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Encyclopedia > Shtetel

A shtetl (Yiddish: שטעטל, diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט, "town") was typically a small town with a large Jewish population forced to live there by Germans in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. Shtetls (Yiddish plural: shtetlekh) were mainly found in the areas which constituted the 19th century Pale of Settlement in the Russian Empire, the Congress Kingdom of Poland, Galicia, and Romania. A larger city, like Lemberg or Czernowitz, was called a shtot (Yiddish: שטאָט); a smaller village was called a dorf (Yiddish: דאָרף). Yiddish (Yid. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... This article is becoming very long. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Map of Congress Poland. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... The city of Chicago, as seen from the sky The main square of the Catalan city of Sabadell during a popular celebration. ... Lviv ( Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; Lemberg in German—see also cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from... Chernivtsi (Чернівці, Romanian: Cernăuţi, German: Czernowitz, Polish: Czerniowce, Hungarian: Csernovic, Yiddish: Chernovits) is a city in Northern Bukovina, Ukraine. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...


The concept of shtetl culture is used as a metaphor for the traditional way of life of 19th-century Eastern European Jews. Shtetls are portrayed as pious farming communities following Orthodox Judaism, socially stable and unchanging despite outside attacks. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...

Map of the Pale of Settlement
Map of the Pale of Settlement
Lyuboml'(Liuboml', Luboml) near Kovel', Russian Volhynia, around 1900. We can see the German and yiddish letter "Volks Küche/folks-kikh".
Lyuboml'(Liuboml', Luboml) near Kovel', Russian Volhynia, around 1900. We can see the German and yiddish letter "Volks Küche/folks-kikh".
Old Jewish cemetery in the shtetl of Medzhybizh, Ukraine.
Old Jewish cemetery in the shtetl of Medzhybizh, Ukraine.
Lakhva in 1926 (then Łachwa, Poland), ulica Lubaczyńska (Lubaczynska Street)
Lakhva in 1926 (then Łachwa, Poland), ulica Lubaczyńska (Lubaczynska Street)

Contents

Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (536x666, 101 KB) Summary Source: [1] See also [2], [3] This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (536x666, 101 KB) Summary Source: [1] See also [2], [3] This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links According to User:Magister, this picture is shtetl Lyuboml(Liuboml) near Kovel, Volhynia, around 1900. ... Image File history File links According to User:Magister, this picture is shtetl Lyuboml(Liuboml) near Kovel, Volhynia, around 1900. ... Lyuboml (Polish: ) is a town in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... Lyuboml (Polish: ) is a town in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... Coat of Arms, circa 1993 Kovel (In Ukrainian and in Russian: Ковель, in Polish: Kowel) is a town now situated in western Ukraine in the Volyn Oblast. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Medzhibozh_graves. ... Image File history File links Medzhibozh_graves. ... Medzhybizh (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Translit: Medzhibozh, Polish: Międzybórz, Międzyborz or Międzybóż, Yiddish: , translit. ... Map of the ghettos in occupied Europe, 1939-45, showing the location of Lakhva (south of Minsk, east of Pinsk) Einsatzgruppen massacres in the Soviet Union Lakhva (or Lachva, Lachwa) (Belarusian: Лахва) (Polish:Łachwa) (Russian:Лахва) (Hebrew:לחווא) (Yiddish:לאַכװע) is a small town in southern Belarus, in Brest voblast, approximately 80 kilometres to...

History

History of the oldest Eastern European shtetls began about a millennium ago and saw periods of relative tolerance and prosperity as well as times of extreme poverty, hardships and pogroms. A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ...


The May Laws introduced by Tsar Alexander III of Russia in 1882 banned Jews from rural areas and towns of fewer than ten thousand people. In the 20th century revolutions, civil wars, industrialization and the Holocaust destroyed traditional shtetl existence. However, Hasidic Jews have founded new communities in the United States, such as Kiryas Joel and New Square. On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Alexander III (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Kiryas Joel (or Kiryas Yoel or Kiryat Joel or KJ) (קרית יואל, Hebrew: Town of Joel) is a village within the Town of Monroe in Orange County, New York, United States. ... New Square (Hebrew: שיכון סקווירא) is an all-Hasidic village in the Town of Ramapo in Rockland County, New York. ...


There is a belief found in historical and literary writings that the shtetl disintegrated before it was destroyed during World War II; however, this alleged cultural break-up is never clearly defined.[1] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Shtetls (listed by present-day country)

Poland

Note: Towns formerly in the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia are marked with "(G)". Towns in formerly Russian Zagłębie Dąbrowskie (Zaglembia) are marked with "(Z)".

