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Encyclopedia > Shtokavian dialect
Central South Slavic
languages and dialects
(Central South Slavic diasystem)
Bosnian · Bunjevac
Burgenland Croatian · Croatian
Montenegrin · Našinski · Serbian · Serbo-Croatian
Šokac
Romano-Serbian · Slavoserbian
Differences between Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian
Dialects
Chakavian · Kajkavian · Molise Croatian
Shtokavian · Torlak · Užice speech
Alphabets
Modern
Gaj’s Latin alphabet · Serbian Cyrillic
Historical
Bosnian Cyrillic · Glagolitic
v  d  e

Shtokavian or Štokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... NaÅ¡inski is the Torlakian dialect used by the Gorani in southern Kosovo. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... The standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of the Croatian language. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... Užican speech (Serbian: ужички говор or užički govor), also known as Zlatiborian speech (златиборски говор or zlatiborski govor) is a dialect of the Serbian language. ... The variant of the Latin alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavic orthography), is currently used as the only script of the Bosnian and Croatian standard languages, and as one of the two scripts of the Serbian... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The Štokavian dialect is spoken in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the southern part of Austria’s Burgenland and the greater part of Croatia. The Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian standard languages are all based on the Neo-Štokavian dialect. Its name comes from the form for the interrogatory pronoun "what," which is što or šta in the Štokavian dialect. Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


The primary subdivisions of Štokavian are based on 2 principles: one is whether the subdialect is Old-Štokavian or Neo-Štokavian, and the different ways the old Slavic phoneme jat has been changed. Generally, modern dialectology recognizes 7 Štokavian subdialects (there are opinions that one or two subdialects more exist, but this is not universally accepted). Yat or Jat (, ) is the name of the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, or of the sound it represents. ...

Contents

Early history of Štokavian

The Proto-Štokavian idiom had appeared in the 12th century. In the following century or two, Štokavian was divided into two zones: western, which covered the major part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slavonia in Croatia, and eastern, dominant in the easternmost Bosnia and Herzegovina and greater parts of Montenegro and Serbia. The western Štokavian was characterized by 3-accents speech, while eastern štokavian was marked by 2-accents. According to the research of historical linguistics, the old-štokavian was well established by the mid-1400s. In this period it had been still mixed with Church Slavonic in various degrees, as well as with Chakavian dialect in Croatia and many parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Category: ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ...


Štokavian subdialects

The Štokavian dialect is divided into Old-Shtokavian and Neo-Shtokavian subdialects.


Old-Shtokavian

Timok-Prizren (Torlakian)

Main article: Torlakian

The oldest dialects stretch southeast from Timok near the Bulgarian border to Prizren. There is disagreement among linguists whether these dialects belong to Štokavian area, as there are many other morphological characteristics apart from rendering of što which would place them into a "transitional" group between Štokavian and Eastern South Slavic languages (Bulgarian and Macedonian). These dialects split from the rest of the group at the onset of the Turkish conquest in the fourteenth century. The Timok-Prizren group falls to the Balkan linguistic union: declension has all but disappeared, the infinitive has yielded to subjunctives da-constructions, and adjectives are compared exclusively with suffixes. The accent in the dialect group is a stress accent, and it falls on any syllable in the word. The old semi-vowel has been retained throughout. The vocalic l has been retained (vlk = vuk), and some dialects don't distinguish ć/č and đ/dž by preferring the latter, postalveolar variants. Some subdialects preserve l at the end of words (where otherwise it has developed into a short o) – došl, znal, etc. (cf. Kajkavian and Bulgarian); in others, this l has become the syllable ja. Torlakian is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ... A map of the region of Timok Timok (Cyrillic: Тимок) is a river in Serbia. ... View of Prizren. ... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of the Croatian language. ...


