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Encyclopedia > Shusha
Shusha
(Azerbaijani: Şuşa, Armenian: Շուշի
Shushi)

Coat of arms (de jure)
Azeri subdivsion Shusha rayon
Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion Shushi province
Elevation 1,400 m above sea level m
Population
 - City ~3,000

Shusha (Azerbaijani: Şuşa, Russian: Шуша translit. Shusha) is a town in Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan, next to the rayon of the same name. Situated 1400-1800 meters above sea level on the picturesque Karabakh mountains ridge, Shusha was a popular mountainous-climatic recreation resort in Soviet Union and has always been part of Soviet Azerbaijan Republic. Image File history File links Shusha-coat-of-arms-1843. ... Image File history File links Azerbaijan-Shusha_sahari. ... Shusha (ÅžuÅŸa) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... The Shushi tank memorial Shushi (Õ‡Õ¸Ö‚Õ·Õ« in Armenian) is an administrative region of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... Azerbaijan is divided into: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); All listed are rayons (with Rayonu after their name) unless otherwise noted. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Shusha (ÅžuÅŸa) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


Considered to be a historical capital of the Karabakh region, Shusha was one of the cultural centers of Soviet Azerbaijan and then Azerbaijan Republic after Azerbaijan gained independence in October 1991. It was home to many Azerbaijani intellectuals, poets, writers and especially, musicians (e.g, the ashugs, mugham singers, kobuz players).[1] In 1977 it was declared reservation of Azerbaijan architecture and history. The city was known as the unofficial musical capital or conservatory of Transcaucasia.[2] The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. ...

Contents

History

Foundation

Shusha was founded in 1750-1752 (according to other sources, 1756-1757) by Panah-Ali khan Javanshir (r. 1748-1763), the founder and the first ruler of the independent[3] Karabakh khanate (1748-1822). Initially the town was named Panahabad, after its founder[4][5]. Later during the rule of Ibrahim-Khalil khan (r. 1763-1806), son of Panah Ali khan, the town was renamed to Shusha, apparently after the name of the nearest village of Shosh also known as Shushikent.[6] The town was also known by the name "Qala" ("fortress" in Azeri).[citation needed] Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Panah-Ali khan Javanshir (1693, Sarijali – 1761, Shiraz) was the founder and first ruler of Karabakh khanate, initially under nominal Persian suzeiranty and by 1748 an independent feudal state that existed in 1747–1822 in Karabakh and adjacent areas. ... The Karabakh khanate (Qarabağ xanlığı in Azeri) was a Persian ruled[1] feudal state that existed in 1748-1822 in the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent lowland areas. ... Ibrahim-Khalil khan Javanshir (1730-1806) was the son of Panah-Ali khan Javanshir and the second ruler of Karabakh khanate, initially Persian ruled and later independent feudal state that existed in 1748-1822 in Karabakh and adjacent areas. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ...


The first capital of the Karabakh khanate was castle of Bayat, built in 1748 in the district of Kebirli. However, soon afterwards Panah Ali khan realized that in order to secure himself and his newly-established khanate from external threats, and especially from the invasions from Iran, he needed to build a new more reliable castle.


According to Mirza Jamal Javanshir Karabagi (1773-1853), the author of Karabakh-nameh ('History of Karabakh'), one of the most significant chronicles on the history of Karabakh in 18-19th centuries, the Karabakh nobility assembled to discuss the danger of invasion from Persia (Iran) and told Panah Ali khan: "We must build among the impassable mountains such an inviolable and inaccessible fort, so that no strong enemy could take it". Melik Shahnazar of Varanda, who was the first of Armenian meliks to accept suzerainty of Panah-khan and always remained his loyal supporter, suggested a location for the new fortress. Thus, Panahabad-Shusha was founded. According to the aforementioned chronicle, prior to construction of the fortress by Panah Ali khan there were no buildings at that location and it was used as a cropland and pasture by the people of the nearby Shushakend village.[7] For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ...


Conflict with Persia

In less than a year after Shusha was founded, the Karabakh khanate was attacked by Muhammed Hassan khan Qajar, one of the major claimants to the Iranian throne. During the Safavid Empire Karabakh was for almost two centuries ruled by Ziyad-oglu family of the clan of Qajar (of Turkic origin), and therefore, Muhammed Hassan khan considered Karabakh his hereditary estate.[5][8][7][9] The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ...


