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Encyclopedia > Shuubiyah

Shu'ubiyyah (Arabic: الشعوبية) refers to the response by non-Arab Muslims to the privileged status of Arabs within the Ummah. While not actually part of the Islamic faith, there has been discrimination and in some cases oppression of minority groups resulting in many defined periods of cultural struggle throughout Islamic History. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...

Contents

Terminology

The name of the movement is derived from the Qur'anic use of the word for "nations" or "peoples", shū'ub. The verse is often used by Muslims to counter prejudice and fighting among different people. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوباً وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ
O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations (shū'ub) and tribes (qabā'il), that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).

[1]


Socio-political movements

The use of the word in the context of a movement existed before the 9th century. The Kharijites, an early splitoff sect from mainstream Islam, used it to mean extending equality between the shu'ub and the kaba'il to bring about equality among all followers of Islam. It was a direct response to the claims by the Quraysh of being privileged to lead the Ummah, or community of believers. Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In Iran

Main article: Islamicization in post-conquest Iran

"Shu'ubiyyah" When used as a reference to a specific movement, the term refers to a response by Persian Muslims to the growing Arabization of Islam in the 9th and 10th centuries in what is now Iran. It was primarily concerned with preserving Persian culture and protecting Persian identity. The most notable effect of the movement was the survival of Persian language, the language of the Persians, to the present day. The movement never moved into apostacy though, and has it's basis in the Islamic thought of equallity of races and nations. Islamicization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...



In the late 8th and early 9th centuries there was a resurgence of Persian national identity. This came about after years of oppression by the Abbassid caliphate. The movement left substantial records in the form of Persian literature and new forms of poetry. Most of those behind the movement were Persian, but references to Egyptians, Berbers and Aramaeans are attestd.[2] For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Arameans or Aramaeans (also called Syriacs) were a Semitic, nomadic people who dwelt in Aram-Naharaim or Aram of the two rivers, also known as Mesopotamia a region including modern Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Iran that is mentioned six times in the Hebrew Bible. ...


In Andalus

Two centuries after the end of the Shu'ubiyyah movement in the east, another form of the movement came about in Islamic Spain. It was fueled mainly by the Berbers, but included many European cultural groups as well including Galicians, Franks and Calabrians. A notable example of Shu'ubi literature is the epistle of the Andalusian poet Ibn Gharsiya (Garcia). According to the Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, this epistle was of minor importance, and its few exponents tended to repeat clichés adopted from the earlier Islamic East. A manuscript page of the Quran in the script developed in al-Andalus, 12th century Al-ʾAndalus (Arabic الأندلس) is the Arabic name given to the southern parts of theIberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750–929) and Caliphate of Cordoba (929–1031... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Motto: Galiza Ceibe Capital Santiago de Compostela Official languages Galician and Castilian Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 7th  29 574 km²  5,8% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 5th  2 737 370  6,5%  92,36/km² Demonym  – English  – Galician  &#8211... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ...


See also

  • Islamicization in post-conquest Iran
  • Ajam
  • Mawali
  • Islamistan, movement of non-Arab Islamic unity
  • Bashar ibn Burd, famous Shu'ubi poet

Islamicization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... Ajami redirects here. ... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ... Dar al-Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلام literally house of submission) is a term used to refer to those lands under Muslim government(s). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Qur'an in Surah 49, verse 13.(translated by Yusuf Ali)
  2. ^ Enderwitz, S. "Shu'ubiyya". Encylcopedia of Islam. Vol. IX (1997), pp. 513-14.

This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Abdullah Yusuf Ali (1872-1952) was born in Bombay, India, to a wealthy merchant family. ...

References

Wehr, Hans; J M.Cowan (1994). Arabic-English Dictionary. Urbana, IL: Spoken Language Services Inc.. ISBN 0-87950-003-4. 


Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1994). Dictionary of Islam. Chicago, IL: Kazi Publications Inc. USA. ISBN 0-935782-70-2. 


Bosworth, C.E.; E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs & G.leComte (1997). Encyclopedia of Islam, the. Leiden Brill. ISBN 90-04-05745-5. 


 
 

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