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Encyclopedia > Short subject
Early American actor William Garwood starred in numerous short films, many of which were only 20 minutes in length

Short subject is a format description originally coined in the North American film industry in the early period of cinema. The description is now used almost interchangeably with short film; either term is often abbreviated to short (as a noun, e.g. 'a short'). Although the North American definition generally refers to films of between 20 and 40 minutes long, the definition refers to much shorter films in Europe, Latin America and Australasia. In New Zealand, for instance, the description can be used to describe any film that has a duration longer than 1 minute and shorter than 15 minutes. The North American definition also tends to focus much more on character whereas the European and Australasian forms tend to depend much more on visual drama and plot twists. In this way, the North American form can be understood to be a derivation of the feature film form, usually acting as a platform for aspirant Hollywood directors. Elsewhere, short films tend to work as showcases for cinematographers and commercial directors. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Garwood William Garwood (April 28, 1884 - December 28, 1950) was an American stage and film actor and director of the early silent era in the 1910s. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


History of Film Making

Early period

The term came to be applied in North America in the 1910s, when the majority of feature films began to be made in much longer-running editions. A typical film programme came to be expected to include a feature preceded by one or more short subjects. Short subjects could be live action or animated; comedy was particularly utilized as their style, and well-known comedians such as Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Laurel and Hardy and others are best known from short subject films. // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. ... Comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humour with an intent to provoke[[ laughter in general). ... A comedian, or comic, is an entertainer who amuses an audience by making them laugh. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Joseph Frank Keaton, Jr. ... Laurel and Hardy, in a promotional still from their 1937 feature film Way Out West. ...

Animated cartoons likewise came principally as short subjects, as did newsreels. Less frequently, short subjects might be in the form of travelogues, human interest films or concert films. The form was so popular that virtually all major film production companies had fully staffed, special units assigned to develop and produce them; and many companies, especially in the silent and very early sound era, produced short subjects exclusively (e.g. Keystone Studios, Atlas Educational Film Co.). A cartoon is any of several forms of illustrations with varied meanings that evolved from its original meaning. ... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... Travel literature is literature which records the people, events, sights and feelings of an author who is touring a foreign place for the pleasure of travel. ... Human interest news articles are about particular individuals or groups of people. ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne 2005 A concert is a live performance, usually of music, before an audience. ... Film production on location in Newark, New Jersey. ... This article is about the comedy film. ... The Keystone / Mack Sennett studios Keystone Studios was an early movie studio founded in Glendale, California in 1912 as the Keystone Pictures Studio by Mack Sennett with backing from Adam Kessel and Charles O. Bauman, owners of the New York Motion Picture Company. ...

The rise of the double feature

The death of the two-reel short as a commercially successful product for independent studios put producers such as Mack Sennett out of business. Hal Roach moved Laurel and Hardy full-time into feature films after 1935, and halved his popular Our Gang films to one reel at the request of distributor Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Roach, who could no longer afford to produce shorts after 1938, sold Our Gang at that time to MGM. Mack Sennett (1880 - 1960) Mack Sennett (January 17, 1880 – November 5, 1960) was an innovator of slapstick comedy in film. ... Harold Eugene Roach, Sr. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... A poster for the 1931 Our Gang comedy Love Business featuring depictions of (from left to right): Pete the Pup, Jackie Cooper, and Norman Chubby Chaney. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

After the 1930s, fewer shorts were made for theatrical release, most of which were one reel long, like George O'Hanlon's Joe McDoakes shorts, and the animated shorts of studios like Leon Schlesinger/Warner Bros., Walter Lantz, and Fleischer/Famous Studios. These shorts and others were produced in-house by, or financed by, motion picture companies that either owned their own theater chains (for example, Loews Theatres), or forced theaters to take their shorts by selling them in the same unalterable package as their big-name features. This practice, called block booking, was declared illegal by the US Supreme Court, who also forced the theater chains to sell off their movie studios. By 1955, thanks to double features, the ban on block booking, and the rise of television, the commercial live-action short was virtually dead, and the cartoon short was on its way to being dead. Since the 1960s, short films have been largely reserved for independent filmmakers and special major-studio projects. Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... George OHanlon (November 23, 1912 - February 11, 1989) was an American actor, comedian, and voice actor. ... The Joe McDoakes series was a long-lived series of live-action one-reel short films produced by Warner Bros. ... Termite Terrace is the nickname for an old building on Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, USA where Looney Tunes were created frm 1935 to 1937. ... Walter Lantz in 1983, with painting of Woody Woodpecker Walter Lantz (April 27, 1900 – March 22, 1994) was an American cartoonist and animator, best known for founding the Walter Lantz Studio and creating Woody Woodpecker. ... Fleischer Studios is an American New York animation company founded by the brothers, Max Fleischer and Dave Fleischer who ran the company from 1921-1942. ... Famous Studios was the animation studio owned by Paramount Pictures after the company foreclosed on Fleischer Studios and ousted Max and Dave Fleischer in 1942. ... Loews Theatres, founded in 1904 by Marcus Loew, is the oldest theatre chain still operating in North America today. ... Block booking is a system of selling multiple films to a theater as a unit. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...

The Three Stooges shorts were the only major series of two-reelers to survive the double-feature system, because they were issued by Columbia Pictures using block booking. They continued into the late-1950s, largely by reusing footage from previous series entries to reduce costs. The Three Stooges was an American comedy act in the 20th century. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

In the 1950s, television programming, including broadcast of older short subjects sold to television stations, eclipsed the value of all but cartoons featuring well-loved characters; but by the end of the 1960s, the cost of manufacturing these had come to outweigh the return, and short subjects effectively disappeared from the movie screens. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...

