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Encyclopedia > Shorthand

Shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow, close) and graphos (writing). It has also been called brachygraphy and tachygraphy. Many forms of shorthand exist. Typical shorthand systems provide symbols or abbreviations for words and common phrases, which allow someone well trained in the system to write as quickly as people speak.

The Lord's prayer in Gregg and a variety of 19th-century systems
The Lord's prayer in Gregg and a variety of 19th-century systems

Shorthand was used more widely in the past, before the invention of recording and dictation machines. Until recently, shorthand was considered an essential part of secretarial training as well as being useful for journalists. Although the primary use of shorthand has been to record oral dictation or discourse, some systems are used for compact expression. For example, health-care professionals may use shorthand notes in medical charts and correspondence. Shorthand is also common in the food service industry, allowing wait staff to write down detailed orders without delay. Shorthand notes are typically temporary, intended either for immediate use, or for later transcription to longhand. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x1013, 112 KB) Summary From the 1897 book Eclectic Shorthand by Cross. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x1013, 112 KB) Summary From the 1897 book Eclectic Shorthand by Cross. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...

Contents

History

Ancient history

The earliest known indication of shorthand systems is from Ancient Greece, namely the Akropolis stone (Akropolisstein) from mid-4th century BC. The marble plate shows a writing system primarily based on vowels and which uses certain modifications to indicate consonants. The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Acropolis in Athens Acropolis (Gr. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


The Hellenistic tachygraphy is reported from the 2nd century BC onwards, though there are indications that it might be older. The oldest datable reference is a contract from middle Egypt, stating that Oxyrhynchos gives his Greek slave to the "semeiographer" Apollonios for two years to be taught shorthand writing. The Hellenistic tachygraphy consisted of word stem signs and of word ending signs. Over the time, many syllabic signs were developed. The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


In Ancient Rome, Marcus Tullius Tiro (103 BC4 BC), a slave and later a freedman of Cicero, developed the Tironian notes so he could write down Cicero's speeches. The Tironian notes consisted of word stem abbreviations (notae) and of word ending abbreviations (titulae). The original Tironian notes consisted of about 4000 signs but new signs were introduced so that their number could increase up to 13,000. In order to have a less complex writing system, a syllabic shorthand script was used sometimes. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Marcus Tullius Tiro (c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC 104 BC - 103 BC - 102 BC 101 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... poop. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Tironian notes (notae Tironianae) is a system of shorthand invented by Ciceros scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. ...


After the decline of the Roman Empire, the Tironian notes were not used any more to transcribe speeches, though they were still known and taught, increasingly so in the Carolingian Renaissance. After the 11th century, however, they were mostly forgotten. Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


When many monastery libraries were secularized in the course of the 16th century Protestant Reformation, long-forgotten manuscripts of Tironian notes were rediscovered. Monastery of St. ... Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see...


In imperial China, clerks used an abbreviated, highly cursive form of characters to record court proceedings and criminal confessions. These records were used to create more formal transcripts. One cornerstone of imperial court proceedings was that all confessions had to be acknowledged by the accused's signature, personal seal, or thumbprint, requiring fast writing. Versions of this technique survived in clerical professions into the 20th century C.E.


Modern history

An interest in shorthand or "short-writing" developed towards the end of the 16th century in England. In 1588 Timothy Bright published his Characterie; An Arte of Shorte, Swifte and Secrete Writing by Character which introduced a system with 500 arbitrary signs resembling words. Bright's book was followed by a number of others, including John Willis's Art of Stenography in 1602, Edmond Willis's An abbreviation of writing by character in 1618, and Thomas Shelton's Short Writing in 1626 (later re-issued as Tachygraphy). Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Air Chief Marshal Sir John Willis GBE KCB FRAeS RAF is a retired Royal Air Force officer. ... Thomas Shelton (fl. ...


Shelton's system became very popular and is well known because it was used by Samuel Pepys for his diary and for many of his official papers, such as his letter copy books. It was also used by Sir Isaac Newton in some of his notebooks. Shelton borrowed heavily from his predecessors, especially Edmond Willis. Each consonant was represented by an arbitrary but simple symbol, while the five vowels were represented by the relative positions of the surrounding consonants. Thus the symbol for B with symbol for T drawn directly above it represented "bat", while B with T below it meant "but"; top-right represented "e", middle-right "i", and lower-right "o". A vowel at the end of a word was represented by a dot in the appropriate position, while there were additional symbols for initial vowels. This basic system was supplemented by further symbols representing common prefixes and suffixes. Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ...