ZagÅ‚Ä™bie DÄ…browskie (literally Ore Region of DÄ…browa; (?)) is a historical and geographical region in Poland. ... BÄ™dzin Castle BÄ™dzin (pronounced: ) is a town in south Poland with 59,936 inhabitants (31 Dec 1999). ... BeÅ‚chatów is a city of Poland. ... BiaÅ‚obrzegi is a town in Poland, in Mazowsze Voivodship, about 60 km south of Warsaw. ... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... Bielsk Podlaski is a town in north-eastern Poland with 27,600 inhabitants (2004). ... Bircza is a village in Subcarpathian Voivodship, Poland. ... Brzozów is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 8,000 inhabitants (2000). ... Bukowsko, 2006 Bukowsko, 1946 Bukowsko (Yiddish: ) is a village in the Sanok County in the East MaÅ‚opolska in the Lesser Beskid mountains, parish in loco. ... Bytom ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland with 205,560 inhabitants (1999). ... CheÅ‚m ( ; Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 72,595 inhabitants (2005). ... ChÄ™ciny Castle ChÄ™ciny is a town in Kielce County, ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,252 inhabitants (2006). ... Ciechanów coat of arms Ciechanów (pronounced (IPA): [tÉ•exanuv]) is a town in north-central Poland with 47,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Czeladź is a town in south Poland with 36,600 inhabitants (1995). ... CzÄ™stochowa ( , German: ) is a city in south Poland on the Warta River with 248,894 inhabitants (2004). ... DÄ…browa Tarnowska is a town in Poland, in MaÅ‚opolska Voivodship, about 20 kilometers north of Tarnów. ... DÄ…browa Górnicza (pronounce: [dɔ̃brÉ”vagurniʧa]) is a city in southern Poland with 140,000 inhabitants (1999) and a territory of 177 km², in a region called ZagÅ‚Ä™bie DÄ…browskie. ... DÄ™bica (or Debica) is a town in southeastern Poland with 47,187 inhabitants (2005). ... Dukla is a village and an eponymous municipality in southeastern Poland, in the Subcarpathian Voivodship. ... Coat of Arms Dynów is a town in Rzeszów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with a population of 6,030 (2004). ... Frysztak, a town in Strzyżów county, 17 km from Krosno, with 950 total inhabitants. ... GÄ…bin is a town in Masovia, Poland with 4,300 inhabitants. ... GÅ‚owno is a town in Poland, in Łódź Voivodship, in Zgierz County, about 25 km northeast of Łódź. According to data from June 26, 2006, the city has 15,219 inhabitants. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Towns in Poland ... Gostynin is a town in Central Poland with 20,200 inhabitants (1995). ... Góra Kalwaria is a town on the Vistula River in the Mazovian Voivodship, Poland, about 25 km southeast of Warsaw. ... Grodzisk Mazowiecki is a town in central Poland with 24,900 inhabitants in 1995. ... Hrubieszów is a town in south-eastern Poland with 20,200 inhabitants (1995). ... Castle in Iłża Iłża is a small town in Masovian Voivodship, Poland. ... Coat of Arms Saint Dominican Church JarosÅ‚aw is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 40,523 inhabitants (2004). ... CoA   is a county town in south-eastern Poland with 37,884 inhabitants (2003). ... Jedwabne is a village in Poland with about 2,500 inhabitants in the Podlasie Voivodship. ... Coat of Arms KamieÅ„sk is a town in Poland, in Łódź Voivodeship, in Radomsko County. ... Kielce ( ) is a city in central Poland with 202,609 inhabitants (2006). ... Kleczew is a town in Greater Poland Voivodeship, western-central Poland. ... Knyszyn is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... Kock, also pronounced Kotzk in Yiddish, is a town in eastern Poland, 27 miles north of Lublin and 75 miles south-east of Warsaw. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... There were at least two important battles fought in the vicinity of Kock, Poland: Battle of Kock (1809) fought during the Napoleonic Wars Battle of Kock (1939) during the Polish Defence War of 1939 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Kolbuszowa is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 8,800 inhabitants. ... Kolno is a town in northeastern Poland. ... Kozienice is a town in central Poland with 21,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Wawel Hill. ... Krasnosielc is a small town in Masovian Voivodship, Poland. ... Coat of Arms Krosno (in full The Royal Free City of Krosno, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Krosno) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 48. ... ŁaÅ„cut is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 18,000 inhabitants (1998). ... Łask is a town in central Poland with 20,200 inhabitants (1995). ... Lelów – a village in Poland situated in Silesian Voivodeship (województwo Å›lÄ…skie), county czestochowski (powiat czÄ™stochowski), over the banks of BiaÅ‚ka river, about 20 miles east of CzÄ™stochowa. ... Street in Leżajsk Leżajsk (full name The Free Royal Town of Leżajsk, Polish: Wolne Królewskie Miasto Leżajsk, Yiddish: Lizhensk) is a town in southeastern Poland with 14,700 inhabitants (1998). ... Łódź ((?)) is Polands second largest city (population 776,297 in 2004). ... Łomża is a town in north-eastern Poland, located approx. ... Łosice ( [woÉ•iʦε]) is a town in eastern Poland. ... Lozisht was a Jewish shtetl (village) located in what is now western Ukraine but which used to be a part of Poland and was called then Ignatowka. ... Current Lubaczów Coat of Arms Old Lubaczów Coat of Arms Lubaczów is a town in southeastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine, with 13,000 inhabitants (1998). ... MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski (Lat. ... Coat of arms of Mielec Flag of Mielec Mielec is a town in south-eastern Poland with 63,300 inhabitants (2003). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... M is the thirteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... XIX century building in Mszczonów Mszczonów (Yidish: Amshinov) is a city in Poland. ... Nowy Dwór means new manor in Polish. ... Nowy Korczyn (50°18´ / 20°49´) also known as Khadash, Nayshtut, Neustadt, Novi Kochin and Novi Kortchin, known formerly as Nowe Miasto Korczyn, is a village at the mouth of Nida river, where it meets the Wistula river in Busko-Zdrój County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, Poland. ... Nowy SÄ…cz town in southern Poland; less often an administrative district (powiat) surrounding the town. ... The word Nur has several meanings: -nur is an indo-european root denoting water or river. ... Olkusz is a town in south Poland with 40,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Saint Martins Church in Opatów, a Romanesque church from the second half of the 12th century Opatów ( listen) is a town in Poland, in ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodship. ... Opoczno - a town in central Poland with 23,000 inhabitants (2002). ... Coat of arms of OstroÅ‚eka OstroÅ‚Ä™ka ( ) is a town in northeastern Poland on the Narew river, about 120 km northeast of Warsaw, with a population of 54,129 (2005) and area 29 km². Situated in the Masovian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously capital of OstroÅ‚Ä™ka Voivodeship (1975-1998). ... Ostrów Mazowiecka is a town in northeastern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995). ... Ożarów is a town in Poland, in ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodship, in Powiat of Opatów (Opatów county). ... Pabianice is a town in central Poland, with 71,313 inhabitants (2004). ... Pilica is a town in Zawiercie County, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland, with 1,948 inhabitants (2004). ... Pilzno is a town in Poland, in Subcarpathian Voivodship, in DÄ™bica County. ... Piotrków Trybunalski is a town in central Poland with 81,200 inhabitants (2004). ... Bridge across the Vistula PÅ‚ock ( ) is a city in central Poland, on Vistula river, with 131,011 inhabitants. ... PoÅ‚aniec is a town in Poland, with 8,419 inhabitants (2004). ... PrzemyÅ›l (pronounce: pʃεmiÉ•l, Ukrainian: Перемишль, Peremyshl) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 67,847 inhabitants (2005). ... Przeworsk is a town in south-eastern Poland with 16,600 inhabitants (2001). ... Radom (pronounce: [radÉ”m]) is a city in central Poland with 227 309 inhabitants. ... Radomsko is a town in central Poland with 51,330 inhabitants . ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ropczyce is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 14,900 inhabitants (1998). ... Różan is a small town in Mazovian Voivodship, Poland. ... Rymanów is a town of 3608 inhabitants in Polands Subcarpathian Voivodship. ... Rzeszów ( ) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 164,000 (2005), granted a town charter in 1354, the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously of Rzeszów Voivodeship (1945-1998). ... Flag of Sandomierz Sandomierz Coat of Arms Sandomierz(Sandomir) ( listen) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). ... Sanok, (Ukrainian: Сянiк, Latin: Sanocum, German: Saanig, Yiddish: Sonik, in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok), part of The Land of Sanok (Polish: Ziemia Sanocka, and Ruthenian Voivodeship), is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,261 inhabitants (2005). ... Sejny (Lithuanian Seinai) is a town in north-eastern Poland, in Podlasie Voivodship, close to the border with Lithuania and Belarus. ... SÅ‚awków is a town in BÄ™dzin County, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland, with 6,816 inhabitants (2004). ... Sompolno is a town in Poland, with 3,700 inhabitants (2004). ... Sielecki Castle Sosnowiec (pronounced: [sÉ”s:nÉ”vȋεʦ]) was the name of a city located in the south of Poland, in a tributary of the Wisla (Vistula) river. ... Staszów coat of arms Staszów is a town in Poland, in ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodship, about 50 km southeast of Kielce. ... Strzyżów is a town in south-eastern Poland with 8,600 inhabitants (1998). ... SupraÅ›l is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlaskie Municipal government Rada miejska w SuwaÅ‚kach Mayor Józef Gajewski Area 65. ... Ščučyn (pronounce: listen â–¶(?); Belarusian: ; Polish: ) is a town in the Hrodna Province of Belarus. ... Tarnobrzegs Coat of Arms Tarnobrzeg is a town in south-eastern Poland, on the east bank of the river Vistula, with 51,300 inhabitants (2001). ... Tarnów is a city in south-eastern Poland with 121,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Country Poland Region Subcarpathian Voivodship Founded 1402 Area    - Town 68. ... Tomaszów Mazowiecki is a town in central Poland with 69,600 inhabitants (1995). ... Trzcianne (Yiddish: טרעסטיני, Trestiny) is a village in eastern Poland, in the Podlasie Voivodship, in the Powiat of MoÅ„ki. ... Tyczyn is a town in southern Poland Education Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno-Gospodarcza Categories: Poland-related stubs | Towns in Poland ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Tykocin Tykocin is a small town in north-eastern Poland, with 1,800 inhabitants (1998), located on the Narew river. ... Coat of Arms Ulanów is a town in Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with 1,490 inhabitants (2004). ... Warta (Latin: Varta, German: Warthe) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder river. ... Wizna is a small town in Podlasie Voivodship, Poland. ... WÅ‚oszczowa is a town in Poland, in ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodship, about 50 km west of Kielce. ... Wysokie Mazowieckie is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... Wyszogród is a town in Poland in Masovian Voivodship, located in the middle of PÅ‚oÅ„sk Upland, by the Vistula River. ... ZabÅ‚udów is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... Å»abno is a town of 4,000 inhabitants and on the river Dunajec in southern Poland, 15 km north of Tarnów. ... Zakroczym is a small town in Masovian Voivodship, Poland. ... CoA of Zambrów is a town in north-eastern Poland with 22,933 inhabitants (2003). ... ZduÅ„ska Wola is a town in central Poland with 45,900 inhabitants (1995). ... Zelów is a town in BeÅ‚chatów County, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland, with 8,307 inhabitants (2005). ... Zgierz (pronounce: [zgjeÊ’]) is a suburban town in central Poland located in the Lodz Metropolitan Area. ...

