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Encyclopedia > Shot put
Shot put

The shot put is an athletics (track and field) event involving "putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy metal ball (called the shot) as far as possible. Image File history File links Shot putter, University of Nebraska Photographer: John Vachon, 1914-1975 Public domain status: Free of copyrights by virtue of being a US government picture Source: Library of Congress Note: There are undoubtedly better PD pictures on this subject to be found, so dont feel... Image File history File links Shot putter, University of Nebraska Photographer: John Vachon, 1914-1975 Public domain status: Free of copyrights by virtue of being a US government picture Source: Library of Congress Note: There are undoubtedly better PD pictures on this subject to be found, so dont feel... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ...

In the English language it is common to use the term "shot put" to refer to both the shot itself and to the throwing motion. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

## Contents

Competitors take their throw from inside a circle 7 feet (2.135 meters) in diameter, with a toe board approximately 10 cm (4") high at the front of the circle. The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to where the shot lands at its nearest disturbance of the soil. Circle illustration This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ...

### Rules

• The athlete must rest the shot close to the neck and keep it tight to the neck while throwing.
• At the end of the throw, the thrower must push the throwing arm straight from the neck, pushing the ball off the fingertips. (If the thrower does not push the ball out and throws it like a baseball, the thrower may incur a shoulder or neck injury.)

Foul throws are called when an athlete:

• Does not leave from the rear half of the circle.
• Steps out of the circle before the judge calls the mark.
• Allows some article of clothing to touch the top of the toeboard, the top of the iron ring or outside the circle.
• Throws a shot which falls outside the throwing sector to the left or the right.
• Throws a shot like a baseball instead of pushing off the fingertips

Shot put is not merely heaving a metal ball but requires immense strength, power, grace, balance, and speed.

Each competitor receives a certain number of throws, usually 6 in elite competition, and the competitor with the farthest legal put is declared the winner. In high school it is 3 or 4 (depends on the league their school is in). In men's competition, the shot weighs 7.26 kilograms (16 pounds). The women's shot weighs 4 kg (8.8 pounds). American high schools usually use 12 pound (5.44 kg) shots for boys and 4 kg shots for girls; these are sometimes used as practice shots as well. The weight of the ball differs depending the age group. Men over the age of 50 use a 6kg shot (13.2 pounds). â€œKgâ€ redirects here. ...

Shot put competitions have been held at the Summer Olympic Games since their inception, and is also included as an event in the indoor world championships. The shot put originates from Highland games 'stone put' where Scottish people put a rounded cube, stone, or metal form of considerable weight from behind a given line. Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... Opening ceremonies of 2004 Canmore Highland games Highland games are events held throughout the year in Scotland and other countries as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture and heritage, especially that of the Scottish Highlands. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ...

## Putting styles

Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the glide and the spin.

The glide was invented in the United States in 1876. With this technique, a right-hand thrower begins facing the rear of the circle and kicks to the front with the left leg while pushing off forcefully with the right. The key is to move quickly across the circle with as little air under the feet as possible, hence the name "glide". As the thrower crosses the circle, the hips twist toward the front, followed by the shoulders and strikes in a putting motion with their arm.

The origin of the spin dates to 1951, when Parry O'Brien of the United States invented a technique that involves the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, and then tossing the shot. From this, in 1976, Brian Oldfield popularized the spin technique (originally used by German throwers in the early 1970s) which involves rotating like a discus thrower and using rotational momentum for power. Oldfeld set the record of 75 feet (22.86m) in 1975; it was unofficial, however, because he was a professional at a time when the IAAF had an amateur-only policy, but undisputed and over 3 feet better than the official world record at the time. Oldfield's record in the 21 years since has been bettered by only 10 inches. In the spin, a right-handed thrower faces the rear, and begins to spin on the ball of the left foot. The thrower comes around and faces the front of the circle and drives the right foot into the middle of the circle. Finally, the thrower reaches for the front of the circle with the left foot, twists his hips and shoulders like in the glide, and puts the shot. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Partick (Parry) OBrien (January 28, 1932 - April 21, 2007) was an American shot put champion. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brian Oldfield (born June 1, 1945[1]) is a former American athlete and personality of the 1970s and early 1980s. ... â€œDiscusâ€ redirects here. ... The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics (known in the US as track and field). It was founded in 1912 at its first Congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation. ...

