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Encyclopedia > Shunzhi Emperor
Shunzhi Emperor
Clan name: Aixin-Jueluo (愛新覺羅)
Aisin-Gioro
Given name: Fulin (福臨)
Fulin
Dates of reign: Oct. 30, 1644¹–Feb. 5, 1661
Era name: Shunzhi (順治)
Ijishūn Dasan
Era dates: Feb. 8, 1644–Feb. 17, 1662
Temple name: Shizu (世祖)
Šidzu
Posthumous name:
(short)
Emperor Zhang (章皇帝)
Eldembuhe Hūwangdi
Posthumous name:
(full)
Emperor Titian Longyun Dingtong Jianji Yingrui Qinwen Xianwu Dade Honggong Zhiren Chunxiao Zhang
體天隆運定統建極英睿欽文顯武大德弘功至仁純孝章皇帝 ()
General note: Names given in Chinese, then in Manchu (full posthumous name is in Chinese only).
———
Dates given here are in the Gregorian calendar.
———
1. Was emperor of Manchuria between Oct. 8, 1643-Oct. 30, 1644. Officially proclaimed emperor of China on Oct. 30, 1644.

The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. Download high resolution version (400x635, 143 KB)Hong Taiji, also known as Emperor TaiZong File links The following pages link to this file: Shunzhi Emperor ... Like the Mongols, the Manchus were simply called by given name but they had their own clan names (hala in Manchu). ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... Manchu given names were used solely or with titles but not with clan names. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... Image File history File links Chinese-Emperor_Shunzhi_posthumous_name. ... The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic languages of Altaic family; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 100 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Inscription on the tomb of Pope Gregory XIII celebrating the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ... The emperor or huángdì (皇帝) of China was the head of government and head of state of China from the Qin dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ...

Contents


Early years

He ascended to the throne aged five (six according to traditional Chinese age reckoning) in 1643 upon the death of his father, Huang Taiji, but actual power during the early part of his reign lay in the hands of the appointed regents, Princes Dorgon and Jirgalang. With the Qing pacification of the former Ming provinces almost complete, he died still a young man, although in circumstances that have lent themselves to rumour and speculation. Several East Asian cultures, such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese, share a traditional way of counting a persons age. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ...


In the midst of much upheaval, the Manchus seized control of Beijing in June 1644, and in October of the same year the Shunzhi emperor's uncle, the chief regent Prince, proclaimed the Qing dynasty to be the legitimate successor to the Ming Dynasty. Therefore, although the Shunzhi emperor was not the founder of the Qing dynasty, he was the first Qing emperor of China. // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ...


His mother was the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang who was an excellent politician during the period. The young emperor disliked his uncle, the chief regent Prince Dorgon, and after Dorgon's death in 1650 the emperor stripped both him and Dorgon's brother, Dodo, of their titles, although he was only 12 years old at the time. Grand Empress Dowager Xiao Zhuang Wen (孝莊太后 Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu as the Empress in Manchu; 1613-1688) was the grandmother of Emperor Kang Xi of the Qing Dynasty. ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... Prince Dodo (1614–1649) was a Manchu prince and general. ...


Brief reign

During his short reign, the Shunzhi emperor encouraged the Han Chinese to participate in government activities. He was a scholar and employed Han Chinese to teach his children. He was also an open minded emperor and relied on the advice of Johann Adam Schall von Bell 湯若望, a Jesuit from Germany, for guidance ranging from astronomy, technologies, to tips for governing an empire. Shunzhi also elevated Schall to his personal mentor and was given free access to the palace. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Johann Adam Schall von Bell (Chinese: 湯若望) (1591 - 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit missionary to China. ...


The emperor married his mother's niece, but demoted the empress several years later. In 1661, Shunzhi's favourite concubine Dong suddenly died as a result of grief over the lost of a child. Overwhelmed with grief himself, Shunzhi contracted smallpox and died shortly thereafter. He was only 24. Before he died, he appointed four regents govern for his child son, Hiowan Yei - Oboi, Sonin, Suksaha, and Ebilun. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious viral disease unique to humans. ... The Kangxi Emperor (May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was the fourth Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over all of China, from 1661 to 1722. ... not right ... Sonin, also known as Soni (索尼), was a senior regent during Chinese Emperor Kang Xis minority in the Qing Dynasty. ... A regent during the early reign of Chinese Emperor Kang Xi who was put to death by Oboi. ... Ebilun was an assistant minister appointed by the Chinese Emperor Shunzhi for his successor, Emperor Kang Xi during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). ...


