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Encyclopedia > Shotgun formation
A typical Shotgun formation -- many variables can be implemented, but this is the basic setup many teams use
A typical Shotgun formation -- many variables can be implemented, but this is the basic setup many teams use

The shotgun formation is a formation used by the offensive team in American and Canadian football. This formation is used by many teams in obvious passing situations, although other teams do use this as their base formation. In the shotgun, instead of the quarterback receiving the snap from center at the line of scrimmage, he stands at least 5 yards back. Sometimes the quarterback will have a back on one or both sides before the snap, while other times he will be the lone player in the backfield with everyone spread out as receivers. One of the advantages of the shotgun formation is that the passer has more time to set up in the pocket which gives him a second or two to locate open receivers. Another advantage is that standing further back from the line before the snap gives the quarterback a better "look" at the defensive alignment. The disadvantages are that the defense knows a pass is more than likely coming up (although some running plays can be run effectively from the shotgun) and there is a higher risk of a botched snap than in a simple center/quarterback exchange. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Formation in American football refers to the position players line up in before the start of a play from scrimmage. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into American football positions. ... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... Look up Snap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Center (C) is a position in American football. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

The formation was named by the man who actually devised the formation, San Francisco 49ers coach Red Hickey, in 1960. John Brodie was the first NFL Shotgun quarterback, who beat out former starter Y. A. Tittle largely because he was mobile enough to effectively run the shotgun. Combining elements of the short punt and spread formations ("spread" in that it had receivers spread widely instead of close to or behind the interior line players), it was said to be like a "shotgun" in spraying receivers around the field like a scatter-shot gun. (The alignment of the players also suggests the shape of an actual shotgun). Formations similar or identical to the shotgun used decades previously would be called names such as "spread double wing". Short punt formations (so called because the distance between the snapper and the ostensible punter is shorter than in long punt formation) do not usually have as much emphasis on wide receivers. The shotgun was utilized by New York Jets as they employed the formation during the latter part of the Joe Namath era, to give the bad-kneed, and often immobile quarterback more time to set up plays by placing him deeper in the backfield. City San Francisco, California Other nicknames Niners, The Red And Gold, Bay Bombers Team colors Cardinal red, metallic gold and black Head Coach Mike Nolan Owner Denise DeBartolo York and John York General manager Lal Heneghan Mascot Sourdough Sam League/Conference affiliations All-America Football Conference (1946-1949) Western Division... Howard Wayne Red Hickey (February 14, 1917 — March 30, 2006) was an American football player and coach who played for two teams and served as head coach for the San Francisco 49ers, where he was most famous for creating the shotgun formation in 1960. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Riley Brodie (born August 14, 1935) is a former professional American football quarterback for the San Francisco 49ers, and had a second career as a Senior PGA Tour professional golfer. ... Yelberton Abraham Tittle (born October 24, 1926, in Marshall, Texas), better known as Y. A. Tittle, is a former American football quarterback who played for the Baltimore Colts, San Francisco 49ers, and the New York Giants. ... Josh Miller of the New England Patriots punts the ball. ... City East Rutherford, New Jersey Other nicknames Gang Green, the Green and White Team colors Hunter green and white Head Coach Eric Mangini Owner Woody Johnson General manager Mike Tannenbaum League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960-1969) Eastern Division (1960-1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference... Joseph William Namath (born May 31, 1943), also known as Broadway Joe, was an American football Hall of Fame quarterback in the American Football League and National Football League during the 1960s and 1970s. ...

At times the formation has been more common in Canadian football, which allows only three downs to move ten yards downfield instead of the American game's four. Canadian teams are therefore more likely to find themselves with long yardage to make on the penultimate down, and therefore more likely to line up in the shotgun to increase their opportunities for a large gain. Teams such as the Saskatchewan Roughriders utilize the shotgun for a vast majority of their plays. Diagram of a Canadian football field. ... The Saskatchewan Roughriders are a Canadian Football League team based in Regina, Saskatchewan, founded in 1910. ...

The Nevada Wolf Pack currently employs a formation called a "pistol", which is a tailback behind the quarterback in a shotgun style set, instead of side by side. The University of Nevada, Reno (Nevada or UNR) is a university located in Reno, Nevada, USA, and is known for its programs in agricultural research, animal biotechnology, and mining-related engineering and natural sciences. ...