Muhammed Hassan khan besieged Shusha (Panahabad at that time) but soon had to retreat, because of the attack on his khanate by his major opponent to the Iranian throne, Kerim khan Zend. His retreat was so hasty that he even left his cannons under the walls of Shusha fortress. Panah Ali khan counterattacked the retreating troops of Muhammad Hassan khan and even briefly took Ardabil across the Araks River in Iranian Azerbaijan. Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Armenian: Araks, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Azerbaijan-Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan, also Iranian Azarbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan, or Persian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzārbāijān-e Irān; Azerbaijani language: آذربایجان), is a region in northwestern Iran and south of Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. ...


In 1756 (or 1759) Shusha and the Karabakh khanate underwent a new attack from Fatali khan Afshar, ruler of Urmia. With his 30,000 strong army Fatali khan also managed to gain support from the meliks (feudal vassals) of Jraberd and Talish (Gulistan), however melik Shahnazar of Varanda continued to support Panah Ali khan. Siege of Shusha lasted for six months and Fatali khan eventually had to retreat. Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, Urumiyə, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh) is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ...


After Panah Ali khan's death his son Ibrahim Khalil khan became the ruler of the Karabakh khanate. Under him Karabakh khanate became one of the strongest state formations and Shusha grew. According to travelers who visited Shusha at the end of 18th-early 19th centuries the town had about 2,000 houses and approximately 10,000 population.


In summer 1795 Shusha underwent a major attack by Aga Muhammad khan Qajar, son of Muhammad Hassan khan who attacked Shusha in 1752. Aga Muhammad khan Qajar's goal was to end with the feudal fragmentation and to restore the old Safavid State in Iran. For this purpose he also wanted to proclaim himself shah (king) of Iran. However, according to the Safavid tradition, shah had to take control over the whole of South Caucasus before his coronation. Therefore, Karabakh khanate and its fortified capital Shusha, were the first and major obstacle to achieve these ends. This engraving depicts Mohammad Khan wearing the Taj-i-kiyani, or the Kiyanid Crown. ...


Aga Muhammad khan Qajar besieged Shusha with his 80,000 strong army. Ibrahim Khalil khan mobilized the population for a long-term defense. The number of militia in Shusha reached 15,000. Women fought together with men. The Armenian population of Karabakh also actively participated in this struggle against the invaders and fought side by side with the Muslim population jointly organizing ambushes in the mountains and forests.


The siege lasted for 33 days. Not being able to capture Shusha, Agha Muhammad khan ceased the siege and advanced to Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi), which despite desperate resistance was occupied and exposed to unprecedented destruction. Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ...


In 1797 Agha Muhammad shah Qajar, who by that time has already managed to declare himself shah (albeit he did not succeed in conquering the Caucasus as the tradition required) decided to carry out a second attack on Karabakh.


Trying to avenge the previous humiliating defeat Qajar devastated the surrounding villages near Shusha. The population could not recover from the previous 1795 attack and also suffered from serious drought which lasted for three years. The artillery of the enemy also caused serious losses amongst the city defenders. Thus, in 1797 Aga Muhammed shah succeeded in seizing Shusha and Ibrahim Khalil khan had to flee to Dagestan. The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


However, several days after seizure of Shusha, Aga Muhammed shah was killed in enigmatic circumstances by his bodyguards. The Iranian troops left and soon afterwards, Ibrahim Khalil khan returned to Shusha and restored his authority as khan of Karabakh.


Shusha within the Russian Empire

A Shushavian from a noble family. Picture by V.V. Vereschagin, a Russian traveller to Shusha in 1865.
A Shushavian from a noble family. Picture by V.V. Vereschagin, a Russian traveller to Shusha in 1865.