Slavonian

Also called the Šokački or Archaic Šćakavian dialect, it is spoken by Šokci that live in some parts of Slavonia, Bačka, Baranja, Syrmia, in Croatia and Vojvodina, as well as in northern Bosnia. The Slavonian dialect has mixed ikavian and ekavian pronunciation. Ikavian is predominant in the Posavina, Baranja, Bačka, and in the Slavonian sub-dialect enclave of Derventa, while ekavian is predominant in Podravina. There are also enclaves of one of both variants in the main territory of other and vice-versa, as well as mixed ekavian-ikavian and jekavian-ikavian areas. In some villages in Hungary the original yat is preserved. Local variants can widely differ in the degree of neo-shtokavian accent influneces. In two villages in Posavina, Siče and Magića Male the l, as in the verb nosil, has been retained in place of the modern nosio. In some villages in the Podravina čr instead of the usual cr is preserved, for example in črn instead of crn. Both forms are usual in Kajkavian but very rare in Shtokavian. The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... Catholic Church in the Å okac village of Sonta, Serbia Å okci (Croatian & Serbian Latin: Å okci, singular Å okac, Serbian Cyrillic: Шокци, singular Шокац, pronounced as Shoktzi and Shokatz, also in Hungarian: Sokácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group living in various settlements along the Danube and Sava rivers in the historic regions of... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Republika Srpska Municipalities Derventa Municipility Mayor Milorad Simić (SNSD) Area    - City 120 km² Population    - City (2006) 13,300 Derventa (Cyrillic: Дервента) is a town and municipality in the northern part of Republika Srpska located just northwest of Doboj, in the Posavina region. ... The Drava river at Maribor, Slovenia Podravina (in Croatian) or Podravje (in Slovenian) is a Slavic name for the Drava river basin in Croatia and Slovenia. ... Sava River in Belgrade Posavina (Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian: Posavina or Посавина, Slovenian: Posavje) is a Slavic name for the Sava river basin in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia. ...


East-Bosnian

Also called jekavian šćakavian, it has jekavian prounanciation in the vast majority of local forms and it is spoken by the majority of Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) living in area that include bigger Bosnian cities Sarajevo, Tuzla and Zenica, and by most of Croats and Serbs that live in that area. Together with basic jekavian pronunciation, mixed pronunciations exist in Tešanj and Maglaj dete-djeteta (ekavian-jekavian) and around Žepče and Jablanica djete-diteta (jekavian-ikavian). In the central area of the subdialect, the diphthong uo exists in some words instead of the archaic l and more common u like vuok or stuop, instead of the standard modern vuk and stup. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms [[Image:{{{image_coat_of_arms}}}|100px|Coat of arms]] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina [[Image:{{{image_map}}}|150px|center|Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina highlighting the town or municipality location]] General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area 499,7 km² Population 170,000 (estimate) Population density 293/km... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1998 census) 52,249 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Adem Huskić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Mehmed MustabaÅ¡ić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area ZE-DO kanton Population (1991 census) 22,840 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Mato Zovko (HDZ) Website http://www. ... Coat of Arms Municipality of Jablanica Jablanica is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Zeta-South Sandžak

Also known as Old Ijekavian. It is spoken in eastern Montenegro, in Podgorica and Cetinje, around the city of Novi Pazar in eastern Sandžak in Serbia, and in the village of Peroj in Istria. Together with the dominant jekavian pronunciation, mixed pronunciations like djete-deteta (jekavian-ekavian) around Novi Pazar and Bijelo Polje, dite-đeteta (ikavian-jekavian) around Podgorica and dete-đeteta (ekavian-jekavian) in the village of Mrkojevići in southern Montenegro. Mrkovići are also characterised by remainings of čr instead of cr as in the previously mentioned villages in Podravina. Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ... Centar,Novi Pazar Novi Pazar (Serbian Cyrillic: Нови Пазар,  ) is a city and municipality located in the RaÅ¡ka District of Serbia at 43. ... Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... Peroj is a small town on the south-western coast of Istria, currently inhabited by ~400 inhabitants, dating back to the Copper age of prehistory, as testified by a necropolis within the old walls of the town. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Coordinates Mayor Tarzan MiloÅ¡ević (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 924 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,883 50,284 54. ...


