000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops planned to support the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. After heated debate in the Diet, the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the command of Japan, rather than as part of an international coalition. This article is about the Japanese legislature. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Field Marshal Count Masatake Terauchi ) (5 February 1852 –3 November 1919) was Field Marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 18th Prime Minister of Japan from 9 October 1916 to 29 September 1918. ...


Once the political decision had been reached, the Imperial Japanese Army took over full control under Chief of Staff Yui Mitsue, and by November 1918, more than 70,000 Japanese troops had occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and eastern Siberia. The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ...


In June 1920, America and its allied coalition partners withdrew from Vladivostok after the capture and execution of White Army leader Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak by the Red Army. However, the Japanese decided to stay, primarily due to fears of the spread of communism so close to Japan, and Japanese controlled Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese army provided military support to the Japanese-backed Priamur government based in Vladivostok against the Moscow-backed Far Eastern Republic. Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Admiral Kolchak Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ...


The continued Japanese presence was viewed with considerable alarm by the United States, who suspected Japan of territorial designs on Siberia and the Russian Far East. Subjected to intense diplomatic pressure by the United States and Great Britain, and facing increasing domestic opposition due to the economic and human cost, the administration of Prime Minister Kato Tomosaburo withdrew the Japanese forces in October 1922. Katō Tomosaburō Viscount Katō Tomosaburō (加藤 友三郎 Katō Tomosaburō, February 22, 1861–August 24, 1923) was a Japanese politician and the 21st Prime Minister of Japan from June 12, 1922 to August 24, 1923. ...


Legacy

Japan's motives in the Siberian Intervention were complex and poorly articulated. Overtly, Japan (as with the United States and the other international coalition forces) were in Siberia to safeguard stockpiled military supplies and to ‘rescue’ the Czech Legion. However, the Japanese government's intense hostility to communism, a determination to recoup historical losses to Russia, and the perceived opportunity to settle the “northern problem” in Japan's security by either creating a buffer state, or through outright territorial acquisition were also factors. However, patronage of various White Movement leaders left Japan in a poor diplomatic position vis-à-vis the government of the Soviet Union, after the Red Army eventually emerged victorious from the Russian Civil War.


Japanese casualties from the Siberian Expedition included some 5000 dead from combat or illness, and expenses in excess of 900 million yen.


 
 

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