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Encyclopedia > Shortwave
A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver

Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3 MHz (3,000 kHz) and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than the long wave lengths widely in use at that time. An alternate name is HF or high frequency radio. Short wavelengths are associated with high frequencies because there is an inverse relationship between frequency and wavelength. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 167 KB) It is my own work. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 167 KB) It is my own work. ... FreQuency is a music video game developed by Harmonix and published by SCEI. It was released in November 2001. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... MHZ redirects here. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... Longwave radio frequencies are those below 500 kHz, which correspond to wavelengths longer than 600 meters. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ...

Contents

Overview

Radio amateurs discover long distance shortwave propagation

Amateur radio operators are usually credited with the discovery of long distance communication in the shortwave bands. The first successful transatlantic tests were conducted by radio amateurs in December 1921 operating in the 200 meter mediumwave band, the shortest wavelength then available to amateurs. In 1922 hundreds of North American amateurs were heard in Europe at 200 meters and at least 20 North American amateurs heard amateur signals from Europe. The first two way communications between North American and Hawaiian amateurs began in 1922 at 200 meters. Although operation on wavelengths shorter than 200 meters was technically illegal (but tolerated as the authorities mistakingly believed at first that such frequencies were useless for commercial or military use), amateurs began to experiment with those wavelengths using newly available vacuum tubes shortly after World War I. Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... Shortwave bands are frequency allocations for use within the high frequency radio spectrum. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions serves as the most common band for broadcasting. ...


Extreme interference at the upper edge of the 150-200 meter band -- the official wavelengths allocated to amateurs by the Second National Radio Conference in 1923 -- forced amateurs to shift to shorter and shorter wavelengths; however, amateurs were limited by regulation to wavelengths longer than 150 meters. A few fortunate amateurs who obtained special permission for experimental communications below 150 meters completed hundreds of long distance two way contacts on 100 meters in 1923 including the first transatlantic two way contacts in November 1923. An amateur radio operator An amateur radio operator is an individual who has been assigned an amateur radio license by a governmental regulatory authority. ...


By 1924 many additional specially licensed amateurs were routinely making transoceanic contacts at distances of 6000 miles and more. On September 21, several amateurs in California completed two way contacts with an amateur in New Zealand. On October 19th, amateurs in New Zealand and England completed a 90 minute two way contact nearly half way around the world. On October 10th, three shortwave bands were officially made available to amateurs by the Third National Radio Conference, at 80, 40 and 20 meters. The 10 meter band was created by the Washington International Radiotelegraph Conference on November 25, 1927. The 15 meter band was opened to amateurs in the United States on May 1, 1952. This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Shortwave bands are frequency allocations for use within the high frequency radio spectrum. ... The 10 meter amateur radio band is the highest of the High Frequency or HF bands. ... Shortwave bands are frequency allocations for use within the high frequency radio spectrum. ...


Marconi takes the world by surprise

In June and July 1923, Guglielmo Marconi quietly completed successful night time transmissions on 97 meters from Poldhu Wireless Station, Cornwall to his yacht Elettra in the Cape Verde Islands. In September 1924, Marconi completed successful daytime and nighttime transmissions on 32 meters from Poldhu to his yacht in Beirut. Marconi took the world by surprise in July 1924 when he entered into contracts with the British General Post Office (GPO) to install high speed shortwave telegraphy circuits from London to Australia, India, South Africa and Canada. The UK-to-Canada shortwave "Beam Wireless Service" went into commercial operation on 25 October, 1926. Beam Wireless Services from the UK to Australia, South Africa and India went into service in 1927. Guglielmo Marconi, Marchese, GCVO (25 April 1874-20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... Poldhu is a small area in south Cornwall, UK, situated on the Lizard Peninsula it comprises Poldhu Point and Poldhu Cove. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ...


Shortwave soon became an extremely disruptive technology. Far more spectrum is available for long distance communication in the shortwave bands than in the longwave bands; and shortwave transmitters, receivers and antennas were orders of magnitude less expensive than the multi-hundred kilowatt transmitters and monstrous antennas needed for longwave.