One drawback of Shelton's system was that there was no way to distinguish long and short vowels or diphthongs; so the b-a-t sequence could mean "bat", or "bait", or "bate", while b-o-t might mean "boot", or "bought", or "boat". The reader needed to use the context to work out which alternative was meant. The main advantage of the system was that it was easy to learn and to use. It was extremely popular, and under the two titles of Short Writing and Tachygraphy, it ran to over 20 editions between 1626 and 1710.


Shelton's chief rivals were Theophilus Metcalfe's Stenography or Short Writing (1633) which was in its "55th edition" by 1721, and Jeremiah Rich's system of 1654, which was published under various titles including The penns dexterity compleated (1669).


Modern-looking geometric shorthand was introduced with John Byrom's 'New Universal Shorthand' of 1720. Samuel Taylor published a similar system in 1786, the first English shorthand system to be used all over the English-speaking world. John Byrom (February 29, 1692 - September 26, 1763) was an English poet. ...


In 1834, German Franz Xaver Gabelsberger published the Gabelsberger shorthand. Gabelsberger, who ignored the English stenography tradition, based his shorthand not on geometrical shapes but on the shapes used in handwriting script. Franz Xaver Gabelsberger (February 9, 1789 - January 4, 1849, both in Munich) was German inventor of shorthand writing system, named Gabelsberger shorthand after him. ... Gabelsberger shorthand, named for its creator Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, is a form of shorthand previously common in Germany. ...


Taylor's system was superseded by the Pitman Shorthand, first introduced in 1837 by Isaac Pitman and improved many times since. Pitman's system was also used all over the English-speaking world. It is still in use, but in the USA (and elsewhere) it has been superseded by the Gregg Shorthand that was first published in 1888 by John Robert Gregg, a system influenced by the handwriting shapes Gabelsberger had introduced. Pitman Shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: Stub ... Gregg Shorthand is a form of shorthand that was invented by John Robert Gregg in 1888. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Robert Gregg John Robert Gregg (b. ...


Classification

Shape

Geometric shorthand is based on circles, parts of circles and straight lines placed strictly horizontally, vertically or diagonally. These were the first modern shorthand systems to develop. Examples include Pitman Shorthand, Boyd's Syllabic Shorthand, Samuel Taylor's Universal Stenography and the Duployan system used in French which formed the basis for the Inuktitut, Cree and Kamloops Wawa (Chinook Jargon) writing systems. Pitman Shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837. ... Boyds Syllabic Shorthand is a system of shorthand invented by Robert Boyd, published originally in 1903, and updated in 1912. ... The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... Cree syllabics are the variations on Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics that are used to write Cree language dialects. ... Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon, through Washington, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska. ...


Script shorthand is based on the motions of ordinary handwriting, such as Gabelsberger shorthand's and those derived from it. The first system of this type was 'Cadmus Britanicus' by Simon Bordley, published in 1787. However, the first practical system was the German Gabelsberger shorthand in the early 19th century. This class of system is now common in all more recent German shorthand systems, Austria, Italy, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, other Eastern European countries, Russia, and elsewhere. Gabelsberger shorthand, named for its creator Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, is a form of shorthand previously common in Germany. ... Gabelsberger shorthand, named for its creator Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, is a form of shorthand previously common in Germany. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ...


Script-Geometric, or semi-script shorthand is based on the ellipse. These systems can be considered a compromise of the geometric systems and the script systems; the first of these systems was by George Carl Märes in 1885. However, the most successful system of this type was introduced by John Robert Gregg in 1888, who had studied not only the geometric English systems, but also the German Stolze stenography, a script shorthand. Other examples include Teeline Shorthand, Thomas Natural Shorthand. John Robert Gregg John Robert Gregg (b. ... Teeline is a shorthand system accepted by the NCTJ, an organisation for journalists in the United Kingdom. ... Thomas Natural Shorthand is an English shorthand system created by Charles A. Thomas which was first published in 1935. ...


Writing device

Most shorthand systems are written on paper with a stenographer pencil or a stenographer pen. Some consider that only these are shorthand systems strictly speaking.


