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Encyclopedia > Shu Han
蜀漢
Shu Han
Flag
221 – 263 Flag
The territories of Shu Han (in red), AD 262
Capital Chengdu
Language(s) Chinese
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 221 - 223 Liu Bei
 - 223 - 263 Liu Shan
Historical era Three Kingdoms
 - Establishment 221
 - Conquest of Shu by Wei 263
Population
 -  est. 940,000 

Shu Han (Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢, pinyin: Shǔ Hàn), sometimes known as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty, based on areas around Sichuan which was then known as Shu. The other two kingdoms were Cao Wei in central and northern China, and Eastern Wu in southern and southeastern China. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu by Wei. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng-tu), located in southwest China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan[1]), (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Establishment is a slang term (chiefly in British and Commonwealth English) for a traditional conservative ruling class and its institutions. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin...

Contents

History

During the decline of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bei, a distant relative of the emperor, gathered together many capable men, and with Zhuge Liang's advice, took parts of Jingzhou at first, then Yizhou and Hanzhong. From these territories, he established a place for himself in China during Han's final years. In 219, Lü Meng of Wu attacked and conquered Jingzhou. Subsequently, Liu Bei's trusted general Guan Yu was executed by Wu soldiers. After Cao Pi of the Wei seized the imperial throne in 220 from Emperor Xian and proclaimed the Wei Dynasty, Liu Bei proclaimed himself to be the next Han emperor and the real ruler of China. Although Liu Bei is said to be the founder of the Shu Han dynasty, he himself never claimed to be the founder of a new dynasty; rather, he claimed to continue the heritage of the earlier Han Emperors. This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Jingzhou (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: JÄ«ngzhōu) is a city in the Hubei province of the Peoples Republic of China, on the banks of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Hanzhong (Simplified Chinese: 汉中; Traditional Chinese: 漢中; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hanchung) is a city in Shaanxi province, in central China. ... Events Legio III Gallica and IV Scythica are disbanded by Roman Emperor Elagabalus after their leaders, Verus and Gellius Maximus, rebel. ... Lü Meng (å‘‚è’™ 178 - 219) was a great general of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Jingzhou (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: JÄ«ngzhōu) is a city in the Hubei province of the Peoples Republic of China, on the banks of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (é—œ) Guan Yu (關羽) (160-219) was a Chinese military general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187 - 226), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ...


In 222, the first major conflict of the Three Kingdoms period began. Liu Bei initiated an attack of 200,000 men upon the Kingdom of Wu in the Battle of Yiling to avenge his fallen general Guan Yu. However, because of a grave tactical mistake, his line of camps were burned to the ground and his numerically superior troops were decimated. He survived the attack and fled to Baidi, but one year later he became ill and died there. He was succeeded by his incompetent son, Liu Shan, who did not really care for the kingdom and left his kingdom in the hands of his government officials and eunuchs. Events Pope Urban I succeeds Pope Callixtus I Roman Emperor Alexander Severus succeeds Heliogabalus Kingdom of Wu is established in China Sun Quan defeats Liu Bei at the Battle of Yi Ling Deaths March 11 - Roman Emperor Heliogabalus murdered Tertullian, theologian Pope Callixtus I Claudius Aelianus, teacher and rhetorician Ma... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... At the Battle of Yiling in 222, Liu Bei enraged at the execution of his sworn brother Guan Yu at the hands of the Kingdom of Wu, lead an attack force to the plains of Yi Ling. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan[1]), (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ...


The Chancellor of Shu, Zhuge Liang, made peace with Wu instead of taking revenge. He decided that it was more important to conquer Cao Wei and not only gain the fertile lands of the north but also to topple the Wei government and restore legitimacy to the Shu-Han Dynasty. He made several invasions to the north but failed each time, finally dying of sickness during his seventh attempt to conquer Wei. Jiang Wei, his eventual successor, also tried many times but was pushed back each time. These efforts to conquer Wei exhausted the resources and military talents of Shu and eventually led to its downfall. Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... The Northern Expeditions (北伐) were a series of five military campaigns launched by the state of Shu against the northern state of Wei from A.D. 228 to 234. ... Jiang Wei (姜維, 202-264), or Jiang Boyue, was amongst some of the greatest generals (chiangchun, or jiangjun) during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ...


In 263, Wei took advantage of Shu's weakness and attacked. The brilliant strategies of the Wei generals, Zhong Hui and Deng Ai led to the quick conquest of Hanzhong and the subsequent conquest of the capital Chengdu. Jiang Wei surrendered to Zhong Hui and tried to incite Zhong Hui to rebel against Deng Ai, hoping to revive Shu Han by trying to take advantage of the ensuing chaos and bringing back the Emperor Liu Shan. However, his plan failed and he was killed along with Zhong Hui and Deng Ai by their soldiers. Afterwards, the Emperor Liu Shan was taken to the capital of Wei, Luoyang, where he was given the title Duke of Comfort (安樂公) and allowed him to retire in peace. Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... Zhong Hui (鍾會) was a general of the Wei Kingdom during the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Deng Ai (鄧艾) was a talented young officer of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng-tu), located in southwest China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


However, Shu was not simply a nation of war. During times of peace, Shu began many irrigation and road-building projects designed to improve the economy of Shu. Many of these public works still exist and are widely used. For example, the Nine-Mile Dam is still present near Chengdu in Sichuan province. These works helped improve the economy of Southwest China and can be credited with beginning the history of economic activity in the Sichuan area. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng-tu), located in southwest China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