Shortwave communications began to grow exponentially in 1927, similar to the internet in the late 20th century. By 1928, more than half of long distance communications had transitioned from transoceanic cables and longwave wireless services to shortwave and the overall volume of transoceanic shortwave communications had vastly increased. Shortwave also ended the need for multi-million dollar investments in new transoceanic telegraph cables and massive longwave wireless stations, although some existing transoceanic telegraph cables and commercial longwave communications stations remained in use until the 1960s.


The cable companies began to lose large sums of money in 1927, and a serious financial crisis threated the viability of cable companies that were vital to strategic British interests. The British government convened the Imperial Wireless and Cable Conference [2] in 1928 "to examine the situation that had arisen as a result of the competition of Beam Wireless with the Cable Services". It recommended and received Government approval for all overseas cable and wireless resources of the Empire to be merged into one system controlled by a newly-formed company in 1929, Imperial and International Communications Ltd. The name of the company was changed to Cable and Wireless Ltd. in 1934. Cable and Wireless (LSE: CW.) is a British telecommunications company. ...


Shortwave propagation

Shortwave frequencies are capable of reaching any location on the Earth because they can be refracted by the ionosphere (a phenomenon known as Skywave propagation). The selection of a frequency to use to reach a target area depends on several factors: Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ionosphere. ...

  • The distance from the transmitter to the target receiver.
  • Time of day. During the day, frequencies higher than approximately 12 MHz can travel longer distances than lower ones; at night, this property is reversed. The dependence on the time of the day is due to a particular transient atmosphere (known as the D Layer ionized layer forming only during day when atoms are broken up into ions and free electrons by sun photons. This layer is responsible for partial or total absorption of particular frequencies.
  • Season. During the winter months the AM broadcast band tends to be more favorable because of longer hours of darkness.
  • Solar activity. Sunspots, solar flares, and overall solar variation affect the ionosphere. Solar flares can prevent the ionosphere from reflecting or refracting radio waves.

Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... 400 year sunspot history A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity. ... A Solar Flare and CME, courtesy NASA A solar flare is a violent explosion in the Suns atmosphere with an energy equivalent to a billion megatons, traveling normally at about 1 million km per hour (about 0. ... 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ...

Modulations

Independent from frequency, the receiver must also be capable of receiving the modulation type being transmitted. AM, Singlesideband and CW are common modulations. Types of modulation frequently used in the shortwave frequency range are:

  • AM: amplitude modulation. Most commonly used for shortwave broadcasting.
  • SSB: Single sideband(USB/LSB): This is used for long-range communications by ships and aircraft, for voice transmissions by amateur radio operators, and for broadcasting. LSB is generally used below 9 MHz and USB above 9 MHz.
  • CW: Continuous/Carrier wave, which is used for Morse code communications.
  • NBFM: Narrow-band frequency modulation. Primarily military NFM transmissions occur in the higher HF frequencies (typically above 20 MHz). Because of the larger bandwidth required, NBFM is much more commonly used for VHF communication.
  • DRM: Digital Radio Mondiale: digital modulation for use on bands below 30 MHz.
  • Various radioteletype, fax, digital, or other systems, which require software or special equipment to decode.

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ... Single-sideband modulation (SSB) is a refinement of the technique of amplitude modulation designed to be more efficient in its use of electrical power and bandwidth. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... RadioTeleType (RTTY) is a telecommunications system consisting of two teleprinters linked by a radio link. ...