From the early 19th century Russian influence in the Caucasus began to rise. Following Georgia, many khanates accepted Russian protectorate. In 1805, a Kurekchay Treaty was signed between the Karabakh khanate and the Russian Empire on the transfer of the Karabakh khanate to Russia. Image File history File links Noble-shushavian1. ... Image File history File links Noble-shushavian1. ... Vasily Vereshchagin Vasili Vasilyevich Vereshchagin (Russian: 1842 - 1904) was the most famous Russian battle painter and the first Russian artist to be widely recognized abroad. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Kurekchay Treaty is a territorial division treaty of Azerbaijan signed between Russia and Iran aswell as the Gulistan Treaty (October 12, 1813) and Turkmanchai Treaty (February 10, 1828). ... The Karabakh khanate (Qarabağ xanlığı in Azeri) was a Persian ruled[1] feudal state that existed in 1748-1822 in the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent lowland areas. ...


The Russian Empire consolidated its power in the Karabakh khanate following the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 and Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828, when following two Russo-Persian wars, Iran recognized belonging of the Karabakh khanate, along with many other khanates, to Russia. Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras...


The Karabakh khanate was eliminated in 1822. During the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), the citadel at Shusha held out for several months and never fell. After this Shusha ceased to be a capital of a khanate and instead became an administrative capital of first the Karabakh province (1822-1840) and then of the Shusha district (uyezd) of the Elisabethpol Governorate (1840-1923). Nevertheless, Shusha grew and developed, in part due to Russian-sponsored Armenian settlement in Karabakh and other parts of Azerbaijan that took place throughout the 19th century. Virtually every Russo-Turkish war produced new waves of Armenian refugees who resettled in many parts of Russian ruled Caucasus, including Shusha.[10] Russo-Persian Wars 1722–23 – 1796 – 1804–13 – 1826–28 The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire. ... Elisabethpol Governorate Coat of Arms (1878–1918) Elisabethpol Governorate (Old Russian: Елисаветпольская губернiя) was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Elisabethpol (official name for Ganja in 1805–1918). ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ...


Beginning from 1830s the town was divided into two parts: Azeris lived in eastern lower quarters, Armenians settled in relatively new western upper quarters of the town. The "Muslim" part of the town was divided to 17 quarters. Each quarter had its own mosque, Turkish bath, water-spring and also a quarter representative, who would be elected among the elderlies (aksakals), and who would function as a sort of head of present-day municipality. The Armenian part of the town consisted of 12 quarters, five churches, town and district school and girls' seminarium. A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... A Turkish bath is a method of cleansing the body and relaxation that was particularly popular during the Victorian era. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...


The population of the town primarily dealt with trade, horse-breeding, carpet-weaving and wine and vodka production. Shusha was also the biggest center of silk production in the Caucasus. Most of the Muslim population of the town and of Karabakh in general was engaged in sheep and horse-breeding and therefore, had a semi-nomadic lifestyle, spending wintertime in lowland Karabakh in wintering pastures and spring and summer in summering pastures in Shusha and other mountainous parts.


Early 20th century

Main article: Armenian-Azeri war 1918
Late nineteenth to early twentieth-century Azeri girl from Shusha.
Late nineteenth to early twentieth-century Azeri girl from Shusha.
Karabakh reconciliation commission comprised of religious leaders and elders of both Azeri and Armenian communities. Photo made in 1918.
Ruins of the Armenian quarters of Shusha after the clashes in March 1920.
Ruins of the Armenian quarters of Shusha after the clashes in March 1920.

Beginning of the 20th century marked the first Armenian-Azeri clashes throughout Azerbaijan. This new phenomenon had two reasons. First, it was the result of increasing tensions between the local Muslim population and Armenian settlers, which significantly increased in numbers throughout the 19th century. Second, by the beginning of the 20th century peoples of the Caucasus, similar to other non-Russian peoples in the periphery of the Russian Empire began to seek cultural and territorial autonomy. That is why, in the beginning of the 20th century in Russia itself was a period of bourgeois and Bolshevik revolutions, in the peripheries these movements have acquired a character of the national liberation movement. Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Commanders Andranik Samedbey Mehmandarov With the declarion of Armenia and Azerbaijan after the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended with a series of brutal and hard to classify wars between 1918, than 1920 to 1922. ... Image File history File links Az_girl_karabakh. ... Image File history File links Az_girl_karabakh. ... Image File history File links Karabakh-reconciliation-1918. ... Image File history File links Karabakh-reconciliation-1918. ... Image File history File links Shusha_1920. ... Image File history File links Shusha_1920. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


First clashes between the Armenians and Azeris took place in Baku in February 1905. Soon, the conflict spilled over to other parts of the Caucasus, and on August 5, 1905 first conflict between the Armenian and Azeri population of Shusha took place. As a result of mutual pogroms and killings, hundreds of people died, more than 200 houses were burned. Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


After World War I and subsequent collapse of the Russian Empire, Karabakh was declared part of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920), a decision hotly disputed by neighboring Armenia. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Motto: None Anthem: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ...