Machine shorthand requires a specialized keyboard. Most commonly, this is taken to mean the stenotype, widely used in the US and elsewhere. However, there are other shorthand machines used worldwide, including: Velotype; Palantype in the UK; Grandjean stenotype, used extensively in France and French-speaking countries; Michela stenotype, used extensively in Italy; and Stenokey, used in Bulgaria and elsewhere. See also Speech-to-Text Reporter a person using a form of realtime shorthand originally designed to assist d/Deaf people. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A stenotype or shorthand machine is a specialized chorded keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use. ... Velotype is the trademark for a type of keyboard for typing text, known as a syllabic chord keyboard. ... == Speech-to-Text Reporter == - A Speech-to-Text Reporter (STTR) listens to what is being said and inputs it, word for word, onto an electronic shorthand keyboard which is linked to their laptop. ...


Resemblance to standard writing system

Some shorthand systems attempted to ease learning by using characters from the Latin alphabet. Such systems have often been described as alphabetic, and purists might claim that such systems are not true shorthand. However, these non-symbol systems do have value for students who cannot dedicate the years necessary to master a symbol shorthand. Non-symbol shorthands cannot be written at the speeds theoretically possible with symbol systems - 200 words per minute or more - but require only a fraction of the time to acquire a useful speed of between 60 and 100 words per minute.


Non-symbol systems often supplement alphabetic characters by using punctuation marks as additional characters, giving special significance to capitalised letters, and sometimes using additional non-alphabetic symbols. Examples of such systems include Stenoscript, Stenospeed, Speedwriting, Forkner shorthand and "Alpha". However, there are some pure alphabetic systems, including Personal Shorthand, SuperWrite, EasyScript & Agiliwriting, which limit their symbols to purely alphabetic characters. These have the added advantage that they can also be typed - for instance, onto a computer, PDA or cellphone. Interestingly, early editions of Speedwriting were also adapted so that they could be written on a typewriter, and therefore would possess the same advantage. with ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shorthand. ... SuperWrite is an English shorthand system based largely on previous shorthand systems and largely intended for people who need to increase their writing speed without devoting months to learning more complicated systems. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... User with PDA Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... Cellular redirects here. ... with ...


Vowel representation

Shorthand systems can be classified according to the way that vowels are represented:

  • 'Normal' vowel signs (no fundamental distinction between vowel signs and consonant signs), e.g. Gregg.
  • Other ways of expressing the vowels:
    • expression of the first vowel by the height of the word in relation to the line, no expression of subsequent vowels, e.g. Pitman (with optional expression of the vowels by diacritics added to the word);
    • expression of the vowels by the width of the joining stroke that leads to the following consonant sign, the height of the following consonant sign in relation to the preceding one, and the line pressure of the following consonant sign, e.g. in most German shorthand systems;
    • detached vowel signs, such as dots, ticks and other marks, written around the consonant signs;
    • no expression of the individual vowels at all except for a dot before the word for any initial vowel and a dot after the word for any ending vowel, e.g. Taylor. Alphabet is spelled ’lfbt;
    • expression of vowel by shape of the stroke, with the consonant indicated by orientation, e.g. Boyd.

The record for fast writing with Pitman shorthand is 350 wpm during a two-minute test by Nathan Behrin in 1922, although this result has been questioned.


Common English shorthand systems

One of the most widely known forms of shorthand is the Pitman method, developed by Isaac Pitman in 1837. Isaac's brother Benn Pitman, who lived in Cincinnati, Ohio, was responsible for introducing the method to America. The method has been adapted for 15 languages. The system uses a phonemic orthography. For this reason, the system is sometimes known as phonography, meaning 'sound writing' in Greek. One of the reasons this method allows fast transcription is that vowel sounds are optional when only consonants are needed to determine a word. Pitman Shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837. ... Categories: Stub ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Although Pitman's method was extremely popular at first (and is still commonly used, especially in the UK) its popularity has been superseded (especially in the United States) by a method developed by John Robert Gregg in 1888. Gregg's system, like Pitman's, is phonetic, but has the advantage of being "light-line". While Pitman's system uses thick and thin strokes to distinguish related sounds, Gregg's uses only thin strokes and makes some of the same distinctions by the length of the stroke. John Robert Gregg John Robert Gregg (b. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gregg Shorthand is a form of shorthand that was invented by John Robert Gregg in 1888. ...


In the UK, Teeline is now more commonly taught, and used, than Pitman. Teeline is the recommended system of the The National Council for the Training of Journalists. Other less commonly used systems in the UK are Pitman 2000, PitmanScript, Speedwriting and Gregg. Teeline is a shorthand system accepted by the NCTJ, an organisation for journalists in the United Kingdom. ...