Some vernaculars have a special reflex of ь/ъ in some cases (between a and e) which is very rare in stokavian and chakavian vernaculars (sän and dän instead of san and dan). Other special phonetic features inlude sounds like ʝ in iʝesti instead of izjesti, ç as in śjekira instead of sjekira. However these sounds are known also to many East-Herzegovina like those in Konavle[1], and are not "Montenegrin" specificum. The loss of distinction between /lj/ and /l/ in some vernaculars is based on Albanian adstrate. Word pļesma is a hypercorrection (instead of pjesma) since many vernaculars know lj>j. Konavle municipality within Dubrovnik-Neretva County Konavle (Italian: ) is a small region and municipality located southeast of Dubrovnik, Croatia. ...


All verbs in infinitive finish with "t" (example: pjevat). These future have also most respective vernaculars of East-Herzegovinian, and actually almost all Serbian and Croatian vernaculars. The group a + o gave a ("ka" instead "kao", reka for rekao), like in other Serbian and Croatian seaside vernaculars. Otherwise, more common is ao>o.


Currently there is an attempt by Montenegrin nationalists to create a separate Montenegrin language from the Serbian language standard based on the Zeta subdialect. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


Kosovo-Resava

Also called Older Ijekavian, spoken mostly in western and northeastern Kosovo and northeastern Serbia. Substitution of jat is dominantly ekavian even on the end of datives (žene instead of ženi), in pronouns (teh instead of tih), in comparatives (dobrej instead of dobriji) and in the negative of biti (nesam instead of nisam) and in Smederevo-Vršac speeches ikavian forms can be found (di si instead of gde si?. ). However those are considered to be part of a separate dialect. Location in Serbia-Montenegro [[Image:|150px|center|Map of Serbia-Montenegro highlighting the settlement location]] General Information Mayor SaÅ¡a Radosavljević Land area  ? Population (2002 census) 77,808 (109,809 municipality) Population density (2002)  ? Coordinates [1] Area code +381 26 Subdivisions 27 settlements in the municipality License plate code SD... Location in Serbia [[Image:|150px|center|Map of Serbia highlighting the settlement or municipality location]] General Information Mayor Jovica Zarkula Land area 10 km² Population (2002 census) 36,623 (54,369 municipality) Population density (2002) 5,437/km² Coordinates 45. ...


Neo-Shtokavian

Western Ikavian

Also called Bosnian-Dalmatian, Younger Ikavian is spoken mostly by Croats that live in Lika, Kvarner, Dalmatia, Herzegovina and Bačka and by Bosniaks in western Bosnia mostly around city of Bihać and in central Bosnia (Travnik, Jajce, Bugojno,..). Exclusively ikavian, Bosnian and Herzegovinian forms use o in verb participle, while those in Dalmatia and Lika use -ija like in vidija. Local form of Bačka was proposed as base of new Bunjevac language proposed standard by some Bunjevci in Vojvodina. Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... The Kvarner bay (Croatian kvarnerski zaljev, Italian Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner gulf) is a bay in northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istria peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 35 km² Population 75,000 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 30 Mayor Tahir Lendo (SDA) Website http://www. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton 6 Land area 366 km² Population 2002 46496 Population density 128/km² Coordinates Area code +387 30 Mayor Hasan Ajkunić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... The Catholic Church in the Bunjevac village of Stari Žednik Bunjevci (Bunjevac, Serbian and Croatian: Bunjevci/Буњевци, singular Bunjevac/Буњевац, pronounced as Bunyevtzi and Bunyevatz, also in Hungarian: bunyevácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group originally from the Dinaric Alps region, now mostly living in the Bačka region...


