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Encyclopedia > Show jumping
A youth competitor show jumping in Denmark
A youth competitor show jumping in Denmark

Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping" or "jumpers," is a member of a family of English riding equestrian events that also includes dressage, eventing, hunters and equitation. Jumping classes are commonly seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited exclusively to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events, and sometimes show jumping is but one division of very large, all-breed competitions that include a very wide variety of disciplines. Jumping classes may be governed by various national horse show sanctioning organizations, such as the United States Equestrian Federation in the USA. However, international competitions are governed by the rules of the Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI). Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Hampton Classic in September 2006 The Grand Prix is the highest level of show jumping. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1021, 1366 KB) En Baltic Cup Show jumping. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1021, 1366 KB) En Baltic Cup Show jumping. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Fédération équestre internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or in English as the International Federation for Equestrian Sports) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ...

Contents

Hunters or jumpers

See also: Show hunter and Show hunter (British)
Proper show jumping attire, as seen in the show jumping phase of a three-day event. Attire at an event includes a mandatory armband as seen here, although the armband is not required in general show jumping.
Proper show jumping attire, as seen in the show jumping phase of a three-day event. Attire at an event includes a mandatory armband as seen here, although the armband is not required in general show jumping.

People unfamiliar with horse shows may be confused by the difference between working hunter classes and jumper classes. Hunters are judged subjectively on the degree to which they meet an ideal standard of manners, style, and way of going. Conversely, jumper classes are scored objectively based entirely on a numerical score determined only by whether the horse attempts the obstacle, clears it, and finishes the course in the allotted time. Jumper courses are often colorful and at times quite creatively designed. Jumper courses tend to be much more complex and technical than hunter courses, because riders and horses are not being judged on style. Hunters have meticulous turnout and tend toward very quiet, conservative horse tack and rider attire. Hunter bits, bridles, crops, spurs and martingales are tightly regulated. Jumpers, while caring for their horses and grooming them well, are not scored on turnout, are allowed a wider range of equipment, and riders may wear less conservative attire, so long as it stays within the rules. However, formal turnout is always preferred, and a neat rider gives a good impression at shows. The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... This article is about competition in the British Isles. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (3153 × 2101 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (3153 × 2101 pixel, file size: 3. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... a horse carries a bit in its mouth, held on by a bridle. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A crop, sometimes called a riding crop or hunting crop, is a rather short type of whip witrhout a crack, used in horseback riding, hence also known as a horsewhip. ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... In probability theory, a (discrete-time) martingale is a discrete-time stochastic process (i. ...


In addition to hunters and jumpers, there are equitation classes, sometimes called hunt seat equitation, which judge the ability of the rider. The equipment, clothing and fence styles used in equitation more closely resemble hunter classes, though the technical difficulty of the courses may more closely resemble jumping events. A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refers to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American horse shows. ...


Courses and rules

A show jumping course.
A show jumping course.
Show Jump Course
Show Jump Course
Diagram of a show jumping course
The jumping course in Balve
The jumping course in Balve

Jumper classes are held over a course of show jumping obstacles, including verticals, spreads, double and triple combinations, usually with many turns and changes of direction. The purpose is to jump cleanly over a set course within an allotted time. Time faults are assessed for exceeding the time allowance. Jumping faults are incurred for knockdowns and blatant disobedience, such as refusals (when the horse stops before a fence or "runs out"). (see "Modern Rules" below) Horses are allowed a limited number of refusals before being disqualified. A refusal can also lead to a rider going over the time allowed on course. Placings are based on the lowest number of points or "faults" accumulated. A horse and rider who have not accumulated any jumping faults or penalty points are said to have scored a "clear round." Tied entries usually have a jump off over a raised and shortened course, and the course is timed; if entries are tied for faults accumulated in the jump-off, the fastest time wins. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2027x905, 512 KB) From French Wikipedia: Image:Piste2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2027x905, 512 KB) From French Wikipedia: Image:Piste2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 196 pixels Full resolution (1800 × 441 pixel, file size: 856 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Ronald Yochum ronjamin . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 196 pixels Full resolution (1800 × 441 pixel, file size: 856 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Ronald Yochum ronjamin . ... Image File history File links ShowJumpCourse. ... Image File history File links ShowJumpCourse. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,655 × 1,553 pixels, file size: 667 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,655 × 1,553 pixels, file size: 667 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Map of Germany showing Balve Balve is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... A combination, when referring to an obstacle jumped by horses, is when two or more fences are placed within 1-3 strides of each other. ...


