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Encyclopedia > Shortening

Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a "short" texture (as in shortbread). The term "shortening" can be used more broadly to apply to any fat, such as butter, lard, or margarine, used in baking, but as used in recipes it refers to a hydrogenated vegetable oil that is solid at room temperature. Shortening has a higher smoke point than butter and margarine, and it has 100% fat content, compared to 80% for butter and margarine. Crisco, a popular brand, was first produced in 1911. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ... Shortbread rounds Shortbread is a type of biscuit (cookie) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts plain white flour, although other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. ... A slice of bread spread with lard was a typical staple in traditional rural cuisine of many countries. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions in which the net result is an addition of hydrogen. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... The smoke point refers to the point in which a cooking fat or oil is heated until it breaks down. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter-substitutes. ... Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912 Crisco, a popular brand of shortening, was first produced in 1911 by Procter & Gamble and was the first shortening to be made entirely of vegetable oil. ...


Despite its worldwide usage and availability, vegetable shortening is believed to be damaging to human health since it generally contains trans fats in the form of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. After the oils are hydrogenated they become solid at room temperature, but the type of trans fat generated in this process has adverse health effects. Shortening containing no trans fats has grown in usage, notably with the 2007 reformulation of Crisco such that it contains less than 1g of trans fat per 12g serving. Non-hydrogenated vegetable shortening can be made from palm oil. A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary...


Regulation

Denmark became the first country to introduce laws strictly regulating the sale of many foods containing trans fats in March 2003, a move which effectively bans partially hydrogenated oils, and as a result shortening that contains it.

A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shorten - definition of Shorten in Encyclopedia (231 words)
SHN (Shorten) is a file format used to losslessly compress CD-quality audio files (44.1 kHz 16-bit stereo PCM).
Ogg Vorbis or MP3 files are more typically used as these are usually ten percent of the size of the original file rather than 50-70 percent, but quality is lost in the compression.
The Shorten algorithm and the reference code that implement it were developed by Tony Robinson of SoftSound Ltd. The code was made available under a generous non-commercial license and has been extended by Wayne Stielau to include seek tables so that one may seek within individual tracks when playing the files on ones computer.
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