Important figures

To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Chen Shou (陳壽) (233-297), courtesy name Chengzuo (承祚) was the author of the Sanguo Zhi, a historical account of the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Empress Wu (吳皇后, personal name unknown) (d. ... Empress Zhang (張皇后, personal name unknown) (d. ... Empress Zhang (張皇后, personal name unknown) was an empress of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Fǎ Zhèng(法正), courtesy name Xiàozhí (孝直), was born in about 175 A.D. in China during the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... Fei Yi (費禕) (d. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Fu Shiren (傅士仁) was a general of Shu Han during the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Guan Ping (關平, ? – 219) was the first son of the 3rd century Chinese military general Guan Yu and elder brother of Guan Xing. ... Guan Xing was the second son of the 3rd century Chinese military general Guan Yu and the younger brother of Guan Ping. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (é—œ) Guan Yu (關羽) (160-219) was a Chinese military general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Huang Zhong (黄忠; style name: Hansheng 汉升) (? - 220), was born Nanyang (in modern day Henan province). ... Jiang Wan (? - 246 AD) was an officer of the Shu Kingdom. ... Jiang Wei (姜維, 202-264), or Jiang Boyue, was amongst some of the greatest generals (chiangchun, or jiangjun) during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Liao Hua (廖化; ? - 263 CE), courtesy name Yuanjian (元儉), a military and political figure in ancient Chinese history. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... In the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong, Liu Feng was the adopted son of Liu Bei, founder of the Kingdom of Shu. ... Liu Pi was a general of the Yellow Turbans, during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan[1]), (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Ma Chao (176 - 222) was the eldest son of Ma Teng and a general of the Three Kingdoms Period. ... Ma Dai was a general of the kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms period and former officer under Ma Teng, and later Ma Chao. ... Ma Liang (馬良; style name Jichang 季常; sometimes called Bomei 白眉 White eyebrows) was an advisor to Liu Bei, ruler of the Three Kingdoms state of Shu until his death in 222. ... Ma Su (190 – 228) was a military strategist under the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Mi Fang (糜芳), (169 – 221), was the younger brother of Mi Zhu, and originally served under Tao Qian. ... Páng TÇ’ng (龐統) (178-213AD), courtesy name Shìyuán (士元), was an advisor to Liu Bei during the Later Han period. ... Wang Ping is a figure in Chinese military history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Qing Dynasty illustration. ... Xu Shu (徐庶) was one of Liu Beis advisors during the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Yan Yan (嚴顏) was a brave and loyal general under Liu Zhang during the Three Kingdoms Period in Chinese history. ... Zhang Bao (張苞 å¼ è‹ž) was the oldest son of Shu Han general Zhang Fei. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhang Zhang Fei (?-221 AD) was a general of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Zhao Yun (? - 229[1]) was an important military commander during the civil wars of the late Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ...

Rulers of Shu Han 221263

Posthumous names Family name (in bold) and first names Durations of reigns Era names and their ranges of years
Convention: use family and first names
Zhaolie (昭烈 Zhāoliè) Liu Bei (劉備) 221-223 Zhāngwǔ (章武) 221-223
Xiaohuai (孝懷 Xiàohuái) Liu Shan (劉禪) 223-263 Jiànxīng (建興) 223-237

Yánxī (延熙) 238-257
Jǐngyào (景耀) 258-263
Yánxīng (炎興) 263
Events June 26 - Roman Emperor Elagabalus adopts Alexander Severus as his heir. ... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... A Chinese surname, also called a clan name or family name (姓, pinyin: x ng; or 氏, shi), is one of the over seven hundred family names used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Events June 26 - Roman Emperor Elagabalus adopts Alexander Severus as his heir. ... Liu Shan becomes second emperor of Shu-Han upon the death of his father, Liu Bei. ... Events June 26 - Roman Emperor Elagabalus adopts Alexander Severus as his heir. ... Liu Shan becomes second emperor of Shu-Han upon the death of his father, Liu Bei. ... Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan[1]), (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Liu Shan becomes second emperor of Shu-Han upon the death of his father, Liu Bei. ... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... Liu Shan becomes second emperor of Shu-Han upon the death of his father, Liu Bei. ... Events Patriarch Eugenius I succeeds Patriarch Castinus as Patriarch of Constantinople Saint Babylas becomes Patriarch of Antioch Ardashir I of Persia renews his attacks on the Roman province of Mesopotamia. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Events Pope Sixtus II succeeds Pope Stephen I Births Saint Gregory the Illuminator, founder and patron saint of the Armenian Church (approximate date) Deaths Pope Stephen I Categories: 257 ... Events Sun Xiu succeeds Sun Liang as ruler of the Chinese kingdom of Wu The Goths ravage Asia Minor and Trabzon Gaul, Britain and Spain break off from the Roman Empire to form the Gallic Empire Nanjing University first founded in Nanjing, China Births Emperor Hui of Jin China (approximate... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shu Han - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (699 words)
Shu Han (Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢, pinyin: shǔ hàn), sometimes known (inaccurately) as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty.
During the decline of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bei, a distant relative of the Emperor, gathered together many capable men and conquered Jingzhou, Yizhou and Hanzhong and from these territories, established his place in the China of the Three Kingdoms period.
The Shu general, Jiang Wei, surrendered to Wei and tried to incite Zhong Hui to rebel, then revive the Shu-Han by killing him and bringing back the Emperor Liu Shan, but his plan failed and he was killed along with Zhong Hui.
Kingdom of Shu - definition of Kingdom of Shu in Encyclopedia (656 words)
The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty.
Afterwards, the Emperor Liu Chan was captured and taken to the capital of Wei, Luoyang.
Rulers of the Kingdom of Shu or the Shu-Han Dynasty 221 - 263
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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