According to official sources, the Shunzhi Emperor died in 1661 of smallpox. It was also believed by some that the young emperor did not pass away but left the palace to become a monk. He was interred in the Eastern Qing Tombs (清東陵), 125 kilometers/75 miles east of Beijing, in the Xiaoling (孝陵) mausoleum complex (known in Manchu as the Hiyoošungga Munggan). Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious viral disease unique to humans. ... The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic languages of Altaic family; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 100 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ...


Huangtaiji had changed the name of the dynasty from Later Jin to Qing in 1636 because of the fraternal struggles and skirmishes between brothers and half brothers for the throne. According to Taoist philosophy, the name Jin has the meaning of metal and fire in its constituent, thereby igniting the tempers of the brothers of the Manchu Royal household into open conflicts and wars. Huangtaiji therefore adopted the new name of Qing 清, the chinese character of which has the water symbol [ 3 strokes ] on its left hand side. The name, which means clear and transparent, with its water symbol was hoped to put out the feud among the brothers of the Manchu Royal household.


Family

  • Mother: concubine Zhuang, who later became the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (Manchu: Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu), the daughter of a Mongol prince of the Borjigit clan (the descendants of Chinggis Khan's brother Jöchi Khasar)
  • Grandmother: Empress Monggu, from the Yehenara clan.
  • Grandfather: Nurhaci, founder of the Later Jinn dynasty (Qing)
  • Consorts:
  1. The Demoted Empress (廢后), from the Borjigit clan, niece of Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, demoted in 1653
  2. Empress Xiaohui Zhang (Chinese: 孝惠章皇后; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Fulehun Eldembuhe Hūwanghu) (d. 1718) from the Borjigit clan, made empress in 1654
  3. Concubine from the Tunggiya clan (1640-1663). Her family was of Jurchen origin but lived among Chinese for generations. It had Chinese family name Tong (佟) but switched to the Manchu clan name Tunggiya. She was made Empress Dowager Cihe (慈和皇太后) in 1661 when Kangxi became emperor. She is known posthumously as Empress Xiaokang Zhang (Chinese: 孝康章皇后; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Nesuken Eldembuhe Hūwanghu).
  4. Concubine from the Donggo clan (d. 1660), the concubine with whom Shunzhi was madly in love, posthumously raised to Empress Xiaoxian Duanjing (孝獻端敬皇后).
  • Famous Cocubine:

The famous cocubine, nee Donggo, was the person that all the other cocubines and the empress were the most jealous of. She was the one that the emperor loved the most. Her son died after a month of birth because the empress had a doctor give him poison. Then the young cocubine later died of over exhaustion and extreme depression over her lost son. A short while after she died, the emperor died of small pox. But it is rumored that he became a monk. Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Grand Empress Dowager Xiao Zhuang Wen (孝莊太后 Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu as the Empress in Manchu; 1613-1688) was the grandmother of Emperor Kang Xi of the Qing Dynasty. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... Jöchi Khasar was one of Chinggis Khans three full brothers. ... Also known as Emperor Tai Zu, Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Grand Empress Dowager Xiao Zhuang Wen (孝莊太后 Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu as the Empress in Manchu; 1613-1688) was the grandmother of Emperor Kang Xi of the Qing Dynasty. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic languages of Altaic family; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 100 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... // Events The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ... The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic languages of Altaic family; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 100 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ...

  • Children:
    • 8 sons (4 died young) 2nd Fuquan, 3rd Xuanye, 5th Changning.
    • 6 daughters (5 died young)

Fuquan is a city with more than 100 000 inhabitants in Southern Guizhou province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Kangxi Emperor (May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was the fourth Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over all of China, from 1661 to 1722. ...

External links

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Shunzhi Emperor
Preceded by:
Hong Taiji
Emperor of Manchuria
1643–1661
Succeeded by:
Kangxi Emperor
Preceded by:
Li Zicheng
Emperor of China
(Qing Dynasty)
1644–1661

  Results from FactBites:
 
Shunzhi Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (775 words)
The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661.
In the midst of much upheaval, the Manchus seized control of Beijing in June 1644, and in October of the same year the Shunzhi emperor's uncle, the chief regent Prince, proclaimed the Qing dynasty to be the legitimate successor to the Ming Dynasty.
The young emperor disliked his uncle, the chief regent Prince Dorgon, and after Dorgon's death in 1650 the emperor stripped both him and Dorgon's brother, Dodo, of their titles, although he was only 12 years old at the time.
List of Emperors of the Qing Dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (718 words)
In China proper, the Qing dynasty succeeded the Ming Dynasty in 1644, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor.
Therefore politically the Shunzhi Emperor is the first Emperor of the Dynasty to be correctly titled the Emperor of China.
She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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