With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of approximately forty degrees. Currently, most top male shot putters use the spin, but the glide remains popular, especially at the amateur level and among women, since the technique breeds higher consistency for the athlete as opposed to the rotational technique. It is worth noting that the world record by a male putter (Randy Barnes) was completed with the spin technique, while the close second-best all-time distance (Ulf Timmermann) was completed with the glide technique. Measuring which technique can provide the most potential is difficult, as many of the best throws recorded with each technique come from athletes under a thick cloud of doping suspicion and violations. Rather, selecting the right technique differs on an individual basis, with almost all throwers first developing the glide technique. Eric R. (Randy) Barnes (born June 16, 1966) is an American shot putter who holds outdoor and indoor distance records. ... Ulf Timmermann (born November 1, 1962) is a German shot putter who broke many world records during the 1980s and is the first and one of only two people to ever throw over 23 metres (along with Randy Barnes). ...

The decision to glide or rotate should largely be based on the thrower's size and power. A short, powerful and quick thrower would benefit more from the rotation than the glide. A tall thrower is likely to have more success than a short thrower using the glide, but the rotation reigns supreme for all sizes of throwers. The glide, however, is an excellent way of learning the shot put.

## World records

The current world record holders are: A world record is the best performance in a certain discipline, usually a sports event. ...

Type Athlete Distance Venue Date
Men
Outdoor Randy Barnes 23.12 m (75 ft 1014 in) Westwood, California, USA 20 May 1990
Indoor Randy Barnes 22.66 m (74 ft 4 in) Los Angeles, California, USA 20 January 1989
Women
Outdoor Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 3 in) Moscow, RUS 7 June 1987
Indoor Helena Fibingerová 22.50 m (73 ft 934 in) Jablonec, TCH February 19, 1977

The top distances for the last decade have decreased, especially for women, perhaps due to increased anti-doping efforts. Eric R. (Randy) Barnes (born June 16, 1966) is an American shot putter who holds outdoor and indoor distance records. ... High-rise buildings line Wilshire Boulevard through the Westwood area Another view of the Westwood skyline Westwood is a district in western Los Angeles, California, not to be confused with Westwood, California. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Eric R. (Randy) Barnes (born June 16, 1966) is an American shot putter who holds outdoor and indoor distance records. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Natalya Lisovskaya (Russian: ) (born July 16, 1962) is a former Soviet athlete who competed mainly in the shot put. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Helena FibingerovÃ¡ (born July 13, 1949 in Vicemerice) is a Czech shot putter who won an Olympic bronze medal and set three world records. ... Jablonec nad Nisou (German: Gablonz an der Neiße) is a town in northern Bohemia, second largest town of Liberec Region. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

## Top 10 performers

Accurate as of September 2007. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Men

Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date
23.12 Randy Barnes  United States Westwood, CA May 20, 1990
23.06 Ulf Timmermann  East Germany Chania May 22, 1988
22.91 Alessandro Andrei  Italy Viareggio August 12, 1987
22.86 Brian Oldfield  United States El Paso May 10, 1975
22.75 Werner Günthör  Switzerland Bern August 23, 1988
22.67 Kevin Toth  United States Lawrence April 19, 2003
22.64 Udo Beyer  East Germany Berlin August 20, 1986
22.54 Christian Cantwell  United States Gresham June 5, 2004
22.52 John Brenner  United States Walnut April 26, 1987
22.51 Adam Nelson  United States Gresham May 18, 2002

### Women

Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date
22.63 Natalya Lisovskaya  Soviet Union Moscow June 7, 1987
22.50 Helena Fibingerová  Czechoslovakia Nitra August 20, 1977
22.45 Ilona Briesenick  East Germany Potsdam May 11, 1980
22.19 Claudia Losch  West Germany Hainfeld August 23, 1987
21.89 Ivanka Khristova  Bulgaria Belmeken July 4, 1976
21.86 Marianne Adam  East Germany Leipzig June 23, 1979
21.76 Li Meisu  China Shijiazhuang April 23, 1988
21.73 Natalya Akhrimenko  Soviet Union Leselidze May 21, 1988
21.69 Vita Pavlysh  Ukraine Budapest August 15, 1998
21.66 Sui Xinmei  China Beijing June 9, 1990

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