Šumadija-Vojvodina

Also called Younger Ekavian, is spoken across most of Vojvodina, north-west Serbia, in Belgrade and in eastern Croatia around the town of Vukovar. It is dominately ekavian (ikavian forms are of morphophonological origin). In some parts of Vojvodina old declination is preserved. Most Vojvodina dialects and some dialects in Sumadija have an opened e and o. However the vernaculars of western Serbia, and in past to them connected vernaculars of (old) Belgrade and southwestern Banat (Borča, Pančevo, Bavanište) are close to standard as a vernacular can be. The dialect presents a base for the Serbian Ekavian standard. Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Church of Assumption in Pančevo Pančevo Banatsko Novo Selo Kačarevo Jabuka Glogonj Dolovo Starčevo Omoljica Ivanovo Banatski Brestovac Municipality of Pančevo ● Pančevo (Панчево) is a city and municipality located in Serbia at 44. ...


East Herzegovinian

Also called East Herzegovina-Krajina and Younger Ijekavian. It is the biggest Shtokavian and Serbo-Croatian dialect. It is spoken by most Bosnian Serbs, Croatian Serbs as well in western Serbia, western Montenegro and by very few Croats in Slavonia, Banija, Kordun where Serbs used to be majority and as well in east of Neretva around city of Dubrovnik, and is the basis of the Serbian standard, while Croatian standard is based on the historical mixture of few dialects, including non-shtokavian. Its south-eastern form is characterised by the total lack of /x/ sound that is sometimes not only left out or replaced by more common /j/ or /v/ but is replaced as well by less common /k/ and /g/ (bijak, bijaku imperfect of verb biti). Local forms in the Žumberak enclave and around Dubrovnik have some special features, influenced from Chakavian and the western subdialect. Bosanska Krajina Region Bosanska Krajina (lit Bosnian Frontier) is a geographical region of Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Serbs of Croatia are the largest national minority in that country. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Banovina can refer to: a region in central Croatia: Banovina (region) an internal division of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1929-1941 any territory ruled by a ban (also, Banate or Banat) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Kordun region is a part of central Croatia at the bottom of the Petrova gora mountain range, which extends along the river Korana and forms part of the border region to Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... River Neretva in Mostar, 2004 Neretva is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... Žumberak (in Croatian) or Gorjanci (in Slovenian) is a mountain situated between Croatia and Slovenia. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ...


The yat reflexes

The Proto-Slavic vowel jat has changed over time and is now being rendered in three different ways or reflexes: Yat or Jat (, ) is the name of the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, or of the sound it represents. ...

  • In Ekavian (ekavski), jat has morphed into the vowel e
  • in Ikavian (ikavski), the vowel i
  • in Ijekavian or Jekavian (ijekavski or jekavski), the diphthong ije or je depending on whether the vowel was long or short.

Historically, the yat reflexes had been inscribed in Church Slavic texts before the significant development of štokavian dialect, reflecting the beginnings of the formative period of the vernacular. In early documents it is still either almost exclusively or predominantly Church Slavic of Serbian or Croatian variant (technical term is recension). First undoubtedly ekavian "yat reflex" had been inscribed in a document in Serbia ("beše"/it was), dated 1289, ikavian in Bosnia in 1331 ("svidoci"/witnesses), and first ijekavian in Croatia in 1399 ("želijemo"/we wish, a "hyperijekavism"). Partial inscriptions can be found in earlier texts (for instance, ikavian form is written in a few Bosnian documents in the latter half of the 13th century), but philologists generally accept the aforementioned data for yat reflexes. In second half of 20th century, many vernaculars with unsubstituted jat are found.[2] The intrusion of the vernacular into Church Slavic grew in time, to be finally replaced by the vernacular idiom. This process has taken place for Croats, Serbs and Bosniaks independently and without mutual interference until the mid-19th century. Historical linguistics, textual analysis and dialectology have dispelled myths about allegedly "unspoilt" vernacular speech of rural areas: for instance, it is established that Bosniaks have retained phoneme "h" in numerous words (unlike Serbs and Croats), due to elementary religious education based on the Koran, where this phoneme is the carrier of specific semantic value. For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer (born 1273) Categories: 1331... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ekavian, sometimes called eastern, is spoken primarily in Serbia, and very limited area in eastern Croatia. Ikavian, sometimes called western, is spoken in western and central Bosnia, western Herzegovina, in Slavonia and the major part of Dalmatia in Croatia. Ijekavian, sometimes called southern, is spoken in many parts of Croatia including southern Dalmatia, most of Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro. The following are some generic examples:

