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Encyclopedia > Shri Madhvacharya
Shri Madhvacharya

Shri Madhvacharya Shri Madhvacharyas Image Source: http://www. ...

Period : 1238 to 1317
Place of Birth : Pajaka, Udupi
Guru : Achyuta Prekshaka
Names :
  1. Vasudeva, as named by his parents
  2. Shri Madhvacharya, named after
    attaining sainthood
  3. Poornapragna, One who knows
    everything
  4. Anandateertha, One who brings
    joy through his preachings
Avatars (as believed) :
  1. Hanuman
  2. Bhima

Shri Madhvacharya,(1238-1317), was the chief propounder of the Dvaita or dualistic school of Hindu philosophy, one of the three influential Vedanta philosophies. He was one of the influential philosophers during the Bhakti movement. Madhvacharya is believed to be the third incarnation of Vayu aka MukhyaPrana, after Hanuman and Bhima. // Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... Udupi is a district and temple town located in Karnataka state near the city of Mangalore on the south west coast of India. ... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Lord Hanuman In Hinduism, Hanuman is a vanara who aided Rama (an avatar of Vishnu) in rescuing his wife, Sita, from the Rakshasa king Ravana. ... In the Mahabharata, Bhima is a heroic warrior, son of Kunti by Vayu, but the acknowledged son of Pandu and the second eldest of the Pandava brothers (If Karna, son of Kunti by Surya is considered, then Bhima becomes the third eldest sun of Kunti). ... Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu theology), made popular by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses strict distinction between God (expressed as Vishnu) and souls. ... Hindu philosophy (one of the main divisions of Indian philosophy) is traditionally seen through the prism of six different systems (called darshanas in Sanskrit) that are listed here and makes up the main belief systems of Hinduism. ... Vedanta (Vedānta) is an important branch of Hindu philosophy and is a form of Jnana Yoga (one of the four basic yoga practices in Hinduism; the others are: Raja Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga), a form of yoga which involves an individual seeking the path of intellectual analysis or... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... In Hinduism, Vayu is a primary god, father of Bhima and Hanuman. ... Lord Hanuman In Hinduism, Hanuman is a vanara who aided Rama (an avatar of Vishnu) in rescuing his wife, Sita, from the Rakshasa king Ravana. ... In the Mahabharata, Bhima is a heroic warrior, son of Kunti by Vayu, but the acknowledged son of Pandu and the second eldest of the Pandava brothers (If Karna, son of Kunti by Surya is considered, then Bhima becomes the third eldest sun of Kunti). ...

Contents


Formative Years

Shri Madhvacharya was born as Vasudeva to Madhyageha Bhatta (father) and Vedavati (mother) at Pajaka in Udupi. Udupi is a district and temple town located in Karnataka state near the city of Mangalore on the south west coast of India. ...


Dvaita Philosophy

Shri Madhvacharya, like Ramanuja espoused a Vaishnava Theology that understands Brahman as endowed with attributes and as a personal God, Vishnu. By Brahman, he referred to the infinite, immanent and transcendent Utimate Reality and not the sub-caste. Sri Ramanuja Acharya (1017 - 1137 AD) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ... Vishnu For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ...


Dvaita, or Dualistic philosophy, also known as Bheda-vâda, Tattva-vâda, and Bimba-pratibimba-vâda, is the doctrine propounded by Ananda Tîrtha (also known as Madhvacharya) that asserts that the difference between the individual soul or jîva, and God,(Îshvara or Vishnu), is eternal and real. Actually, this is just one of the five differences that are so stated -- all five differences that constitute the universe are eternal. Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu theology), made popular by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses strict distinction between God (expressed as Vishnu) and souls. ...


Five Differences

  • The five are given by:

jiiveshvara bhidA chaiva jaDeshvara bhidA tathA |
jiiva-bhedo mithashchaiva jaDa-jiiva-bhidA tathA |
mithashcha jaDa-bhedo.ayam prapaJNcho bheda-pa.nchakaH ||
- paramashruti


"The difference between the jîva (soul) and Îshvara (Creator), and the difference between jaDa (insentient) and Îshvara; and the difference between various jîvas, and the difference between jaDa and jîva; and the difference between various jaDas, these five differences make up the universe." From the Paramopanishad a.k.a. Parama-shruti, as quoted by Ananda Tîrtha in his 'VishNu-tattva-vinirNaya'


Another way of saying this is that these five fundamental differences are between: Selves and Brahman; matter and Brahman; one Self and another Self; matter and Selves; and one object and another. In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ... Matter is commonly referred to as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... Matter is commonly referred to as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ...


