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Encyclopedia > Shyness

In humans, shyness is the feeling of apprehension or lack of confidence experienced in regard to social association with others, e.g. being in proximity to, approaching and being approached by others. In zoology, shy generally means "tends to avoid human beings"; See crypsis. Shyness in animals manifests with ostensibly similar behavioral traits, but differs wholly from humans in cognition and motivation. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about modern humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Insecurity is either danger, i. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Crypsis is a phenomena where an organisms appearance allows it to blend well into its environment. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ...

Contents

Triggers, traits and misperception

Shyness is most likely to occur during unfamiliar situations, though in severe cases it may hinder an individual in his or her most familiar situations and relationships as well. Shy individuals avoid the objects of their apprehension in order to avoid feeling uncomfortable and inept, thus the situations remain unfamiliar and the shyness perpetuates itself. Shyness may fade with time (a child who is shy toward strangers, for instance, may eventually lose this trait when older and more socially adept), or may be an integrated, life-long character trait, often by adolescence and young adulthood (but most likely around the age of 13). For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... Maturity may refer to: Sexual maturity Maturity, a geological term describing hydrocarbon generation Maturity, a financial term indicating the end of payments of principal or interest Look up Maturity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Humans experience shyness to different degrees and in different areas. For example, an actor may be loud and bold on stage, but shy in an interview. In addition, shyness may manifest when one is in the company of certain people and completely disappear when with others—one may be outgoing with friends and family, but experience love-shyness toward potential partners, even if strangers are generally not an obstacle. The term love-shyness is sometimes used to designate a specific type of severe chronic shyness. ...


The condition of true shyness may simply involve the discomfort of difficulty in knowing what to say in social situations, or may include crippling physical manifestations of uneasiness. Shyness usually involves a combination of both symptoms, and may be quite devastating for the sufferer, in many cases leading them to feel that they are boring, or exhibit bizarre behaviour in an attempt to create interest, alienating them further. Social refers to human society or its organization. ...


Instinctive behavioural traits in social situations such as smiling, easily producing suitable conversational topics, assuming a relaxed posture and making good eye contact, which come spontaneously for the average person, may not be second nature for a shy person, requiring struggle or being completely unattainable. Laughing Child Laughter is the biological reaction of humans to moments or occasions of humor: an outward expression of amusement. ... For the film, see The Conversation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gaze aversion. ...


Complications

The term shyness may be implemented as a lay blanket-term for a family of related and partially overlapping afflictions, including timidity (apprehension in meeting new people), bashfulness and diffidence (lack of assertiveness), apprehension and anticipation (general fear of potential interaction), or intimidation (relating to the object of fear rather than one's low confidence).[1] Timidity is a MIDI and KAR to WAVE converter and player distributed under the terms of GNU general public license. ...


It must also be noted that apparent shyness, as perceived by others, may simply be the manifestation of reservation or introversion, character traits which cause an individual to voluntarily avoid excessive social contact or be terse in communication, but are not motivated or accompanied by discomfort, apprehension, or lack of confidence. The terms Introvert and Extrovert (spelled Extravert by Carl Jung), were originally employed by Sigmund Freud and given significant amplification later by Jung. ...


Rather, according to Bernardo J. Carducci, director of the Shyness Research Institute, introverts choose to avoid social situations because they derive no reward from them, or may find surplus sensory input overwhelming. Conversely, shy people fear such situations and feel that they must avoid them. [2]


Shy people tend to perceive their own shyness as a negative trait, and many people are uneasy with shyness in others, especially in cultures which value individuality and taking charge. This generally poor reception of shyness may be misinterpreted by the suffering individual as aversion related to his or her personality, rather than simply to his or her shyness. Both conditions can lead to a compounding of a shy individual's low self-confidence. Individualism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis of the individual, as opposed to, and possibly at the expense of, the group. ...


In American culture, which tends to value outspokenness and confidence, a shy individual could be perceived as weak. To an unsympathetic observer, a shy individual may be mistaken as arrogant or aloof, frustrating the sufferer. In more forgiving arenas, shy people may be perceived to be thoughtful, good listeners and are more likely to think before they speak. Furthermore, boldness, the opposite of shyness, may cause its own problems, such as impertinence or inappropriate behavior. Boldness is an opposite of shyness. ...


Origins

The initial causes of shyness vary. Scientists have located some genetic data that supports the hypothesis that shyness is at least partially genetic. However, there is also evidence that the environment in which a person is raised can affect their shyness. This includes child abuse, particularly emotional abuse such as ridicule. Shyness can originate after a person has experienced a physical anxiety reaction; at other times, shyness seems to develop first and then later causes physical symptoms of anxiety. Child abuse is the physical, emotional or sexual abuse or neglect of children. ... Emotional abuse refers to a long-term situation in which one person uses his or her power or influence to adversely affect the mental well-being of another. ... This article is about state anxiety. ...


Shyness differs from social anxiety, which is a broader, often depression-related psychological condition including the experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others to panic-inducing extents. Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ...


Genetics and heredity

The genetics of shyness is a relatively small area of research that has been receiving an even smaller amount of attention, although papers on the biological bases of shyness date back at least to 1988. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Some research has indicated that shyness and aggression are related—through long and short forms of the gene DRD4, though considerably more research on this is needed. Further, it has been suggested that shyness and social phobia (the distinction between the two is becoming ever more blurred) are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Social phobia (DSM-IV 300. ...