In most competitions, riders are allowed to walk the course but not the jump-off course (usually the same course with missing jumps e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 in stead of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) before competition to plan their ride. Walking the course is a chance for the rider to walk the lines he or she will actually ride, to decide how many strides the horse will need to take between each jump and at which angle. The more professional the competition, such as "A" rated shows in the United States, or the international "Grand Prix" circuit, the more technical the course. Not only is the height and sometimes width ("spread") of an obstacle increased to present a greater challenge, technical difficulty also increases with tight turns and shorter or unusual distances between fences. Horses sometimes also have to jump fences from an angle rather than straight-on. For example, a course designer might set up a line so that there are six and a half strides (the standard measure for a canter stride is 12 feet) between the jumps, requiring the rider to adjust the horse's stride dramatically in order to make the distance.


Unlike show hunter classes, which reward calmness and style, Jumper classes require boldness, scope, power, accuracy, and control; speed is also a factor, especially in jump-off courses and speed classes (when time counts even in the first round). A jumper must jump big, bravely, and fast, but he must also be careful and accurate to avoid knockdowns and must be balanced and rideable in order to rate and turn accurately. A jumper rider must ride the best line to each fence, saving ground with well-planned turns and lines and must adjust the horse's stride for each fence and distance. In a jump-off, a rider must balance the need to go as fast as possible and turn as tight as possible against the horse's ability to jump cleanly. The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ...


History

Grand Prix show jumping.
Grand Prix show jumping.

Show jumping is a relatively new equestrian sport. Until the Enclosure Acts which came into force in England in the eighteenth century there had been little need for horses to routinely jump fences. But with this act of parliament came new challenges for those who followed fox hounds. The enclosures act brought fencing and boundaries to many parts of the country as common ground was dispersed amongst the wealthy landowners. This meant that those wishing to pursue their sport now needed horses which were capable of jumping these obstacles. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1560x1576, 245 KB) NIC Zuidlaren 2004, horse and rider. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1560x1576, 245 KB) NIC Zuidlaren 2004, horse and rider. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... The enclosure acts were a series of agricultural laws passed by Parliament in 19th century England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


In the early shows held in France, there was a parade of competitors who then took off across country for the jumping. This sport was, however, not popular with spectators as they could not watch the jumping. Thus, it was not long before fences began to appear in the arena. This became known as Lepping. 1869 was the year ‘horse leaping’ came to prominence at Dublin horse show.[1] Fifteen years later, Lepping competitions were brought to Britain and by 1900 most of the more important shows had Lepping classes. Women, riding side-saddle, had their own classes. The Royal Dublin Society (RDS) was founded in 1731 by members of the Dublin Philosophical Society in their Trinity College Dublin rooms as the Dublin Society. ...


At this time, the principal cavalry schools of Europe at Pinerolo and Tor-di-Quinto in Italy, the French school in Saumur and the Spanish school in Vienna all preferred to use a very deep seat with long stirrups when jumping. This style of riding was perhaps more secure for the rider, but it also impeded the freedom of the horse to use its body to the extent needed to clear large obstacles.


The Italian Instructor Captain Fiederico Caprilli heavily influenced the world of jumping with his ideas that a forward position with shorter stirrups would not impede the balance of the horse negotiating obstacles. This style, now known as the forward seat,is commonly used today. The deep, Dressage-style seat, while useful for riding on the flat and in conditions where control of the horse is of greater importance than freedom of movement, is sometimes referred to with disparagement as a "backward" seat in some jumping circles. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The jumping seat, with the knees, shoulders, and head in front of the perpendicular line made by the stirrup leather, and the hips behind it, keeping the rider balanced over her horses center of gravity and off his back. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ...


The first major show jumping competition held in England was at Olympia in 1907. Most of the competitors were members of the military and it became clear at this competition and in the subsequent years that there was no uniformity of rules for the sport. Judges marked on their own opinions. Some marked according to the severity of the obstacle and others marked according to style. Before 1907 there were no penalties for a refusal and the competitor was sometimes asked to miss the fence to please the spectators. The first courses were built with little imagination; many consisting of only a straight bar fence and a water jump. A meeting was arranged in 1923 which led to the formation of the BSJA in 1925. In the United States, a similar need for national rules for jumping and other equestrian activities led to the formation of the American Horse Shows Association in 1917, now known as the United States Equestrian Federation. Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The American Horse Shows Association was formed in 1917, originally a representation of 50 horse shows in the United States. ... The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ...