English Predecessor Ekavian Ikavian Ijekavian
time vrěme vreme vrime vrijeme
beautiful lěp lep lip lijep
girl děvojka devojka divojka djevojka
true věran veran viran vjeran
to sit sědĕti sedeti (sèdeti) siditi (sìdeti) sjediti
to grow gray hairs sědeti sedeti (sédeti) siditi (sídeti) sijediti
to heat grějati grejati grijati grijati

Long ije is diphthongal among the majority of Ijekavian speakers; some Croatian authors recognize it as 31st phoneme of Croatian [citation needed]. In Zeta dialect and most of East Herzegovina dialect, it represents two syllables though. Serbian phonologists do not recognize it as separate phoneme (possibly as a heritage that East Herzegoviniana was the native dialect of Vuk Karadžić, the reformer of Serbian language). The distinction can be clearly heard in first verses of national anthems of Croatia and Montenegro—they're sung as "Lije-pa na-ša do-mo-vi-no" and "Oj svi-je-tla maj-ska zo-ro" respectively. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serb linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino (Our Beautiful Homeland) is the national anthem of Croatia. ... Oj, svijetla majska zoro (Oh, bright dawn of May) is the official state anthem of Montenegro. ...


Ethnic affiliation of native speakers of štokavian dialect

During the 1st half of the 19th century, protagonists of nascent Slavic philology were, as far as South Slavic dialects were concerned, embroiled in frequently bitter polemic about "ethnic affiliation" of native speakers of various dialects. This, from contemporary point of view, rather bizarre obsession was motivated primarily by political and national interests that prompted philologists-turned-ideologues to express their views on the subject. The most prominent contenders in the squabble, with conflicting agenda, were Czech philologist Josef Dobrovský, Slovak Pavel Šafárik, Slovene Jernej Kopitar and Franc Miklošič, Serb Vuk Karadžić and Croatian Bogoslav Šulek and Vatroslav Jagić. Josef Dobrovský (August 17, 1753 - January 6, 1829) was Bohemian philologist and historian, one of the most important figures of the Bohemian national revival. ... Pavel Jozef Safarik Pavel Jozef Å afárik (Safáry / Schaffáry/ Schafary/ Saf(f)arik / Å afarík/ Szafarzik, Czech Pavel Josef Å afařík, modern Slovak Pavol Jozef Å afárik, German Paul Joseph Schaffarik, Latin Paulus Josephus Schaffarik, Hungarian Pál József Saf(f)arik) (13 May 1795 in Kobeliarovo... Jernej Kopitar (born 21 August 1780 in Repnje, died 11 August 1844 in Vienna) was a Slovenian linguist. ... Franc MikloÅ¡ič Franc MikloÅ¡ič (de: Franz von Miklosich), (November 29, 1813 – March 7, 1891) was a Slovenian philologist, born at Ljutomer (German Luttenberg), Styria, Slovenia, then a part of Austria. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serb linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... Bogoslav Å ulek (Bohuslav; SubotiÅ¡te, Slovakia, 1816. ... Vatroslav Jagić (July 6, 1838 - August 5, 1923), was a Croatian language researcher and a famous expert in the area of Slavic languages (Slavistics) in the second half of the 19th century. ...