As with other studies of behavioral genetics, the study of shyness is complicated by the number of genes involved in, and the confusion in defining, the phenotype. Naming the phenotype – and translation of terms between genetics and psychology — also causes problems. In some research, "behavioral inhibition" is studied, in others anxiety or social inhibition is. One solution to this problem is to study the genetics of underlying traits, such as "anxious temperament." Behavioural genetics (behavioral genetics) is the field of biology that studies the role of genetics in animal behaviour. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...


Several genetic links to shyness are current areas of research. One of the most promising is the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), the long form of which has been shown to be highly correlated with shyness in grade school children. Previous studies had shown a connection between this form of the gene and both obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism. Mouse models have also been used, to derive genes suitable for further study in humans; one such gene, the glutamic acid decarboxylase gene (which encodes an enzyme that functions in GABA synthesis), has so far been shown to have some association with behavioral inhibition. Another gene, the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III polymorphism, had been the subject of studies in both shyness and aggression, and is currently the subject of studies on the "novelty seeking" trait. A 1996 study of anxiety-related traits (shyness being one of these) remarked that, "Although twin studies have indicated that individual variation in measures of anxiety-related personality traits is 40-60% heritable, none of the relevant genes has yet been identified," and that "10 to 15 genes might be predicted to be involved" in the anxiety trait. Progress has been made since then, especially in identifying other potential genes involved in personality traits, but there has been little progress made towards confirming these relationships. The long version of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is now postulated to be correlated with shyness, but in the 1996 study, the short version was shown to be related to anxiety-based traits. This confusion and contradiction does not oppose the genetic basis of personality traits, but does emphasize the amount of research there is still to be done before the bases of even one or two of these characteristics can be identified. Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in GABAergic nerve endings. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid (usually abbreviated to GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Environmental factors

Excessive shyness, embarrassment, self consciousness and timidity, social-phobia and lack of self-confidence are also components of erethism, which is a symptom complex that appears in cases of mercury poisoning[1][2]. This article is about the element. ...


See also

Boldness is an opposite of shyness. ... The term love-shyness is sometimes used to designate a specific type of severe chronic shyness. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (spelled Extravert by Carl Jung), were originally employed by Sigmund Freud and given significant amplification later by Jung. ... Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ... Social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD), is a common form of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to experience intense anxiety in some or all of the social interactions and public events of everyday life. ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations. ... Avoidant personality disorder (APD or AvPD) [1] or Anxious personality disorder (APD) [2], is a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation and avoidance of social interaction. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

References

  • Arbelle, Shoshana; Benjamin, Jonathan; Golin, Moshe; Kremer, Ilana; Belmaker, Robert H.; Ebstein, Richard: Relation of shyness in grade school children to the genotype for the long form of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2003; 160(4): 671-676.
  • Kluger, A. N.; Siegfried, Z.; Epbstein, R. P.: A meta-analysis of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking. Molecular Psychiatry 2002; 7: 712-717.
  • Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Bengal, Dietmar; Heils, Armin; Sabol, Sue Z.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Petri, Susanne; Benjamin, Jonathan; Muller, Clemens R.; Hamer, Dean H.; Murphy, Dennis L.: Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science 1996; 274(5292): 1527-1531.
  • Smoller, Jordan W.; Rosenbaum, Jerold F.; Biederman, Joseph; Susswein, Lisa S.; Kennedy, John; Kagan, Jerome; Snidman, Nancy; Laird, Nan; Tsuang, Ming T.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Schwarz, Alysandra; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.: Genetic association analysis of behavioral inhibition using candidate loci from mouse models. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2001; 105: 226-235.
  1. ^ WHO (1976) Environmental Health Criteria 1: Mercury, Geneva, World Health Organization, 131 pp.
  2. ^ WHO. Inorganic mercury. Environmental Health Criteria 118. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1991.

WHO redirects here. ...

External links

Image File history File links Shyness. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the emotion. ... A woman showing disgust. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... For other uses, see Surprise. ... Alertness is the the process of paying close and continuous attention. ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from ones conscious thinking. ... Anticipation is an emotion involving pleasure (and sometimes anxiety) in considering some expected or longed-for good event, or irritation at having to wait. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... This article is about the mental state. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about a feeling, for other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gratification is the positive emotional response (happiness) to a fulfillment of desire. ... For other uses, see Gratitude (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Look up despair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Inspiration in artistic composition refers to an irrational and unconscious burst of creativity. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Rage, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Rage, in psychiatry, is a mental state that is one extreme of the intensity spectrum of anger. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Righteous indignation is an emotion one feels when one gets angry over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
"Encyclopedia of Mental Health: Shyness" (7431 words)
Shyness may be defined experientially as discomfort and/or inhibition in interpersonal situations that interferes with pursuing one's interpersonal or professional goals.
Shy individuals underestimate their own ability to cope with social situations and are pessimistic about social situations in general, failing to expect favorable responses even when they believe that they are able to perform appropriately and efficaciously.
Shy people have been found to use alcohol in an effort to relax socially, which may lead to abuse and to impaired social performance, although there is some evidence that suggests that socially phobic individuals drink more frequently, but consume less than others.
Shyness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (979 words)
Shy people tend to perceive their own shyness as a negative trait and many people are uneasy with shyness, especially in cultures that value individuality and taking charge.
The genetics of shyness is a relatively small area of research that has been receiving an even smaller amount of attention, although papers on the biological bases of shyness date back at least to 1988.
A 1996 study of anxiety-related traits (shyness being one of these) remarked that, "Although twin studies have indicated that individual variation in measures of anxiety-related personality traits is 40-60% heritable, none of the relevant genes has yet been identified," and that "10 to 15 genes might be predicted to be involved" in the anxiety trait.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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