Show jumping was first incorporated into the Olympic Games in 1912 and has thrived ever since, its popularity due in part to its suitability as a spectator sport which can be viewed on television. Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Original scoring tariff

The original list of faults introduced in The United Kingdom in 1925 was as follows:

1st: 4 faults
2nd: 8 faults
(at first, stadium jumps were set as a single rail that would be sometimes up to 5 feet high. the horses eventually began to duck under the jumps, which is perhaps were the term 'ducking out' at a fence originated from)
  • Fall of the horse, the rider, or both: elimination
  • Touches: If a horse touches a fence without knocking it down, zero faults
  • rail down with front hooves:4 faults
  • rail down with back hooves: 2 faults (this rule may have originated from the fox hunting, where a horse knocking a fence with its front hoof could cause the horse to flip over the jump)
  • Foot in the water jump: if a horse lands with any number of feet in the water--4 faults. However no faults were incurred if the raised block in front of the water was knocked down.

Water jumps were once at least 15 feet (5 meters) wide, although the water had often drained out of them by the time the last competitor jumped. High jumping would start with a pole at around 5 feet but this was later abandoned, as many horses went under the pole. It was for this reason that more poles were added and fillers came into use. Time penalties were not counted until 1917. A refusal is a term used in horse riding, when the horse does not jump a fence to which he was presented. ... Run out is a method of dismissal in the sport of cricket. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Modern rules

This knockdown will incur 4 penalties or "faults."

Rules have since evolved, with different national federations having different classes and rules.[2] The international governing body for most major show jumping competitions is the Federation Equestrian Internationale (FEI). FEI The two most common types of penalties are jumping penalties and time penalties. Image File history File links Zrzutka. ... Image File history File links Zrzutka. ... The Fédération Equestre Internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or informally in English as the International Equestrian Federation) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ...

  • Jumping Penalties: Jumping penalties are assessed for refusals and knockdowns, with each refusal or knockdown adding four faults to a competitor's score.
  • Penalties for knockdowns are imposed only when the knockdown changes the height of the jump. If a horse or rider knocks down a bottom or middle rail while still clearing the height of the obstacle, they receive no penalties. Penalties are assessed at the open water when the horse touches the water or white tape with any of his feet. If a rail is set over the middle of the water, faults are not accumulated for landing in the water.
  • Refusals: Refusals now are penalized four faults, up from three. Within the last several years, the FEI has decreased the number of refusals resulting in elimination from three to two, and this rule has trickled down from the top levels of FEI competition to all levels of horse shows (at least in the United States).
  • A refusal that results in the destruction of the integrity of a jump (running into the fence instead of jumping it, displacing poles, gates, flowers, or large clumps of turf or dirt) will not receive four faults for the knockdown, but instead the four faults for a refusal and an additional penalty while the timer is stopped for the repair or replacement of the jump. A refusal inside a combination (one- or two-stride) must re-jump the entire combination.
  • Time Penalties: In the past, a common timing rule was a 1/4 second penalty for each second or fraction of a second over the time allowed. Since the early 2000s, this rule was changed by the FEI so that each second or fraction of a second over the time allowed would result in 1 time penalty (e.g. with a time allowed of 72 seconds, a time of 73.09 seconds would result in 2 time faults).

A refusal is a term used in horse riding, when the horse does not jump a fence to which he was presented. ... A combination, when referring to an obstacle jumped by horses, is when two or more fences are placed within 1-3 strides of each other. ... This article is about the international equestrian organization. ...

Tack

See also: English saddle and Bridle
Common show jumping tack:jumping saddle, open-front boots, running martingale, and figure-8 noseband.
Common show jumping tack:jumping saddle, open-front boots, running martingale, and figure-8 noseband.