The Armenian government tried several times to seize Shusha militarily. In January 1919 Armenian troops advanced towards Shusha, captured and destroyed nine Azeri villages on their way but eventually had to retreat. [citation needed]


In January 1919 the government of Azerbaijan decided to create a governorship in Karabakh with a regional capital in Shusha. Khosrov bey Sultanov, a native of Karabakh was appointed the general-governor of Karabakh. He had three Armenian and three Azeri aids. Later same year the Entente Allies provisionally recognized Karabakh's de facto ownership by Azerbaijan and the authority of the Karabakh general-governor and decided that the ultimate status of Karabakh was pending final decision at the Paris Peace Conference. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ...


Following this decision, in August 1919, under strong British pressure, the VII Congress of the Karabakh Armenians recognized the authority of the Azerbaijan government until the issue of the mountainous part of Karabakh would be settled at the Paris Peace Conference.


The largest Armenian-Azeri ethnic clashes in Shusha took place on March-April 1920. On the night from March 21-22, 1920 when the Azeris celebrated Spring Equinox (Norouz), local Armenian groups organized a surprise attack.[11] Persepolis all nations stair case. ...


They seized the paths to Shusha, Khankendi, and the Askeran fortress and began to attack the Azeri part of the town and burn the houses on their way. [citation needed] In parallel, regular Armenian army units attacked Zangezur, to the west of Karabakh. [citation needed] Stepanakert is the capital of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. ... Askeran is a province of Nagorno-Karabakh. ...


However, the effect of suddenness backfired at the Armenians. Azeris infuriated by the attack on their holy day, launched a counteroffensive to the Armenian quarters of Shusha and burned almost the whole Armenian part of the town, forcing the Armenian population to flee. During these clashes thousands of people from both Armenian and Azeris died, more than 7,000 houses were burned and Shusha was virtually cleansed of its Armenian population.


Soviet era

In 1920 Russian Red Army first invaded Azerbaijan and then Armenia and put an end to the national de facto governments existing in these two countries. Beginning from this period, conflict over control of Karabakh and its central town of Shusha, moved from the battlefields to diplomatic sphere. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


In order to attract Armenian public support, Bolsheviks promised to resolve the issue of the disputed territories, including Karabakh, in favor of Armenia. However, on July 5, 1921 the Caucasus Bureau (Kavburo) of the Communist Party adopted the following decision regarding the future status of Karabakh: "Proceeding from the necessity of national peace among Muslims and Armenians and of the economic ties between upper (mountainous) and lower Karabakh, of its permanent ties with Azerbaijan, mountainous Karabakh is to remain within AzSSR, receiving wide regional autonomy with the administrative center in Shusha, which is to be included in the autonomous region." As a result, Mountainous Karabakh Autonomous Region was established within the Azerbaijan SSR in 1923.


The decision favoring Azerbaijan has been largely possible by a firm position of the then Soviet Azerbaijan leader Nariman Narimanov, who resisted pressures from Stalin to concede Karabakh and Nakhichevan to Armenia. Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly Narimanov (April 2, 1870, Tiflis - March 19, 1925, Moscow) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


Following 1920 Armenian-Azeri clashes and burning of the town, Shusha was reduced to a small provincial town of some 10,000. Khankendi (renamed Stepanakert after an Armenian communist Stepan Shaumyan), which previously was a small village, became a new regional capital and soon turned into the largest town within Mountainous Karabakh Autonomous Region. Province: Stepanakert (City) Area: Altitude: 813 meter (2670 feet) Population: ~40,000 Population density: Latitude: 39° 48 55N Longitude: 46° 45 7E Mayor: Eduard Aghabekian Map of Azerbaijan showing town of Stepanakert within Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Stepan Shaumyan (? 1878 - 20 September 1918) was an Armenian politician and revolutionary. ...


