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Encyclopedia > Shramana

Peoples of the Pali canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ...

Pali English

Community of Buddhist Disciples Pali may refer to: Pāli, a Middle Indo-Aryan language Pali, Rajasthan, a town and district in Rajasthan, western India Pali, a Hawaiian word, meaning cliffs Nuuanu Pali, a region on the Hawaiian island of Oahu Ballaleshwar Pali, the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra This is... Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it...

Monastic Sangha

BhikkhuBhikkuṇī
SamaṇeraSamaṇerī
Sikkhamānā
Anagārika Monasticism is one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. ... Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... Bhikkhuni refers to the tradition of Buddhist holy women, or nuns. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sangha. ... A samaneri (pali language) is novice nun, who lives according to the ten precepts. ... In Buddhism, a sikkhamānā is a female novice (Pali: samaneri) training to become a nun (Pali: bhikkhuni). ... In Buddhist context, an anagarika is a white-robed student in the Theravada tradition who, for a few months, awaits being considered for Samaneras ordination. ...

MonkNun
Novice (m., f.)
Nun trainee
Postulant A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... For the city in Texas, see Novice, Texas. ... A Postulant (from the Latin postulare, to ask) was originally one who makes a request or demand; hence, a candidate. ...

Laity

Upāsaka, Upāsikā
Gahattha, Gahapati
Agārika, Agāriya In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Upasaka (Sanskrit for servant, female upasika) describes followers of Buddhism (Gautama Buddha) not being a monk or a member of a Buddhistic order; a lay follower. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Lay devotee (m., f.)
Householder
Layperson In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Other Religions

Samaṇa
Ājīvaka
Brāhmaṇa
Nigaṇṭha To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Wanderer
Ascetic
Brahmin
Jain ascetic The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is a member of an upper caste within Hindu society. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...

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A Śramaṇa (Sanskrit) or Samaṇa (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The term mendicant refers to begging or otherwise relying on charitable donations, and is most widely used for religious followers or ascetics who rely exclusively on charity to survive. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ...

Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. According to Buddhist and Jain literature, there were other śramaṇa leaders at that time. They are referred to as Titthiyas of Tīrthakas in the Buddhist Pāli literature. Mahāvīra is referred to as Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (Sanskrit: Nirgrantha Jñātaputra), one of the Titthiyas. Jaina redirects here. ... Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, Pali: बुद्ध धम्म, the teachings of the awakened one) is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a way of life, a practical philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of applied psychology. ... Ajivika is an anti-Brahminical philosophy, which literally translates to following an ascetic way of life. It was first propounded by Goshala Maskariputra (in 484 B.C.) Goshala is believed to have been a friend of Mahavira, the founder of Jainism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


For the six Tīrthikas see 六師外道


Gautama the Buddha regarded rigorous asceticism extreme and not leading to enlightenment and did not institute such methods, and thus adapted the "middle way," while the followers of Mahāvīra continued to practice asceticism. Devadatta, the cousin of Gautama, caused a split in the Buddhist saṅgha by demanding more rigorous practices. Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Ascetic redirects here. ... The Middle Way or Middle Path (Sanskrit Madhyama Marga, Pali Majjhima Magga) is the Buddhist philosophy expounded by Gautama Buddha. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Devadatta was a Buddhist monk recorded as having attempted to create a schism in the sangha, or monastic community, by putting forward a modified set of rules (vinaya) for monks to follow. ... Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ...


A śramaṇa is one who performs acts of mortification or austerity. According to the definition, a being is himself responsible for his own deeds. Salvation, therefore, can be achieved by anybody irrespective of caste, creed, color or culture. The cycle of rebirth to which every individual is subject is viewed as the cause and substratum of misery. The goal of every person is to evolve a way to escape from the cycle of rebirth, namely by discounting ritual as a means of an emancipation and establishing from the misery of Saṃsāra, through pious religious activities. Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, as a doctrine or mystical belief, holds the notion that some essential part of a living being (or in some variations, only human beings) can survive death in some form, with its integrity partly or wholly retained, to be reborn in a new...

Contents

Etymology

The Sanskrit word śramaṇa is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root śram "to exert, effort, labor or to perform austerity". Śramaṇa thus means "one who strives" in Sanskrit. The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ...