Users

Some major users of the shortwave radio band include

The term, DXing, in the context of listening to radio signals of any user of the shortwave band, is the activity of monitoring distant stations. In the context of amateur radio operators, the term 'DXing' refers to the two-way communications with a distant station, using shortwave radio frequencies. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions serves as the most common band for broadcasting. ... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ... A conspiracy theory attempts to attribute the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually political, social, or historical events), or the concealment of such causes from public knowledge, to a secret, and often deceptive plot by a covert alliance of powerful or influential people or organizations. ... The term utility station is used to describe fixed radio broadcasters disseminating signals that are not intended for reception by the general public (but such members are not actively prohibited from receiving). ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... A time signal is a visible, audible, mechanical, or electronic signal used as a reference to determine the time of day. ... WWV Transmitter Building WWV is the callsign of NISTs shortwave radio station located in Fort Collins, Colorado. ... CHU is the callsign of a shortwave radio station founded in 1929 in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. ... Over-The-Horizon radar (OTHR) is a design concept for radar system to overcome the problem that radio waves (a form of light) travel in a straight line, making over the horizon detection difficult. ... Duga-3 array outside Chernobyl. ... Over-the-horizon radar, or OTH (sometimes also beyond the horizon, or BTH), is a design concept for radar systems to allow them to detect targets at very long ranges, typically up to thousands of kilometers. ... It has been suggested that DX station be merged into this article or section. ...


The Asia-Pacific Telecommunity estimates that there are approximately 600,000,000 shortwave broadcast radio receivers in use in 2002.[citation needed] [dubious ] WWCR claims that there are 1.5 billion shortwave receivers worldwide.[3] Also see: 2002 (number). ... WWCR is a shortwave radio station located in Nashville, Tennessee in the United States. ...


Shortwave broadcasting frequency allocations

The World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC), organized under the auspices of the International Telecommunication Union, allocates bands for various services in conferences every few years. The next WRC is scheduled to take place in 2007. World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) is organized by ITU to review, and, if necessary, revise the Radio Regulations, the international treaty governing the use of the radio-frequency spectrum and the geostationary-satellite and non-geostationary-satellite orbits. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


At WRC-97 in 1997, the following bands were allocated for international broadcasting. (listed in the table):
International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ...

Meter Band Frequency Range Remarks
120 m 2,300 - 2,495 kHz tropic band
90 m 3,200 - 3,400 kHz tropic band
75 m 3,900 - 4,000 kHz shared with the amateur radio 75/80 meter band
60 m 4,750 - 5,060 kHz tropic band
49 m 5,900 - 6,200 kHz  
40 m/41m 7,100 - 7,350 kHz shared with the amateur radio 40 meter band
31 m 9,400 - 9,900 kHz most heavily used band
25 m 11,600 - 12,100 kHz  
22 m 13,570 - 13,870 kHz only substantally used in Eurasia
19 m 15,100 - 15,800 kHz  
16 m 17,480 - 17,900 kHz  
15 m 18,900 - 19,020 kHz almost unused, could become a DRM band
13 m 21,450 - 21,850 kHz  
11 m 25,600 - 26,100 kHz my be used for local DRM broadcasting


Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ...


AM shortwave broadcasting channels are allocated with a 5 kHz separation for traditional analogy audio broadcasting.


International broadcasters for practical reasons may operate outside the normal WRC-allocated bands or use off-channel frequencies to attract attention in crowded bands (60m, 49m, 40m, 41m, 31m, 25m).


The new digital audio broadcasting format for shortwave DRM operates 10 kHz or 20 kHz channels. Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ...


There are some ongoing discussions with respect to specific band allocation for DRM, as it mainly transmitted in 10 kHz format.


The power used by shortwave transmitters ranges from less than one watt for some experimental and amateur radio transmissions to 500 kilowatts and higher for intercontinental broadcasters and over-the-horizon radar. Over-The-Horizon radar (OTHR) is a design concept for radar system to overcome the problem that radio waves (a form of light) travel in a straight line, making over the horizon detection difficult. ...


Shortwave transmitting centers often use specialized antenna designs (like the ALLISS antenna technology) to concentrate radio energy at the target area. A yagi antenna Most simply, an antenna is an electronic component designed to send or receive radio waves. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ...


Shortwave broadcasting

See International broadcasting for details on the history and practice of broadcasting to foreign audiences. International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ...


Amateur radio

In the U.S. and Canada, no license is required to own or operate a shortwave receiver. The privilege of operating a shortwave radio transmitter for non-commercial two way communications known as amateur radio is granted through a licensing process by authorized government agencies. Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ...