The town remained half-ruined until 1960s, when the town began to gradually revive due to its recreation potential. In 1977 Shusha was declared reservation of Azerbaijan architecture and history and became one of the major resort-towns in former USSR.


With the start of Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1988 Shusha became the most important Azeri stronghold in Karabakh, where from Azeri forces shelled permanently capital Stepanakert. On May 9, 1992 the town was captured by Armenian forces and Azeri population fled (see Battle of Shusha). In accordance with information from the Institute for War and Peace Reporting, the city was looted and burnt by Armenians.[12] Today a large part of the town remains in ruins. Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Azerbaijani military Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Elbrus Orjuev Elkhan Orjuev Shamil Basayev [1] Strength 1,000 troops, including the crew members of tanks, armored fighting vehicles, and helicopters Unknown amount of infantry, tanks, complemented by a battery of BM-21 GRAD artillery Casualties... Institute for War and Peace Reporting is an international media development charity, established in 1991. ...

Since the end of the war, the town was repopulated by Armenians, most refugees from Azerbaijan and other parts of Karabakh, as well as members of the Armenian diaspora. While the population of the town is barely half of the pre-war number, and the demographic of the town has changed from completely Azeri to Armenian, a slow recovery can be seen. The Goris-Stepanakert Highway passes through the town, and is a transit and tourist destination for many. There are some hotels in the city, and reconstruction work continues, in particular, the Ghazanchetsots Cathedral recently finished going through the restoration process. Image File history File links Ghazanchetsots. ... Image File history File links Ghazanchetsots. ... Ghazanchetots Cathedral Ghazanchetsots Cathedral (Սուրբ Ամենափրկիչ Ղազանչեցոց Եկեղեցի in Armenian), also known as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Shushi Cathedral, is an Armenian church located in Shushi, Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Goris (Կօրիս in Armenian) is a town in the Syunik province of Armenia. ... Province: Stepanakert (City) Area: Altitude: 813 meter (2670 feet) Population: ~40,000 Population density: Latitude: 39° 48 55N Longitude: 46° 45 7E Mayor: Eduard Aghabekian Map of Azerbaijan showing town of Stepanakert within Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Ghazanchetots Cathedral Ghazanchetsots Cathedral (Սուրբ Ամենափրկիչ Ղազանչեցոց Եկեղեցի in Armenian), also known as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Shushi Cathedral, is an Armenian church located in Shushi, Nagorno-Karabakh. ...


The Armenian quarter continued to lie in ruins until the beginning of the 1960s. In 1961, Baku’s communist leadership finally passed a decision to clear away the ruins, even though many old buildings still could have been renovated. Three Armenians and one Russian churches were demolished and the town was built up with plain buildings typical of the Khrushev’s era.[citation needed]


Demographics

When the city was founded in the middle of 18th century, it had predominantly Azerbaijani population.[citation needed] In the late 19th - early 20th century, the Armenian popualtion increased and prevailed in number over the Azerbaijanis, and in Soviet times Shusha became the second largest town in Nagorno-Karabakh.


George Keppel, the earl of Albemarle, who in 1824 on his way back to England from India arrived to Karabakh from Persia, wrote that “Sheesha contains two thousand houses: three parts of the inhabitants are Tartars (Azerbaijanis), and the remainder Armenians”.[13] Earls of Albemarle. ...


The 19th century also brought significant alterations to the ethnic demographics of the region. Following the invasions from Iran (Persia), Russo-Persian wars and subjection of Karabakh khanate to Russia, many Muslim families emigrated to Iran while many Armenians were induced by the Russian government after the Treaty of Turkmanchay to emigrate from Iran to Karabakh. According to the statistics of 1832, the population of Shusha composed of 762 Armenian and 936 Mohammedan families.[14]


In the late 1800s there was massive resettlement of Armenian refugees. Russian author Shavrov wrote in 1911: "Of 1 million 300 thousand Armenians living nowadays in South Caucasus, more than 1 million don't belong to the indigenous population of the region and were settled by us [i.e. Russians]".[10]


In 1851 the population of Shusha was 15,194 people,[15] in 1886 - 30,000,[16] in 1910 - 39,413[17] and in 1916 - 43,864.[18]


According to first Russian-held census of 1823 conducted by Russian officials Yermolov and Mogilevsky, the number of Muslim (Azeri) families in Shusha was 1,111 (72.5%) whereas the number of Armenian families reached 421 (27.5%).[19] Seven years later, according to 1830 data, the number of Azeri families in Shusha decreased to 963 and the number of Armenian families increased to 762.[20] By the end of the 1880s the percentage of Azeri population living in the Shusha district (part of earlier Karabakh province) decreased even further and constituted only 41.5%, while the percentage of the Armenian population living in the same district increased to 58.2% in 1886.