Other

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Bar is a town in Ukraine at the Rov river in Podolia. ... Belz (Ukrainian: , Polish: BeÅ‚z or BeÅ‚sk, Yiddish: בעלזא) is a small city in the Lviv Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, near the border with Poland, located at around . ... Berdychiv (Ukrainian: ; Polish language: Berdyczów; Russian: , Berdichev) is a town in Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine, 44 km south of Zhytomyr. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... BiarezaÅ„ or Bierazino (Belarusian: ) is a town on Biarezina river in the Minsk Province of Belarus. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city Panorama over the old town of Berezhany Berezhany (Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a city located in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city A church in Brody (1625). ... Bratslav (Ukrainian: ; Polish: BracÅ‚aw; Yiddish: ברעסאָבֿ /Breslov/) is a town in the Nemyriv raion of the Vinnytsya Oblast of Ukraine, on the river Southern Bug. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city Buchach (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ; Yiddish: בעטשאָטש, translit. ... Budaniv (Ukrainian: Буданів, Polish(German): Budzanów, Russian: Буданов Budanov) is a city in Western Ukraine, near Chortkiv, Buchach. ... Burshtyn (English: amber) is a city in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Western Ukraine, with a population of 14,700 as of January 2004. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city Ternopil Oblast Chortkiv (Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a city in the Ternopil oblast (province) in western Ukraine. ... Chaussy, Chavusy or Chausy is a district town in Mahilyow Province, Belarus. ... Drohobych (Ukrainian: , German: , Polish: , Russian: ) is a city located at the confluence of the Tysmenytsia river and Seret, a tributary of the latter, in the Lviv Oblast (province), in western Ukraine. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Iuje is a town in Belarus in the Hrodna voblast, 158 km east of Hrodna. ... Romanian Bukovina(Polish language) Gura Humorului (German:Gura Humora) is a town located in northern Romania, Suceava County in southern Bukovina (47°33 25°54). It was formerly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and was a Jewish shtetl. ... Jurbarkas(Yurbarkas, in German Georgenburg, Jurgenburg, Eurburg, in Yiddish יורבורג Jurborg, Jurburg(Yurburg), Yurberig, Yurbrik) is a Lithuanian town situated on the right hand shore of the Nieman (Nemunas) river. ... Justingrad (aka Yustingrad, Ustingrad), Kiev (Kyjiv), Russian Empire (now Ukraine). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Kalush (in Ukrainian Калуш; Polish Kalusz, Yiddish קאַלוש Kalush or Kalish) is a city in Southwest Ukraine incorporated in 1939. ... Kolomyia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: ) is a town and a raion (district) centre in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province) in Ukraine, at the Prut River. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the ghettos in occupied Europe, 1939-45, showing the location of Lakhva (south of Minsk, east of Pinsk) Einsatzgruppen massacres in the Soviet Union Lakhva (or Lachva, Lachwa) (Belarusian: Лахва) (Polish:Łachwa) (Russian:Лахва) (Hebrew:לחווא) (Yiddish:לאַכװע) is a small town in southern Belarus, in Brest voblast, approximately 80 kilometres to... Chabad Lubavitch, also known as Lubavitch Chabad, is a large branch of Hasidic Judaism. ... Liuboml (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Łuniniec (more usually: Luninets) (Belarusian: ) is a town in the Brest Province of Belarus, an administrative center of the Łuniniec district. ... Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк) is the capital of the Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... Medzhybizh (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Translit: Medzhibozh, Polish: MiÄ™dzybórz, MiÄ™dzyborz or MiÄ™dzybóż, Yiddish: , translit. ... Motol (Motele, in Yiddish) was a Shtetl located about 20 miles west of Pinsk on the Yasolda River. ... Obech village in Belarus in the district of Brest. ... Pinsk (Belarusian: , Russian: ), a town in Belarus, in the Polesia region, travesed by the river Prypiać, at the confluence of the Strumen and Pina rivers. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... County Suceava County Status Municipality Mayor Mihai Frunză, since 2000 Area  km² Population (2002) 27,759 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Ruzhyn (Ukrainian: , Russian: ; translit. ... Sadagóra (Romanian: Sadagura) is a city in Ukraine located about 8 km from Chernivtsi. ... Sátoraljaújhely (-Hungarian, Slovak: Nové Mesto pod Å iatrom, German: Neustadt am Zeltberg) is a town located in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in northern Hungary near the Slovak border. ... Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Towns in Belarus ... Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County Å iauliai County Municipality Å iauliai city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 2 Coordinates General information Capital of Å iauliai County Å iauliai city municipality Å iauliai district municipality Population (rank) 129,075 in 2005 (4th) First mentioned 1236 Granted city rights 1589 Å iauliai ( (help· info), approximate English transcription: , is... Slonim (Belarusian: Сло́нім; Russian: Сло́ним Polish: SÅ‚onim) is a city in Belarus in the Hrodna voblast, located at the junction of the Scara and Isa rivers, 143 km southeast of Hrodna. ... Slutsk (Belarusian: Слу́цак, Слуцк; Polish Słuck; Russian: Слуцк) is a town in Belarus, located on the Sluc river, 105 km south of Minsk. ... Starokostiantyniv (Ukrainian: ; sometimes also called Starokonstantinov) is a town in the Starokostiantyniv Raion in the Khmelnytskyi Oblast. ... Stryi (Ukrainian: , Polish: Stryj, also known as Stryy, Stryia and Stry) is a city located on the left bank of the Stryi River in the Lviv Oblast (province) of western Ukraine (in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains). ... Tarashcha (Ukrainian: ) is a city in the Kiev Oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Ternopil (Тернопіль in Ukrainian, Tarnopol in Polish, Ternopol in Russian) is a city in Western Ukraine, located at the banks of the Seret river. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... Rabbi Moshe Yehoshua Hager, the Viznitzer Rebbe of Bnei Brak and Rabbi Mordechai Hager,the Viznitzer Rebbe of Monsey dancing. ... Zhytomyr (Ukrainian, Russian Житомир, Polish: Å»ytomierz) is the capital of the Zhytomyrska oblast in Ukraine. ... Zbarazh (Ukrainian: Збараж; Polish: Zbaraż; also known as Zbarj) is a town in Galicia, Western Ukraine. ... Zolochiv (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ; Russian: , translit. ...