A traditional Sanskrit definition is śramati tapasyatīti śramaṇaḥ "a śramaṇa is he who exerts himself and performs religious austerities". One of the earliest uses of the word is in Taittiriya Aranyaka (2-7-1) with the meaning of 'performer of austerities'. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...



Various forms of the word became known throughout Central and East Asia, largely through the spread of Buddhism in that area. According to a still disputed etymology, the word shaman, used by the Tungus people for their religious practitioners, may be borrowed from a local variant of the word śramaṇa. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, Pali: बुद्ध धम्म, the teachings of the awakened one) is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a way of life, a practical philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of applied psychology. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... The Evenks (obsolete: Tungus) are a nomadic indigenous people, one of the Northern Indigenous Peoples (pop. ...


Śramaṇa Movement

Several śramaṇa movements are known to have existed in the 5th century BC. These were people who strove for an alternate path to achieve salvation, alternate to the Vedic rituals. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ...


The śramaṇa ideal of wandering began to change early in Buddhism, when the bhikṣu started living in monasteries (Skt. vihāra) at first during the rainy season, but eventually permanently. In mediaeval Jainism also, the tradition of wandering nearly became extinct, but was revived in the 19th century. Similar reforms have also regularly occurred in Buddhism. A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ...


Some of the terms are common between Jainism and Buddhism, including

The term pudgala is used by both but with completely different meanings. A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (Sanskrit, also arahat or arahant (Pali); Chinese: 阿羅漢, āluóhàn, luóhàn, lohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ... Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... An acharya (Thai, ajarn) is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ...


References

  • Hermann Hesse, Siddhartha (Novel), 1922
  • A. L. Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas, 1951

Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with the spiritual journey of an Indian man called Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha. ...

Śramaṇa in Western literature

Various references to śramaṇas, with the name more or less distorted, have been handed down in Western literature about India.


Nicolaus of Damascus (c.10 CE)

Nicolaus of Damascus is famous for his account of an embassy sent by an Indian king "named Pandion (Pandyan kingdom?) or, according to others, Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE. He met with the embassy at Antioch. The embassy was bearing a diplomatic letter in Greek, and one of its members was a "Sarmano" (Σαρμανο) who burnt himself alive in Athens to demonstrate his faith. The event made a sensation and was quoted by Strabo[1] and Dio Cassius[2]. A tomb was made to the "Sarmano", still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore the mention "ΖΑΡΜΑΝΟΧΗΓΑΣ ΙΝΔΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΒΑΡΓΟΣΗΣ" (Zarmanochēgas indos apo Bargosēs – The sramana master from Barygaza in India). Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos DamaskÄ“nos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, 1673 Porus, the Greek version of the Indian names Puru, Pururava or Purushottama, was the ruler of a Kingdom that was located between what is now known as the Jhelum and the Chenab rivers (in Greek sources called Hydaspes and Acesines) in the... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Abgarus of Edessa is reinstalled as king of Osroene. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece and the birthplace of democracy. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... Bharuch (also known as Broach) is a district in south Gujarat state in India. ...


Clement of Alexandria (150-211)

Clement of Alexandria makes several mentions of the Sramanas, both in the context of the Bactrians and the Indians:


"Thus philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations. And afterwards it came to Greece. First in its ranks were the prophets of the Egyptians; and the Chaldeans among the Assyrians; and the Druids among the Gauls; and the Samanaeans among the Bactrians ("Σαμαναίοι Βάκτρων"); and the philosophers of the Celts; and the Magi of the Persians, who foretold the Saviour's birth, and came into the land of Judaea guided by a star. The Indian gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other barbarian philosophers. And of these there are two classes, some of them called Sarmanae ("Σαρμάναι"), and Brahmanae ("Βραχμαναι")." Clement of Alexandria "Exhortation to the Heathen" [3] Map showing the location of Tel Kaif, Iraq and the neighboring areas. ... Assyrians are Aramaic-speaking Christians who consider themselves to be indigenous inhabitants of Mesopotamia, and inheritors of the ancient culture of Assyria. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... A Celtic cross. ... The Wise Men are given the names Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this Romanesque mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...