By the second half of the 19th century Shusha became the largest town in the territory of present-day Azerbaijan republic and the second largest town in the Caucasus after Tbilisi. By March 1920 there were 12 thousand houses in Shusha, with approximate population of 60,000.[21] However, after the Armenian-Azeri clashes in 1920 and burning of the town, Shusha was reduced to a small provincial town of some 10,000. Many of the Armenians did not begin to return until after World War II. It was not until the 1960s that the Armenian quarter began to be rebuilt. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


According to the last population census in 1989, the town of Shusha had a population of 17,000 and the Shusha district had a population of 23,000. 91.7% of population of Shusha district and 98% of the town of Shusha were Azerbaijani.[22] Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Following the Armenian seizure of Shusha in 1992, the Azeri population of the town fled and currently the population consists of roughly 3,000 Armenians,[12] mainly refugees from other parts of Azerbaijan and some immigrants from Armenia and the Diaspora. As a result of the war, there are no Azeris living in the Shusha region today.[22] Map of the Armenian diaspora. ...


Tourist and historic sites

Being the historic capital of Karabakh, there are numerous sites in the city and its vicinity. These include:

  • Mosque Ashagi Govhar Aga (18th century)
  • Mosque Yukhari Govhar Aga (18th century)
  • Ghazanchetsots Cathedral (1868-1887)
  • Kanach Zham Church (Կանաչ Ժամ եկեղեցի), (1847)
  • Khazma Gala huge cave known as "treasure fortress"
  • City Walls and Fortress (18th century)
  • Bulwarks built on Tower Walls
  • Turshsu Gallery
  • Caravanserai
  • Shakhlig bridge
  • Ganja gates
  • Rasta bazaar
  • Statue of U.Hajibeyov
  • School for girls in Malibeyli
  • Castle of Agabeyim Aga
  • Complex of the palace of Bahman Mirza Gajar
  • Mausoleum complex of Gajars
  • Residence of Gulam Shah
  • Residence of Asad bey
  • Residence of Mamay bey
  • Mythic Leyli tower
  • Complex of Divan of Garabag khanate
  • House of poetry of Vagif
  • Mausoleum of M.P.Vagif
  • Palace of Khan gizi (khan's daughter, princess) Khurshudbanu Natavan
  • Malibeyli Mosque
  • Gaybali Mosque
  • Shirlan Mosque
  • Residence of M.M. Navvab
  • Residence of Yusif Vezir Chemenzeminli
  • House-museum of U. Hajibeyov
  • House-museum of Bulbul
  • Rug museum
  • Picture gallery
  • Garabag State Historical museum
  • House of the first "Realni uchilish"(college) in Azerbaijan
  • Shushi Tank Memorial (the first Armenian tank that made it into Shusha in May 1992 which was blown up by the Azeri defenders)
  • Hotel Shoushi [23]
  • The Art Gallery of Town of Shushi

Ghazanchetots Cathedral Ghazanchetsots Cathedral (Սուրբ Ամենափրկիչ Ղազանչեցոց Եկեղեցի in Armenian), also known as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Shushi Cathedral, is an Armenian church located in Shushi, Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Kanach Zham is an Armenian Apostolic Church located in Shusha, Nagorno-Karabakh; it is just uphill from the Ghazanchetsots Cathedral. ...

See also

Combatants Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Azerbaijani military Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Elbrus Orjuev Elkhan Orjuev Shamil Basayev [1] Strength 1,000 troops, including the crew members of tanks, armored fighting vehicles, and helicopters Unknown amount of infantry, tanks, complemented by a battery of BM-21 GRAD artillery Casualties... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... List of Azerbaijanis from Nagorno-Karabakh This is the list of prominent and famous Azerbaijanis who are from Nagorno-Karabakh. ...