This is the reason why some refer to the doctrine of Tattvavâda (the preferred name) as 'Dvaita'. However, 'Dvaita' is thought to be inadequately representative of the true grain of Tattvavâda.


The doctrine of Tattvavâda is considered to be eternal (in a flow-like sense, just as Creation is eternal); in historical times, it was revived by Ananda Tîrtha, who is also known as Madhvâchârya. Because of this, followers of Tattvavâda are called Mâdhvas, meaning followers of Madhva.

Avatars(as believed) of Shri Madhvacharya. From top (in order of occurrence): Hanuman, Bhima and Shri Madhvacharya
Avatars(as believed) of Shri Madhvacharya. From top (in order of occurrence): Hanuman, Bhima and Shri Madhvacharya

Shri Madhvacharyas avatars Source: http://www. ... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Lord Hanuman In Hinduism, Hanuman is a vanara who aided Rama (an avatar of Vishnu) in rescuing his wife, Sita, from the Rakshasa king Ravana. ... In the Mahabharata, Bhima is a heroic warrior, son of Kunti by Vayu, but the acknowledged son of Pandu and the second eldest of the Pandava brothers (If Karna, son of Kunti by Surya is considered, then Bhima becomes the third eldest sun of Kunti). ...

Souls are not generated from God.

  • In Madhvacharya's established that, souls are eternal but are not created by God as in the Semitic religions. The souls are dependent, not generated by Vishnu but co-exist with Him eternally, supported by His will and entirely controlled by Him. The souls, however, are dependent on Him in their pristine nature and in all transformation that they may undergo.

Three Classes of Souls and Eternal Damnation

  • Additionally, Madhvacharya differed significantly from traditional Hindu beliefs in his concept of eternal damnation. For example, he divides souls into three classes, one class which qualify for liberation, Mukti-yogyas, another subject to eternal rebirth or eternally transmigrating due to samsara, Nitya-samsarins, and significantly, a class that is eventually condemned to eternal hell or Andhatamas, known as Tamo-yogyas. Madhvacharaya was the first in the recent years who revived the timeless Vaishnava tradition. There were 21 different Bashayas (commenteries) before SriMadhvacharaya. He is the first to establish the facts of tri-patriate classifcation of souls. By contrast, most Hindus believe that souls will eventually obtain moksha, even after millions of rebirths, these believes have no proper foundation or evidence to fall back on to for support and most of them have no proper education in traditional ways.

In Dvaita theology, this class of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, is considered eligible for mukti or moksha. ... In Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, samsara or saṃsāra refers to the concept of reincarnation or rebirth in Indian philosophical traditions. ... In Dvaita theology, this class of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, are eternally transmigrating. ... In Dvaita theology, this group of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, consists of souls who are the damnable. ... Moksha (Sanskrit: विमोक्ष, liberation) or Mukti (Sanskrit: विमुक्ति, release) refers, in general, to liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth. ...

Madhvacharya's Theology as an Answer to the Eternal Problem of Evil

  • By following the concepts of souls not being created by God and classification of the souls, Madhvacharya provides a lucid answer the problem of evil by seeking a root cause like the intrinsic nature of the soul itself. Often, evil behaviour displayed in the world might not be just the nature of the soul but also depends upon the timeless actions (Karma) of the soul itself.

In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent god. ...

Impact of Dvaita Movement

  • Madhva is considered to be one of the influential theologians in Hindu history. He revitalized an Hindu monotheism in light of attacks, theological and physical, by foreign invasion. Great leaders of the Vaishnava Bhakti movement, in Karnataka, for example, Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa were influenced by Dvaita traditions. Also, the famous Hindu saint, Raghavendra Swami, was a leading figure in the Dvaita tradition.
  • Like all other acharayas, he was not critical of the caste system.
  • He established that VarnAshrama, was related to one's nature than his/her birth, and caste was due to the karma in previous briths, if one belonged to a lower caste doesn't mean they are not eligible for Mukthi (release from bondage from birth and death cycle). Classical example is of kanakadasaru who was born a low caste but even today, he is revered in all of Madhva followers.