Essentially, the dispute was about who can, philologically, be labelled as "Slovene", "Croat" and "Serb" with the very mundane aim of expanding one's national territory and influence. Born in the climate of romanticism and national awakening, these polemical "battles" only succeeded in poisoning relations between the aforementioned nations, especially because the štokavian dialect cannot be split along ethnic lines. Like many other dialects (for instance, Plattdeutsch), it is "multiethnic" by its very nature. Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to...


However, contemporary native speakers, after process of national crystallization and identification had been completed, can be roughly identified as predominant speakers of various štokavian subdialects. Since standard languages propagated through media have strongly influenced and altered the situation in the 19th century, the following attribution must be treated with necessary caution.


The distribution of old-štokavian speakers along ethnic lines in present times is as follows:

  • Kosovo-Resava (Ekavian) dialect: vastly Serbian
  • Zeta-South Sanjak dialect (Ijekavian): Montenegrin, Bosniak and Serbian.
  • Slavonian dialect (fluctuating "yat": mainly Ikavian, also Ijekavian and Ekavian): vastly Croatian
  • Eastern-Bosnian dialect(Ijekavian): vastly Bosniak and Croatian

Generally, the neo-štokavian dialect is divided as follows with regard to the ethnicity of its native speakers:

  • Šumadija-Vojvodina dialect (Ekavian): vastly Serbian
  • Dalmatian-Bosnian dialect (Ikavian): vastly Croatian and Bosniak
  • Eastern-Herzegovinian (Ijekavian): Serbian, Montenegrin, Croatian and Bosniak
Group Sub-Dialect Serbian Croatian Bosnian Montenegrin
old-štokavian Kosovo-Resava x
Zeta-South Sanjak x x x
Slavonian x
Eastern Bosnian x x
neo-štokavian Šumadija-Vojvodina x
Dalmatian-Bosnian x x
Eastern Herzgovinian x x x x

Earliest texts of štokavian dialect

Proto-štokavian, or Church Slavic with ingredients of nascent štokavian, were recorded in legal documents like the charter of ban Kulin, regulating the commerce between Bosnia and Dubrovnik in Croatia, dated 1189, and in liturgical texts like Gršković’s and Mihanović’s fragments, ca. 1150, in southern Bosnia or Herzegovina. Experts's opinions are divided with regard to the extent these texts, especially the Kulin ban parchment, contain contemporary štokavian vernacular. Mainly štokavian, with ingredients of Church Slavic, are numerous legal and commercial documents from pre-Ottoman Bosnia, Hum, Serbia, Zeta, and southern Dalmatia, especially Dubrovnik. First comprehensive vernacular štokavian text is the Vatican Croatian Prayer Book, written a decade or two before 1400 in Dubrovnik. In next two centuries štokavian vernacular texts had been written mainly in Dubrovnik, other Adria cities and islands influenced by Dubrovnik, as well as in Bosnia, by Bosnian Franciscans and Bosniak Muslim vernacular alhamiado literature — the first example being "Chirwat turkisi" or "Croatian song", dated 1589. Ban Kulin (1163-1204) was a powerful Bosnian Ban who ruled from 1180 to 1204 first as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire and then of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... Zahumlje in the 9th century, according to De administrando imperio Zahumlje, also known as the Land of Hum and Chelm, was a medieval South Slavic principality located in todays Herzegovina (modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina), and southern Dalmatia (modern day Republic of Croatia). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Zeta was the Serbian independent principality that replaced the ancient Kingdom of Duklja (Latin: Doclea) for the Serbian territories roughly encompassing present-day Republic of Montenegro. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... Vatican Croatian Prayer Book is the oldest Croatian vernacular prayer book and the finest example of early štokavian vernacular literary idiom. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... A text in a Romance language is said to be aljamiado if it is written using the Arabic or the Hebrew alphabets, as texts written in the Mozarabic or Judeo-Spanish languages are. ...