Show jumping competitors use a very forward style of English saddle, most often the "close contact" design, which has a forward flap and a seat and cantle that is flatter than saddles designed for general all-purpose English riding or dressage. This construction allows greater freedom of movement for the rider when in jumping position, and allows a shorter stirrup, required in order for a rider to allowing the rider to lighten his or her seat. Other saddles, such as those designed for dressage, are intended for riders with a deep seat, can hinder a rider over large fences, forcing them into a position that limits the horse's movement and may put the rider dangerously behind the movement of the horse. The saddles known as English saddles (as opposed to Western saddles) are used throughout the world, not just in England or English-speaking countries. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2400, 1078 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Show jumping Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2400, 1078 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Show jumping Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... The saddles known as English saddles (as opposed to Western saddles) are used throughout the world, not just in England or English-speaking countries. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... The jumping seat, with the knees, shoulders, and head in front of the perpendicular line made by the stirrup leather, and the hips behind it, keeping the rider balanced over her horses center of gravity and off his back. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ...


At international levels, saddle pads are usually white and square in shape, allowing the pair to display a sponsorship, national flag, or breeding affiliation. (In contrast, riders in show hunters and equitation often use "fitted" fleece pads that are the same shape as the saddle.) Girths vary in type, but usually have a contour to give room for the horse's elbows, and many have belly guards to protect the underside of the horse from its shoe studs when the front legs are tightly folded under. The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... A dressage girth is buckled lower on the belly. ... Studs or Screw-in Calks are traction devices screwed into the bottom of a horse shoe. ...


Bridles may be used with any style of cavesson noseband, and there are few rules regarding the severity of this equipment. The figure-8 cavesson is the most popular type. Bits may also vary in severity, and competitors may use any bit, or even a "bitless bridle" or a hackamore. However, the ground jury at the show has the right, based on veterinary advice, to refuse a bit or bridling scheme if it could cause harm to the horse. A noseband is the part of a horses bridle that encircles the nose. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A hackamore is a shank-based bridle for a horse. ...


Boots and/or wraps are worn by almost all horses, due to the fact that they may easily injure their legs when landing or when making tight turns at speed. Open-fronted tendon boots are usually worn on the forelegs, because they provide protection for the delicate tendons that run down the back of the leg, but still allow the horse to feel a rail should it get careless and hang its legs. Fetlock boots are sometimes seen on the rear legs, primarily to prevent the horse from hitting itself on tight turns.


Martingales are very common, especially on horses used at the Grand Prix level. The majority of jumpers are ridden in running martingales, as these provide the most freedom over fences. Although a standing martingale (a strap connecting directly to the horse's noseband) is commonly seen on show hunters and may be helpful in keeping a horse from throwing its head up, it can also be quite dangerous in the event of a stumble, restricting a horse from using its head to regain its balance. For this reason, standing martingales are not used in show jumping or eventing. Breastplates are also common, used to keep the saddle in place as the horse goes over large fences. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... A breastplate (used interchangeably with breastgirth and breastcollar) is a piece of riding equipment used on horses. ...


Rider attire

Rider attire may be somewhat less formal than that used in hunter riding. However, an approved ASTM/SEI equestrian helmet with a harness is always required, and is a practical necessity to protect the rider's head in the event of a fall. Tall boots are required, usually black. Spurs are optional, but commonly used. Breeches are traditional in color, usually white, tan, or beige. At approved competitions, depending on sanctioning organization, a dark-colored coat is usually worn (though under the rules of the USEF tweed or wash jackets are allowed in the summer and lighter colors are currently in fashion), with a light-colored (usually white) ratcatcher-style shirt and either a choker or stock tie. However, especially in the summer, many riders wear a simple short-sleeved "polo" style shirt with helmet, boots and breeches, and even where coats are required, the judges may waive the coat rule in extremely hot weather. Gloves, usually black, are optional, as is braiding of the horse. At FEI Grand Prix levels, tradition is very strong and riders dress in a more formal manner. White shirts and breeches are worn with black boots. Members of some national teams, including the United States, may be seen in red jackets, a color reserved for only riders of the Grand Prix level; otherwise international competitors usually wear a dark navy jacket, sometimes with national insignia added. Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refers to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American horse shows. ... A rider with a modern GPS style ASTM/SEI approved safety helmet. ... The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... A stock-tie [1], or stock, is a white tie worn around the neck of an equestrian event. ... The Fédération Equestre Internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or informally in English as the International Equestrian Federation) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ...