Urban Meyer has added elements of the option offense to the shotgun offense he employed as coach at Bowling Green State University, the University of Utah and University of Florida. This "speed option" or "spread option" offense is also used by the Texas Longhorns, Ohio State Buckeyes, and other college teams with quarterbacks who can run as well as throw effectively. Urban F. Meyer (born July 10, 1964 in Ashtabula, Ohio) is currently the head football coach at the University of Florida. ... The option offense is a system of running plays in American football. ... Bowling Green State University (BGSU) is a public four-year institution located in Bowling Green, Ohio, USA; about 20 miles south of Toledo, Ohio on I-75. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is a public land-grant, space-grant, research university located in Gainesville, Florida. ... Options spreads are the basic building blocks of many options trading strategies. ...

Starting with the 1975 season, the Dallas Cowboys used the shotgun frequently with Roger Staubach at quarterback. No other NFL teams utilized this formation during this time and it is assumed this formation was devised by Tom Landry; it became a "signature" formation for the Cowboys, especially during third down situations. Landry re-introduced the shotgun to give Staubach more time to pass as the Cowboys had a relatively young and inexperienced team that year - 12 rookies made that 1975 team. The Cowboy shotgun differed from the 49er shotgun as Staubach normally had a back next to him in the backfield (making runs possible) where Brodie was normally alone in the backfield. The shotgun was seldom used by teams during the 80's but became part of almost every team's offense in the pass-happy 90's. In recent years, fewer and fewer teams use the shotgun since the two-deep (or Tampa) zones allow effective defense against offenses that don't or can't run the ball. Most NFL teams only use the shotgun on obvious passing downs or when they are behind and need to pass almost every down to catch up. Many college quarterbacks, such as Vince Young(now with the Tennessee Titans), who almost exclusively used the shotgun at Texas, have difficulty adapting to NFL offenses where most snaps are taken under center. The shotgun formation is often run during 2nd-and-long or 3rd-and-long situations to give the quarterback enough time before the receivers run deep routes. However, Peyton Manning of the Indianapolis Colts often audibles plays that use this formation to take advantage of the fast receivers like Marvin Harrison and Reggie Wayne to gain handsome yardage in a single play. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roger Thomas Staubach (born February 5, 1942 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is a businessman, Heisman Trophy winner and former American professional football player where he was the quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys for most of the 1970s during their reign as Americas Team. ... Thomas Wade Landry (September 11, 1924 – February 12, 2000) was an American football player and coach. ... Vincent Paul Young, Jr. ... Head Coach Mack Brown 9th Year, 92-22 Home Stadium Darrell K. Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium Capacity 85,123 - Grass Conference Big 12 - South First Year 1893 Athletic Director DeLoss Dodds Website MackBrown-TexasFootball. ... Peyton Williams Manning (born March 24, 1976 in New Orleans, Louisiana)[1] is an American football quarterback for the Indianapolis Colts NFL franchise. ... City Indianapolis, Indiana Team colors Speed Blue, White, and Gray Head Coach Tony Dungy Owner Jim Irsay General manager Bill Polian Mascot Blue [1] League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1953–present) Western Conference (1953-1969) Coastal Division (1967-1969) American Football Conference (1970-present) AFC East (1970-2001) AFC...

Though the shotgun is a pass-dominated formation, a cleverly designed halfback draw play can put defenses off-guard and a fast halfback can get good yardage until the defense recovers from their mistake. A further development of the play is an halfback option pass, with the quarterback being one of the eligible receivers. Roger Staubach's backup and successor, Danny White, once caught such a pass for a touchdown. It was noted at the time that he was only eligible because of the shotgun formation (an NFL quarterback who takes a snap from underneath the center was and still is an ineligible receiver, a rule not found in any amateur level of American football). A draw is a type of football play that tricks the defense into thinking a pass is being thrown, when in fact a running play has been called. ... The halfback option play is an unorthodox play in American football. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... Roger Thomas Staubach (born February 5, 1942 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is a businessman, Heisman Trophy winner and former American professional football player where he was the quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys for most of the 1970s during their reign as Americas Team. ... Wilford Daniel Danny White (born February 9, 1952) is an American football coach in the Arena Football League and also occasionally appears as an analyst on broadcasts of college football games. ...

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