In the USA, the licensing agency is the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In Canada, the licensing agency is Industry Canada. As of February 2007, the FCC eliminated the Morse code requirement for all Amateur Radio operator classes, therby allowing more operators to transmit in the HF bands. The FCCs official seal. ... Industry Canada is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for regional economic development, investment, and innovation/research and development. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ...


Amateur radio operators have made many technical advancements in the field of radio and make themselves available to transmit emergency communications when normal communications channels fail. Some amateurs practice operating off the power grid so as to be prepared for power loss. It should be noted that many amateur radio operators started out as Shortwave Listeners (SWLs) and actively encourage SWLs to become amateur radio operators.


The 2003 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) removed the global requirement for Morse code proficiency needed to access most shortwave frequencies for the amateur radio service, but left the decision to each administrative body (e.g. Federal Communications Commission in the United States; Industry Canada in Canada). Many countries have phased out this requirement from their licenses and give access to the shortwave frequencies to all licencees. A few countries however have decided to keep the Morse Code requirement for the foreseeable future. In July 2005, the Federal Communications Commission recommended the removal of the Morse code requirement for amateur radio licenses the United States, as part of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in WT Docket 05-235.[4] This docket was released after 18 proposals, including one from the ARRL for widespread changes in the Amateur Radio Service rules were received and considered by the FCC. These proposals had attracted 6200 comments from the Amateur Radio Service community. The FCC released a Report and Order on December 19, 2006, eliminating the Morse code requirement for amateur radio licensing in the United States. World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) is organized by ITU to review, and, if necessary, revise the Radio Regulations, the international treaty governing the use of the radio-frequency spectrum and the geostationary-satellite and non-geostationary-satellite orbits. ... A notice of proposed rulemaking or NPRM is issued by law when a regulatory agency of the United States Federal Government wishes to add, remove, or change a rule (or regulation). ... The word docket can mean: Look up docket in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) was founded in May 1914 by Hiram Percy Maxim. ...


Shortwave listening

Many hobbyists listen to shortwave broadcasters without operating transmitters. In some cases, the goal is to hear as many stations from as many countries as possible (DXing); others listen to specialized shortwave utility, or "ute", transmissions such as maritime, naval, aviation, or military signals. Others focus on intelligence signals from numbers stations, or the two way communications by amateur radio operators. Shortwaves can be heard using a cheap world band receiver. ... It has been suggested that DX station be merged into this article or section. ... Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin that broadcast streams of numbers, words, or phonetic sounds. ...


Many listeners tune the shortwave bands for the programmes of stations broadcasting to a general audience (such as the Voice of America, BBC World Service, Radio Australia, etc.). Nowadays, as the Internet evolves, the hobbyist can listen to shortwave signals via remotely controlled shortwave receivers around the world, even without owning a shortwave radio [2]. Many international broadcasters (such as the BBC and Radio Australia) offer live streaming audio on their websites. Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... ABC Radio Australia is the international shortwave radio service operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australias public broadcaster. ...


Shortwave listeners, or SWLs, can obtain QSL cards from broadcasters, utility stations or amateur radio operators as trophies of the hobby. Some stations even give out special certificates, pennants, stickers and other tokens and promotional materials to shortwave listeners. An example amateur radio QSL card QSL, or QSL card, is the confirmation of a QSO (a radio contact) between two radio amateurs. ...


Unusual signals

Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin that broadcast streams of numbers, words, or phonetic sounds. Although officially there is no indication of their origin, radio hobbyists have determined that many of them are used by intelligence services as one-way communication to agents in other countries. For other examples, see The Conet Project. Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin. ... The Conet Project: Recordings of Shortwave Numbers Stations is a four-CD set of recordings of numbers stations, mysterious shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin believed to be operated by government agencies to communicate with spies in the field. The collection was released by Englands Irdial-Discs record label...