Shtetl in fiction and folklore

Chelm figures prominently in the Jewish humor as the legendary town of fools. Kasrilevke, the setting of many of Sholom Aleichem's stories, and Anatevka, the setting of the musical Fiddler on the Roof (based on other stories of Sholom Aleichem) are other notable fictional shtetls. Jewish humor is the long tradition of humor in Judaism dating back to the Torah and the Midrash, but generally refers to the more recent stream of verbal, self-deprecating and often anecdotal humor originating in Eastern Europe and which took root in the United States over the last hundred... Sholom Aleichem listens Sholom Aleichem This article is about the writer. ... The Fantasticks was the longest-running musical in history. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The 2002 novel Everything Is Illuminated, by Jonathan Safran Foer, tells a fictional story set in the Ukrainian shtetl Trachimbrod.( Trochenbrod ) Everything Is Illuminated is a novel by Jonathan Safran Foer published in 2002. ... Jonathan Safran Foer This American author is not to be confused with the Australian media personality John Safran. ... Trachimbrod is a real place that features in the 2002 novel by Jonathan Safran Foer, Everything Is Illuminated. ...


The 1992 children's book "Something From Nothing," written and illustrated Phoebe Gilman, is an adaptation of a traditional Jewish folktale set in a fictional Shtetl. Phoebe Gilman was an American childrens book author and illustrator. ...


Shtots (larger towns with significant pre-war Jewish populations)

The city of Babruysk (Belarusian: Бабру́йск; Russian: Бобру́йск) is located in Mahilyow voblast of Belarus on the Berezina river. ... Bratislava (see below for other names) is the capital of Slovakia, and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 450,000. ... WrocÅ‚aw ( ; German: ; Czech: ; Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... Brisk as a proper name may refer to: Brest, Belarus (Brest-Litovsk) The Brisk yeshivas, rabbinical college originally founded in Brest and relocated to Jerusalem. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Chernivtsi highlighted. ... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Late Latin: ; older English Dantzig; also other languages) is Polands sixth-largest city, and also her principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, DźwiÅ„sk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ... GÅ‚ogów (pronounce: [gÈ—oguv], German: Glogau, Czech: Hlohov, the latter rare) is a town in southwestern Poland. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... After the experience in Jewish legislation which Edward had from 1269 onward, there was only one answer he could give as a true son of the Church to these demands: If the Jews were not to have intercourse with their fellow citizens as artisans, merchants, or farmers, and were not... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... County ChiÅŸinău Status Municipality Mayor Vasile Ursu, since 2005 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] Density 1114 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Founded in 1436 Dialing code +373 22 Web site http://www. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Northwestern Federal District Kaliningrad Oblast Mayor Yuri Savenko (2005) Geographical characteristics Area  - City 215. ... Wawel Hill. ... Lviv coat of arms Motto: Semper fidelis Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population    total 2000    density 808,900 4786/km² Founded city rights... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 305. ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... Pinsk (Belarusian: , Russian: ), a town in Belarus, in the Polesia region, travesed by the river Prypiać, at the confluence of the Strumen and Pina rivers. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Nickname: City of a Hundred Spires Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area    - City 496 km²  (191. ... Coordinates: Founded 1201  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area    - City 307. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Warszawa can refer to: Warsaw, capital city of Poland Warszawa, a song written by David Bowie and Brian Eno off the album Low. ...

See also

The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... 1889: There were 180,918 Jews of a total population of 1,628,867 in Bessarabia. ... This article addresses the History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of anti-Semitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kiryas Joel (or Kiryas Yoel or Kiryat Joel or KJ) (קרית יואל, Hebrew: Town of Joel) is a village within the Town of Monroe in Orange County, New York, United States. ... New Square (Hebrew: שיכון סקווירא) is an all-Hasidic village in the Town of Ramapo in Rockland County, New York. ... Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... Boisbriand is a city in southwestern Canada on the Rivière des Mille_Îles in the Regional County Municipality of Thérèse_de_Blainville. ...

Reference

External links


 
 

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