References

  1. ^ "Azerbaijan" (2007) In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved February 3, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44296
  2. ^ (Russian) Azerbaijan: The Art of Khanandas. Eurasia.org
  3. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: History of Azerbaijan [1]
  4. ^ (Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia, "Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast", 3rd edition, Moscow, 1970
  5. ^ a b (Russian) Abbas-gulu Aga Bakikhanov. Golestan-i Iram
  6. ^ "Shusha" Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brokgauz and Efron
  7. ^ a b (Russian) Mirza Jamal Javanshir Karabagi. The History of Karabakh.
  8. ^ (Russian) Mirza Adigezal bey. Karabakh-name
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica. C. Edmund Bosworth. Ganja.
  10. ^ a b Shavrov, N.I. (1911) New threat to the Russian affairs in the Transcaucasus: forthcoming sale of Mughan to strangers ("Novaya ugroza russkomu delu v Zakavkazye: predstoyashaya rasprodazha Mugani inorodcam") St.Petersburg, pp. 60-61
  11. ^ Richard G. Hovannisian. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. III: From London to Sèvres, February-August 1920
  12. ^ a b Thomas de Waal, "Shusha Armenians recall their bittersweet victory", Institute of War and Peace Reporting (IWPR), May 10, 2002
  13. ^ George Thomas Keppel; earl of Albemarle. Personal Narrative of a Journey from India to England. ISBN 1402191499
  14. ^ The penny cyclopædia of the Society for the diffusion of useful knowledge. 1833. «Georgia».
  15. ^ "Caucasus Calendar" ("Kavkazskiy kalendar" in Russian) of 1853, p. 128
  16. ^ "Caucasus Calendar" ("Kavkazskiy kalendar" in Russian) of 1886, p. 319
  17. ^ "Review of the Yelizavetpol goubernia as of 1910" ("Obzor Yelizavetpolskoy goubernii za 1910 g." in Rissian) Tbilisi, 1912 p. 141
  18. ^ "Caucasus Calendar" ("Kavkazskiy kalendar" in Russian) of 1917, p. 190
  19. ^ "Description of the Karabakh province prepared in 1823 according to the order of the governor in Georgia Yermolov by state advisor Mogilevsky and colonel Yermolov 2nd" ("Opisaniye Karabakhskoy provincii sostavlennoye v 1823 g po rasporyazheniyu glavnoupravlyayushego v Gruzii Yermolova deystvitelnim statskim sovetnikom Mogilevskim i polkovnikom Yermolovim 2-m" in Russian), Tbilisi, 1866.
  20. ^ "Review of Russian possessions in Transcaucasus" ("Obozreniye Rossiyskih vladeniy za Kavkazom"), vol. III, St.-Petersburg, 1836, p. 308
  21. ^ "Nagorny Karabakh" (in Russian), 1927, p. 39
  22. ^ a b Amirbayov, Elchin. "Shusha's Pivotal Role in a Nagorno-Karabagh Settlement" in Dr. Brenda Shaffer (ed.), Policy Brief Number 6, Cambridge, MA: Caspian Studies Program, Harvard University, December 2001, http://bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu/publication.cfm?program=CORE&ctype=paper&item_id=124
  23. ^ Hotel Shoushi

External links

Coordinates: 39°45′N, 46°45′E Map of Azerbaijan, showing Naxçıvan to the bottom-left Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (or Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is an exclave of Azerbaijan. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shusha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2771 words)
According to the last population census in 1989, the town of Shusha had a population of 17,000 and the Shusha district had a population of 23,000.
In 1756 (or 1759) Shusha and the Karabakh khanate underwent a new attack from Fatali khan Afshar, ruler of Urmia.
After this Shusha ceased to be a capital of a khanate and instead became an administrative capital of first the Karabakh province (1822-1840) and then of the Shusha district (uyezd) of the Yelizavetpol province (goubernia) (1840-1923).
6.2 Shusha (1312 words)
Shusha as it used to be before the war.
So many famous artists, musicians and poets used to live in Shusha that it was often called the "Conservatory of the Caucasus." For example, it is the birthplace of Uzeyir Hajibeyov, the founder of professional composed music; of Bulbul, a famous tenor and Khurshud Banu Natavan, a 19th century Azeri poetess.
Shusha is quite unlike the place it used to be.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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