Shortwave's future

The development of direct broadcasts from satellites has reduced the demand for shortwave receivers, but there are still a great number of shortwave broadcasters. A new digital radio technology, Digital Radio Mondiale, is expected to improve the quality of shortwave audio from very poor to standards comparable to the FM broadcast band. The future of shortwave radio is threatened by the rise of power line communication (PLC), also known as Broadband over Power Lines (BPL), where a data stream is transmitted over unshielded power lines. As the frequencies used overlap with shortwave bands, severe distortions make listening to shortwave radio near power lines difficult or impossible. However, because it is a cheap and effective way to receive communications in countries with poor infrastructure, shortwave will be around for years to come. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... For other uses, see Power band. ... Power line communication (PLC), also called Broadband over Power Lines (BPL), is wireline method of communication using the existing electric power transmission and electricity distribution lines. ...


Shortwave broadcasts and music

Some musicians have been attracted to the unique aural qualities of shortwave radio, employing shortwave radios as live instruments in a number of pieces, and or using sampled broadcasts, used tape loops of broadcasts, or drawn inspiration from the unusual sounds on some frequencies. An AKAI MPC2000 sampler A sampler is an electronic musical instrument that can record and store audio signal samples, generally recordings of existing sounds, and play them back at a range of pitches. ... Tape loops are loops of prerecorded magnetic tape used to create repetitive, rhythmic musical patterns. ...


John Cage used radios live on several occasions, while Karlheinz Stockhausen used shortwave radio in works including Telemusik (1966), Hymnen (1966-67) and Spiral (1968). Holger Czukay, a student of Stockhausen, was one of the first to use shortwave in a rock music context. In 1975, German electronic music band Kraftwerk lovingly recorded a full length concept album around simulated radiowave and shortwave sounds, emtitled Radio-Activity. For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century. ... Holger Czukay (born March 24, 1938) is a German musician, probably best known as a co-founder of the krautrock group Can. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Electronica be merged into this article or section. ... Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group from Düsseldorf that has made key contributions to the development of improvisational rock and electronic music, most notably within the latter categorys sub-genres which later became known as synthpop, electro, techno, house and IDM. Early musical... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Radio-Activity is a 1975 album by Kraftwerk. ...


Among others, AMM, John Duncan, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (on their Dazzle Ships album), Pat Metheny, Aphex Twin, Boards of Canada, Rush, Able Tasmans, Team Sleep, Meat Beat Manifesto, Daybrokenroses, Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead, Wilco, and The Moscow Coup Attempt have also used or been inspired by shortwave broadcasts. AMM is an important British free improvisation group, founded in London, England in 1965. ... For the Canadian politician, see John Duncan (Canadian politician). ... Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (often abbreviated to OMD) are a synth pop group whose founder members are originally from the Wirral Peninsula, UK. OMD record for Virgin Records (originally for Virgins DinDisc subsidiary). ... Dazzle Ships is an album by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, released in 1983 (see 1983 in music). ... Patrick Bruce Metheny (born August 12, 1954 in Lees Summit, Missouri) is an American jazz guitarist. ... Aphex Twin (born Richard David James on August 18, 1971 in Limerick, Ireland) is a British electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, acid and drum and bass. ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... The Able Tasmans were an indie band from Auckland, New Zealand. ... Team Sleep is an experimental dream / ambient rock group led by singer/guitarist Chino Moreno, better known for fronting Sacramento band Deftones. ... Meat Beat Manifesto, often shortened to Meat Beat or MBM, is an electronic music outfit originally consisting of Jack Dangers and Jonny Stephens formed in 1987 in Swindon, UK. This was also the hometown of the band XTC, who helped Meat Beat get started. ... Jonathan Jonny Richard Guy Greenwood (born November 5, 1971 in Oxford, England) is a musician and a member of Radiohead. ... Radiohead are an English rock band that formed in Oxfordshire in 1986. ... Wilco is an American rock band based in Chicago, Illinois. ...


See also

Among the nations of the world, the USA is unique in that it has allowed private ownership of non-commercial shortwave stations that are not relays of existing AM/MW or FM radio stations, as are common in Africa, Europe, Asia, Oceania and Latin America. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... // What are HRS type antennas The curtain antenna is a dipole array, consisting of rows and columns of dipoles. ... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ... Shortwave bands are frequency allocations for use within the high frequency radio spectrum. ... Super Rock KYOI was a short-wave radio station located at Saipan island in the Pacific region from 1982 to 1989. ...