List of shorthand systems

BezenÅ¡ek Shorthand is a shorthand system, used for rapidly recording Bulgarian speech. ... Anton Toma BezenÅ¡ek is a Slovenian linguist, publicist, shorthand expert, and lecturer, who spent most of his life in Bulgaria. ... Boyds Syllabic Shorthand is a system of shorthand invented by Robert Boyd, published originally in 1903, and updated in 1912. ... Robert Boyd was the inventor of a system of shorthand, Boyds Syllabic Shorthand. ... Current Shorthand was developed beginning in 1884 and published as A Manual of Current Shorthand Orthographic and Phonetic in 1892 by Dr. Henry Sweet to address the need of a fundamentally legible shorthand system free of obscure methods of efficiency such as line thickness and positioning. ... Henry Sweet (1845-1912) was a philologist, and is also considered to be an early linguist. ... Dutton Speedwords is an international auxiliary language as well a shorthand writing system. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Reginald J.G. Dutton Reginal John Garfield Dutton. ... Eclectic shorthand (sometimes called Cross shorthand or Eclectic-Cross shorthand after its founder, J.G. Cross) is an English shorthand system of the 19th century. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Gabelsberger shorthand, named for its creator Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, is a form of shorthand previously common in Germany. ... Franz Xaver Gabelsberger (February 9, 1789 - January 4, 1849, both in Munich) was German inventor of shorthand writing system, named Gabelsberger shorthand after him. ... Gregg Shorthand is a form of shorthand that was invented by John Robert Gregg in 1888. ... John Robert Gregg John Robert Gregg (b. ... The Melin system of shorthand is the dominant shorthand system used in Sweden. ... Merrill Shorthand is a shorthand system invented by Albert H. Merrill, published in 1942. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shorthand. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... C. Theo Ted Yerian, Ph. ... Pitman Shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837. ... Categories: Stub ... Reformed Phonetic Short-Hand is an obscure form of shorthand described in a book entitled Marshs Manual of Reformed Phonetic Short-Hand: Being a Complete Guide to the Best System of Phonography and Verbatim Reporting published by H.H. Bancroft & Company in 1868. ... Simson Shorthand is a system of shorthand invented by James Simson and published in his 1885 book, The bbook describes the system on its title page as A system of brief writing by syllabic characters, based on the common alphabet, and written according to the sounds of spoken language. ... James Simson 1740-1770 was a medical academic and the second Chandos Professor of Medicine and Anatomy at the University of St Andrews, from 1764-1770. ... with ... Teeline is a shorthand system accepted by the NCTJ, an organisation for journalists in the United Kingdom. ... James J. Hill (September 16, 1838 – May 29, 1916), was a noted American railroad tycoon. ... Thomas Natural Shorthand is an English shorthand system created by Charles A. Thomas which was first published in 1935. ... Tironian notes (notae Tironianae) is a system of shorthand invented by Ciceros scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. ... Marcus Tullius Tiro (c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Look up Shorthand in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A captioned telephone is a telephone that displays real-time captions of the current conversation. ... A commonly-used symbol indicating that a program or movie is closed-captioned. ... A court reporter, stenotype reporter or stenographer is a person whose occupation is to transcribe spoken or recorded speech into written form, typically using a stenotype or stenomask to produce official transcripts of court hearings, depositions and other official proceedings. ... Quikscript (also known as the Read Alphabet) is an alternate alphabet for the English language, designed to be phonetically regular, compact, and comfortably and quickly written. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Short Transitional Utility Language also known as Shorthand, was created and implemented by Sam Moses and Andrei Remenchuck as a simpler means of creating dynamic web applications. ... A stenotype or stenograph is a specialized keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use. ... A stenotype or shorthand machine is a specialized chorded keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use. ... A stenomask is a mouth mask with a built-in microphone. ... Transcript can have several meanings depending on the context used. ...

References

  • R. Latham and W. Matthews, Introduction to The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Volume I, pp. xlvii–liv (for Thomas Shelton's shorthand system and Pepys' use of it). ISBN 0-7135-1551-1
  • Richard S. Westfall, "Short-Writing and the State of Newton's Conscience, 1662", Notes and Records of the Royal Society 18 (1963), 10-16.
  • Pitmans College (1975). Shorthand. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-05687-8
  • Walter Kaden (2000), Neue Geschichte der Stenografie.

Richard S. Westfall (April 22, 1924—August 21, 1996) was an American professor, biographer and science historian. ...

External links


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