Types of competition

Grand Prix Competition
Grand Prix Competition
  • Grand Prix: usually the most challenging competition with the highest purse money at a show. Horses are scored on a combination of faults and time in some competitions it is judged on technique.
  • Speed derby
  • Puissance: a high-jump competition, where the final wall may reach over 7 feet tall.
  • Six-bar: riders jump six fences set in a straight line. In most places, fences are placed at equal distances apart, the first fence is the lowest and each subsequent fence is higher than the one before. Horses are either penalized or eliminated from competition if they knock down a rail. After each round where more than one competitor goes "clean," or is tied for fewest faults, the six fences are raised in height each subsequent round until there is a winner. Occasionally, if there are multiple jump-offs, the final fences can be raised to well over 6 feet.
  • Gambler's choice/accumulator: An event where exhibitors choose their own course, with each fence cleared worth a given amount of points based on difficulty. The entry who accumulates the most points within a set time limit on course is the winner.
  • Calcutta: A jumping event where spectators bet on which horse will win by means of an auction where the highest bidder has the exclusive bet on a given horse. Though the exact mechanism varies by region and culture, as a rule, the spectator who bets on the winner collects all money bet and then splits the purse with the owner of the winning horse.
  • Maiden, novice and limit: Jumping classes limited to horses with fewer than one, three or six wins. Fences are usually lower and time limits more generous.
  • Match race or double slalom: two identical courses are set up in a split arena, and two horses race over the courses.
  • Touch class: A class held much like a normal showjumping class, except that if the horse touches the jump it is considered four faults.
  • Faults converted: A class in which any faults are converted into seconds on the clock, usually at the rate of 1 second per fault (i.e. one rail = 4 seconds)

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3025x1890, 857 KB) Hampton Classic in Bridgehampton, New York. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3025x1890, 857 KB) Hampton Classic in Bridgehampton, New York. ... Hampton Classic in September 2006 The Grand Prix is the highest level of show jumping. ... Puissance is the high-jump competition in the equestrian sport of show jumping. ...

Types of show jumps

Show jumping fences are often colorful, sometimes very elaborate and artistic in design, particularly at the highest levels of competition. Types of jumps used include the following:

An oxer. England, 2004
An oxer. England, 2004
A Liverpool. California, USA, 2005.
A Liverpool. California, USA, 2005.
  • Vertical (or upright) - a jump that consists of poles or planks placed one directly above another with no spread, or width, to jump.
  • Oxer - two verticals close together, to make the jump wider. Also called a spread.
    • Square oxer: Both top poles are of an equal height.
    • Ascending oxer (usually called a Ramped Oxer): The furthest pole is higher than the first.
    • Descending oxer (usually called an Offset Oxer): The furthest pole is lower than the closest.
    • Swedish oxer: The poles slant in opposite directions, so that they appear to form an "X" shape when seen head on.
  • Triple bar - Is a spread fence using three elements of graduating heights.
  • Cross rail - not commonly used in sanctioned horse shows, and sometimes called a "cross-pole," two poles crossed with one end of each pole is on the ground and on jump standards so that the center is lower than the sides. Used at small shows and for schooling purposes to help the horse jump in the center of the fence.
  • Wall - This type of jump is usually made to look like a brick wall, but the "bricks" are constructed of a lightweight material and fall easily when knocked.
  • Hogsback - A type of spread fence with three rails where the tallest pole is in the center.
  • Filler - This is not a type of fence but is a solid part below the poles, such as flower boxes or a rolltop. It can also be a gate.
  • Combination - usually 2 or 3 jumps in a row, with no more than 2 strides between each. 2 jumps in a row are called double combinations, and 3 jumps in a row are triple combinations. If a horse refuses the second or third element in one of these combinations, they must jump the whole combination again, not just the obstacle(s) they missed.
  • Fan: the rails on one side of the fence are spread out by standards, making the fence take the shape of a fan when viewed from above.
  • Open water: a wide ditch of water
  • Liverpool: a ditch or large tray of water under a vertical or oxer
  • Joker - a tricky fence comprising only a rustic (or unpainted) rail and two wings. The lack of filler makes it difficult for a horse to judge their proximity to the fence as well as the fence's height, making it a tricky obstacle usually found only in the upper divisions, and illegal in some competitions.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2580x1720, 311 KB) Show jumping at the Surrey County Show, Guildford in May 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2580x1720, 311 KB) Show jumping at the Surrey County Show, Guildford in May 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1168x506, 151 KB) Photographer: Angelique Arabian horse Russian Roulette. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1168x506, 151 KB) Photographer: Angelique Arabian horse Russian Roulette. ... A parallel oxer. ... A combination, when referring to an obstacle jumped by horses, is when two or more fences are placed within 1-3 strides of each other. ... Water is often seen on the cross-country course of an event. ... Water is often seen on the cross-country course of an event. ...