To Clement of Alexandria, "Bactrians" apparently means "Oriental Greek", as in a passage of the Stromata:

"It was after many successive periods of years that men worshipped images of human shape, this practice being introduced by Artaxerxes, the son of Darius, and father of Ochus, who first set up the image of Aphrodité Anaitis at Babylon and Susa; and Ecbatana set the example of worshipping it to the Persians; the Bactrians, to Damascus and Sardis." The Stromata, or Miscellanies, Book I, Clement of Alexandria. [4]

Artaxerxes was the name of several rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia: Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Arses of Persia is believed to have taken the royal title of Artaxerxes IV. Bessus, the Persian nobleman who murdered Darius III of Persia, renamed himself Artaxerxes when he claimed the... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Darayavahus)) is a common Persian male name. ... Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 Aphrodite (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη) was the Greek goddess of love, lust, beauty and sexuality. ... Babylon was a city in Mesopotamia, the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, Iraq, about 50 miles south of Baghdad. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city and capital of Syria. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, (also Sardes, Greek: Σάρδεις), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and...

Porphyry (233-305)

Porphyry extensively describes the habits of the Sramanas (whom he calls Samanaeans) in his "On abstinence from animal food" Book IV [5]. He says his information was obtained from "the Babylonian Bardesanes, who lived in the times of our fathers, and was familiar with those Indians who, together with Damadamis, were sent to Caesar": Porphyry (c. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Bar Daisan (154-222), also latinized as Bardesanes, was a Syrian gnostic and an outstanding scientist, scholar, and poet. ... Caesar may refer to the following: Related to Ancient Roman times Caesar (title), a title used by Roman Emperors Julius Caesar (100 BC–44 BC), a famous politician and military leader He used the Caesar cipher in his military campaigns. ...


"For the polity of the Indians being distributed into many parts, there is one tribe among them of men divinely wise, whom the Greeks are accustomed to call Gymnosophists. But of these there are two sects, over one of which the Brahmins preside, but over the other the Samanaeans. The race of the Brahmins, however, receive divine wisdom of this kind by succession, in the same manner as the priesthood. But the Samanaeans are elected, and consist of those who wish to possess divine knowledge." Porphyry "On abstinence from animal food" Book IV Gymnosophists is the name (meaning naked philosophers) given by the Greeks to certain ancient Indian philosophers who pursued asceticism to the point of regarding food and clothing as detrimental to purity of thought. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...


"All the Brahmins originate from one stock; for all of them are derived from one father and one mother. But the Samanaeans are not the offspring of one family, being, as we have said, collected from every nation of Indians..."Porphyry "On abstinence from animal food" Book IV Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...


On entering the order: "The Samanaeans are, as we have said, elected. When, however, any one is desirous of being enrolled in their order, he proceeds to the rulers of the city; but abandons the city or village that he inhabited, and the wealth and all the other property that he possessed. Having likewise the superfluities of his body cut off, he receives a garment, and departs to the Samanaeans, but does not return either to his wife or children, if he happens to have any, nor does he pay any attention to them, or think that they at all pertain to him. And, with respect to his children indeed, the king provides what is necessary for them, and the relatives provide for the wife. And such is the life of the Samanaeans. But they live out of the city, and spend the whole day in conversation pertaining to divinity. They have also houses and temples, built by the king". Porphyry "On abstinence from animal food" Book IV Porphyry (c. ...


On life and death: "They are so disposed with respect to death, that they unwillingly endure the whole time of the present life, as a certain servitude to nature, and therefore they hasten to liberate their souls from the bodies [with which they are connected]. Hence, frequently, when they are seen to be well, and are neither oppressed, nor driven to desperation by any evil, they depart from life." Porphyry "On abstinence from animal food", Book IV.


Footnotes

  1.   Strabo, xv, 1, on the immolation of the Sramana in Athens (Paragraph 73)
  2.   Dio Cassius, liv, 9.
  3.   Clement of Alexandria "Exhortation to the Heathen"
  4.   Clement of Alexandria "The Stromata, or Miscellanies" Book I
  5.   Porphyry "On abstinence from animal food" Book IV, Paragraphs 17&18.

The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vajranatha.com (3825 words)
In fact, the name Shramana means ascetic, one who is engaged in austerities and ascetic practices that deny all sensual pleasure to the individual.
In general, these Shramana teachers shared a common world-view entailing a radical dualism and a common method of renouncing the worldly life in order to practice meditation, yoga, and asceticism in the forests and the mountains of India.
But in the Shramana traditions, it is not God who bestows this knowledge of liberation, but it is won through the individual’s efforts in terms of meditation, yoga, and discriminating wisdom (prajna).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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