Madhvacharaya during his time not only established dvaita philosophy, but also displayed extraordinary strength and skills to show that he is the third avatara of Vayu, who came down to earth to help people suffering from delusional philosophies and guide them in the right path. Madhvacharaya at the age of 79, year 1317, disappeared from the eyes of humans and continue to reside in Upper Badari in his continuning service to his eternal master SriVedaVyasa. The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a two fold division. ... Adi Shankara Adi Shankara (Shri Shankaracharya, Adhi Shankaracharya; the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord) (very approximately 788–820 C.E., but see below) was the most famous Advaita philosopher, who had a profound influence on the growth of Hinduism... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Nonduality is the nature of reality according to teachings (generally originating in Asia) such as Advaita, Buddhism and Dzogchen, and probably Taoism as well. ... Sri Ramanuja Acharya (1017 - 1137 AD) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... Nonduality is the nature of reality according to teachings (generally originating in Asia) such as Advaita, Buddhism and Dzogchen, and probably Taoism as well. ... Vishisthadvaita is a qualified monism in which God alone exists but admits plurality. ... Reality in everyday usage means everything that exists. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Sri Purandara Dasa (1494-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Kanaka Dasa was one of the devotees of Krishna and an influential person in the Vaishnava bhakti movement in Karnataka. ... Raghavendra Swami (1601-1671), one of the influential saints in Hinduism, lived in the 17th century. ... A caste system is a rigid system of social stratification, which divides members of a society into different castes. ...


Narayana panditAchar captures Madhvacharaya's life in a beautiful poetic verses in his SuMadhvaVijaya which is in 32 Sarga (chapters), this book is an authentic work composed during his own time. This is a very rare work, there is no evidence of anyone composing works on any major philosopher like this before or after him from other disciplines. SuMadhvaVijaya is a composition which captures life history of MahdvAcharaya.


Religious establishments

The main icon (vigraha) in Udupi of Lord Krishna was established by Madhvacharya. The 8 monasteries (ashta mathas) of Udupi have been following his philosophy since then. Udupi is a district and temple town located in Karnataka state near the city of Mangalore on the south west coast of India. ... This article is about Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ...

Icon of Lord Krishna in Udupi installed by Shri Madhvacharya
Icon of Lord Krishna in Udupi installed by Shri Madhvacharya

Udupi Balakrishna Source: http://www. ... This article is about Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... Udupi is a district and temple town located in Karnataka state near the city of Mangalore on the south west coast of India. ...

References

  • cited from Bhakti Schools of Vedanta, by Swami Tapasyananda, available at Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai. available at India web site: http://www.sriramakrishnamath.org and US site: http://www.vedanta.com and http://www.sanskrit.org/Madhva/madhvateachings.html .

External links

Biographical Articles

Portals relating to Dvaita Philosophy

Topics in Hinduism
Shruti (primary scriptures): Vedas | Upanishads | Bhagavad Gita | Itihasa (Ramayana & Mahabharata) | Agamas
Smriti (other texts): Tantras | Sutras | Puranas | Brahma Sutras | Hatha Yoga Pradipika | Smritis | Tirukural | Yoga Sutra
Concepts: Avatar | Brahman | Kosas | Dharma | Karma | Moksha | Maya | Ishta-Deva | Murti | Reincarnation | Samsara | Trimurti | Turiya
Schools & systems: Schools of Hinduism | Early Hinduism | Samkhya | Nyaya | Vaisheshika | Yoga | Mimamsa | Vedanta | Tantra | Bhakti | Carvakas
Traditional practices: Jyotish | Ayurveda
Rituals: Aarti | Bhajans | Darshan | Diksha | Mantras | Puja | Satsang | Stotras | Yajna
Gurus and saints: Shankara | Ramanuja | Madhvacharya | Ramakrishna | Vivekananda | Sree Narayana Guru | Aurobindo | Ramana Maharshi | Sivananda | Chinmayananda | Sivaya Subramuniyaswami | Swaminarayan | A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Denominations:
Vaishnavism | Saivism | Shaktism | Smartism | Agama Hindu Dharma | Contemporary Hindu movements | Survey of Hindu organisations
Hindu deities: List of Hindu deities | Hindu mythology

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