The horses

A show jumper must have the scope and courage to jump large fences as well as the athletic ability to handle the sharp turns and bursts of speed necessary to navigate the most difficult courses. Many breeds of horses have been successful show jumpers, and even some "grade" horses of uncertain breeding have been champions. Most show jumpers are tall horses, over 16 hands, usually of Warmblood or Thoroughbred breeding, though horses as small as 14.1 hands have been on the Olympics teams of various nations and carried riders to Olympic and other international medals. There is no correlation between the size of a horse and its athletic ability, nor do tall horses necessarily have an advantage when jumping. Nonetheless, a taller horse may make a fence appear less daunting to the rider.[3] // Light or saddle horse breeds Heavy or draft horse breeds This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... A hand is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm. ... Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ...


Ponies (horses smaller than 14.2 hands) also compete in show jumping competitions in many countries, usually in classes limited to riders under the age of 17 or 18. Pony-sized horses may, on occasion, compete in open competition with adult riders. The most famous example was Stroller, who only stood 14.1 but was nonetheless a medal winner for the United Kingdom's show jumping team in the 1968 Summer Olympics, jumping one of the few clean rounds in the competition. Significant jumpers from the United States are included in the Show Jumping Hall of Fame.[4] A hand (or handbreadth) is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm, i. ... Stroller the only pony to compete at the Olympics in Show Jumping. ... The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ...


References

  1. ^ History of Dublin Horse Show
  2. ^ USEF Web site, USA
  3. ^ Barakat, Christine. "Why Size Matters." Equus, October 2007, Issue 361, pp. 36-42
  4. ^ Show Jumping Hall of Fame inductees
  • Clayton, Michael, and William Steinkraus. The Complete Book of Show Jumping. New York: Crown Publishers, 1975. ASIN: B000HFW4KC
  • de Nemethy, Bertalan. Classic Show Jumping: The de Nemethy Method; A Complete System for Training Today's Horses and Riders. Doubleday, 1988. ISBN-10: 0385236204

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Show jumping
The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Parts of a Horse The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... Grass is a natural source of nutrition for a horse Equine nutrition refers to the feeding of horses, ponies, mules, donkeys and other equids. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... There are many aspects to horse care. ... Mares and foals Horse breeding refers to reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed. ... Horse conformation refers to the correctness of a horses bone structure, musculature, and its body proportions in relation to each other. ... Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colours and distinctive markings. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 774 pixels, file size: 566 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... a horse carries a bit in its mouth, held on by a bridle. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Horse in harness with horse collar A Horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equid to be hitched to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon, plow or sleigh. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... Horse training refers to a wide variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Hyracotherium. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... // Light or saddle horse breeds Heavy or draft horse breeds This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... A zebra/donkey hybrid A zebroid is a cross between a zebra and any other equid: essentially, a zebra hybrid. ... A zeedonk in South Africa Colchester Zoos zeedonk, named Shadow A zeedonk (also called similar names including zebrass, zebronkey or zenkey) is a mixed breed animal, a cross between a zebra and a donkey. ... A zony is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. ... It has been suggested that Zebrula be merged into this article or section. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Quagga (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Equus hemionus hemippus Geoffroy, 1855 The Syrian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus hemippus) was a wild ass found in the mountains and desert/steppe of Syria. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Horse Show Jumping (219 words)
CHIO Rotterdam - A large show jumping and dressage event held in the Netherlands.
The Hampton Classic Horse Show - With 1,500 horses exhibiting and 40,000 spectators, this is the largest hunter/jumper show in the United States.
USET Online - Show Jumping - The nonprofit organization responsible for selecting, training, funding and equipping those equestrian athletes that officially represent the United States in Olympic, Pan American and other international competitions in dressage, three-day eventing and show jumping.
show jumping: Information from Answers.com (2783 words)
Show jumping or "jumpers" is a member of a family of English-discipline equestrian events that includes dressage, eventing, hunters and equitation.
Depending on the type of competition, jumping faults are incurred for knockdowns only, or horses may be also penalized for "ticks" (where the horse touches the fence during a jump but does not knock it down) and blatant disobediences, such as refusals (when the horse stops before a fence or "runs out").
Show jumping was first incorporated into the Olympic Games in 1912 and has thrived ever since, its popularity due in part to its suitability as a spectator sport which can be viewed on television.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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