External links and references

Citations
  1. ^ Tomislav Stimac, "Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.)". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
  2. ^ Cable and Wireless — A history
  3. ^ Arlyn T. Anderson. Changes at the BBC World Service: Documenting the World Service's Move From Shortwave to Web Radio in North America, Australia, and New Zealand, Journal of Radio Studies 2005, Vol. 12, No. 2, Pages 286-304 (doi:10.1207/s15506843jrs1202_8) mentioned in [1] WWCR FAQ
  4. ^ "FCC Proposes to Drop Morse Code Requirement for All License Classes", American Radio Relay League, Inc., July 20, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-03. (English) 
Other

The following external link is designed for use by cell phones and mobile devices that can display content using Wireless Markup Language and the Wireless Application Protocol: Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions serves as the most common band for broadcasting. ... It has been suggested that DX station be merged into this article or section. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... Radio propagation is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth to another. ... Cellular redirects here. ... A Handheld device (also known as handheld computer or simply handheld) is a pocket-sized computing device, typically utilising a small visual display screen for user output and a miniaturised keyboard for user input. ... Wireless Markup Language is the primary content format for devices that implement the WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) specification based on XML, such as mobile phones. ... WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. ...

  • WAP/WML SWL Resources Search database of International Shortwave Broadcasting Stations by frequency, view Space weather and radio propagation data and images, and more.
Radio spectrum
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF
3 Hz 30 Hz 300 Hz 3 kHz 30 kHz 300 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 30 GHz
30 Hz 300 Hz 3 kHz 30 kHz 300 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz


Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... Audio can mean: Sounding that can be heard. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... Orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM, also called orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) is a technique for the modulation of digital information onto an analog carrier electromagnetic (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... The amplitude modulation signalling system (AMSS or the AM signalling system) is a digital system for adding low bit rate information to an analogue amplitude modulated broadcast signal in the same manner as the Radio Data System (RDS) for frequency modulated (FM) broadcast signals. ... DirectBandâ„¢ is a North American wireless datacast network owned and operated by Microsoft. ... Radio Data System, or RDS, is a standard from the European Broadcasting Union for sending small amounts of digital information using conventional FM radio broadcasts. ... Subsidiary Communications Authority (SCA), is the FCCs official designation for subcarrier channels transmitted by a broadcast FM radio station along with its main carrier. ... A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ... MPEG-4 AAC DRM encoding as used in the iTunes Store Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... MP2, also known as Musicam, is a short form of MPEG Audio Layer II, and it is also used as a file extension for files containing audio data of this type. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... HD Radio is an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system created by iBiquity for broadcasting via existing FM and AM radio stations. ... FMeXtra is an in-band on-channel digital radio broadcasting technology created by Digital Radio Express. ... Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is one of two satellite radio (SDARS) services operating in the United States and Canada, along with XM Satellite Radio. ... WorldSpaces AfriStar control center in Washington, D.C. WorldSpace is the worlds first digital satellite radio network. ... “XM” redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The pre-history and early history of radio is the history of technology that produced instruments that use radio waves. ... Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna. ... Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the band of radio frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz. ... Super Low Frequency (SLF) is the frequency range between 30 hertz and 300 hertz. ... Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) is the frequency range between 300 hertz and 3000 hertz. ... Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... Low Frequency or LF refers to Radio Frequencies (RF) in the range of 30–300 kHz. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m). ... This article is about the radio frequency. ... Microwave Slang for small waves, like at a beach, often used by surfers. ... Extremely high frequency is the highest radio frequency band. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shortwave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1530 words)
Shortwave frequencies are capable of reaching the other side of the planet because they can be refracted by the ionosphere.
Shortwave transmitting centers often use specialized antenna designs to concentrate radio energy on a bearing aimed at the target area.
John Cage employed shortwave radios as live instruments in a number of pieces, and other musicians have sampled broadcasts, used tape loops of broadcasts, or drawn inspiration from the unusual sounds on some frequencies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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