Standard languages

Standard languages Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are all based on neo-štokavian dialect. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


However, it must be stressed that standard languages, irrespectively of their mutual differences, have been stylised in such manners that parts of the neo-štokavian dialect have been retained—for instance, declension —but other features were purposely omitted or altered—for instance, the phoneme "h" was re-instated in standard languages.


The Croatian language has had a long tradition of štokavian vernacular literacy and literature. It took almost four and half centuries for štokavian to prevail as the dialectal basis for Croatian standard. In other periods, čakavian and kajkavian dialects, as well as hybrid čakavian–kajkavian–štokavian interdialect "contended" for the Croatian national koine — but eventually lost, mainly due to historical and political reasons. By 1650s it was fairly obvious that štokavian would become the dialectal basis for the Croatian standard, but this process was finally completed in 1850s, when neo-štokavian Ijekavian, based mainly on Ragusan (Dubrovnik), Dalmatian, Bosnian and Slavonian literary heritage became national standard language.[citation needed] Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ...


Serbian language was much faster in standardisation. Although vernacular literature was present in the 18th century, it was Vuk Karadžić who, between 1818 and 1851, made a radical break with the past and established Serbian neo-štokavian folklore idiom as the basis of standard Serbian (until then, educated Serbs had been using Serbian Slavic, Russian Slavic and hybrid Russian-Serbian language). Although he wrote in Serbian Ijekavian, the majority of Serbs have adopted Ekavian, which is dominant in Serbia. Serbs in Croatia and Bosnia, as well as Montenegrins, use Ijekavian variant of standard Serbian language. Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Bosnian language is only currently beginning to take shape. Bosniaks idiom can be seen as a transition between Serbian Ijekavian and Croatian languages, with some specific traits. After the collapse of Yugoslavia, Bosniaks affirmed their wish to stylise their own standard language, based on neo-štokavian dialect, but reflecting their characteristics—from phonetics to semantics.


Also, contemporary situation is unstable with regard to the accentuation, since phoneticians have observed that 4-accents speech has, in all likelihood, shown to be increasingly unstable, which resulted in proposals that 3-accents norm be prescribed. This is particularly true for Croatian, where, contrary to all expectations, the influence of čakavian and kajkavian dialects on the standard language has been waxing, not waning, in the past 50–70 years. Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ...


Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian standard languages, although all based on neo-štokavian dialect (or, more precisely, various subdialects) and mutually intelligible, are recognizably different in their prescribed forms as standard or literary languages. Their structures are almost identical in basic grammar, but have differences in other fields—from phonetics, phonology and morphology to syntax, semantics and pragmatics. For other traits, see Differences in official languages in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia. The official languages in Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro differ in various aspects as outlined below. ...


Example: Što jest, jest; tako je uv(ij)ek bilo, što će biti, ( biće / bit će ), a nekako već će biti!
(The first option in the middle of the sentence is a difference between Ekavian and Ijekavian. The second option in the middle is difference between Serbian and Croatian norms, respectively.)


Another "classic" example is:

English: Cooking salt is a compound of sodium and chlorine.
Croatian: Kuhinjska sol je spoj natrija i klora.
Serbian: Kuhinjska so je jedinjenje natrijuma i hlora.
Bosnian: Kuhinjska so je spoj natrija i hlora.

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

References

  1. ^ Kašić, Govor Konavla, SDZb XLI (1995), 241-396
  2. ^ P. Ivić, Putevi razvoja srpskohrvatskog vokalizma, Voprosy jazykoznanija VII/1 (1958), revised in Iz istorije srpskohrvatske dijalektologije, Niš 1991

External links

  • Map of Serbo-Croatian dialects according to Brabec, Kraste, and Živković
  • Map of štokavian dialects according to Dalibor Brozović

 
 

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