Short subjects in the modern era

Since the 1980s, the term "short subject" has come to be used interchangeably with "short film", an international, academic term used to mean a contemporary non-commercial motion picture that is substantially shorter than the average commercial feature film. The definition of maximum length varies from 40 minutes (Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences rule) to about 80 minutes[citation needed]. The short-film form is to the full length film what the short story is to a full-fledged novel. This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ...

Short films often focus on difficult topics which longer, more commercial films usually avoid. Their filmmakers benefit from larger freedoms and can take higher risks with their films, but must rely on festival and art house exhibition to achieve public display. Most short films are better known outside the United States than within, due to less rigidity of audience expectation as to programme content, arrangement, and length outside the U.S. The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... A film festival is the presentation or showcasing of films in one or more movie theaters or screening venues. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Short films are often popular as first steps into the cinematic art among young filmmakers. This is because they are cheaper and easier to make, and also their brevity makes shorts more likely to be watched by financial backers and others who want some demonstration of a filmmaker's ability. There are however exceptions such as films like S. Luciani's Dolls, which show how professional/big-name actors and crews still choose to create short films as alternative form of expression. Mouche and Carrot Top from Dolls A British shot film written and directed by Susan Luciani, narrated by Charles Dance and starring Joanna Lumley and Denis Lawson. ...

Short film making is also growing in popularity among amateurs and enthusiasts, who are taking advantage of affordable equipment. "Prosumer" or semi-professional cameras now cost under USD$3,000, and free or low-cost software is widely available that is capable of video editing, post-production work, and DVD authoring. Such films can also be easily distributed via the Internet; Across the Hall, for example, was solely distributed on the Internet. Certain websites which encourage the submission of user-created short films, such as Youtube, BritFilms.tvand Newgrounds, have attracted large communities of artists and viewers. A television station in Canada called BITE Television[1] is trying to become the world's first user generated television station, trying to get viewers to send in their videos [2]. Prosumer refers to one of two possible portmanteaus formed by contracting either the word producer or professional with the word consumer. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Note: Please see National Latin Examination for the standardized test that is also abbreviated NLE. A non-linear editing system (abbreviated NLE) is a video editing or audio editing system that can perform random access on the source material. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Across the Hall is an American short film, made available to view online or downloaded to a cell phone. ... YouTube is a popular free video sharing website which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. ... Newgrounds is a website headquartered in Glenside, Pennsylvania, USA and created in 1995 that primarily hosts Adobe Flash animated films and games. ... Bite TV is a Canadian category 2 digital cable television channel. ...


The form itself splits into several sub-categories, mainly:

In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...

See also

This is a list of live-action short films: Template:List of films // Roundhay Garden Scene (1888) Dickson Greeting (1891) Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze (1894) Robetta and Doretto (1895) The Execution of Mary Stuart (1895) Watering the Gardener (1895) Interuppted Lover (1896) In a Chinese Laundry (1897) The... The following is a list of theatrical short film series produced by means of animation. ... This is a list of independent short films. ... BritFilms. ... Movieola is a Canadian category 2 digital cable television channel. ... New Zealand cinema refers to films made by New Zealand-based production companies in New Zealand. ...


Chicago International REEL Shorts Festival [1] The Chicago International REEL Shorts Festival is an annual short film competition and screening put on by Project Chicago. ... The LA Freewaves logo LA Freewaves is a Los Angeles based nonprofit organization that advocates for and exhibits uncensored independent new media from around the world. ... essential. ... The Portable Film Festival is an annual online film festival. ... S2F2, the Sefton Short Film Festival is an independent film festival based in Sefton, North Liverpool. ...

External links

see also: short story, commercial bumper MACHFELD is an Austrian art duo. ... Spiked is a British Internet magazine focusing on politics, culture and society. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards Trophy The Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards is an annual contest put forth by Lucasfilm and Atomfilms to showcase and acknowledge the growing genre of fanfilms made by, for and about fans of the Star Wars saga. ... iFilm is an online archive of short films, movie trailers, and other video clips of interest. ... screenonline is a website devoted to the history of British film and television, and to social history as revealed by film and television. ... The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film, television and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film, television and... This article is in need of attention. ... A brief (usually ten to fifteen seconds) transition announcement in broadcasting, placed between a pause in the program and its commercial break (and also the other way around). ...

  • HollyShorts, Short Film FestivalAn annual short film festival in Hollywood showcasing short films from around the world in all genre's including documentary, live action and animation.
  • Sandeep Marwah the producer of 1000 short films
  • Nice Shorts - Excellent and award-winning short films from around the world.
  • DepicT! - extremely popular annual 90 second film competition, a project of Watershed Media Centre as part of Encounters International Short Film Festival
  • DepicT! -Santiago de Compostela International Short Film Festival
  • Bite Television
  • BITE Television's Submission Page
  • Funny Animated Shorts

  Results from FactBites:
Short subject - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (961 words)
Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less.
Short subjects could be live action or animated; comedy was particularly utilized as their style, and well-known comedians such as Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Laurel and Hardy and others are best known from short subject films.
These shorts and others were produced in-house by, or financed by, motion picture companies that either owned their own theater chains (for example, Loews Theatres), or forced theaters to take their shorts by selling them in the same unalterable package as their big-name features.
U of M: IRB: About Consent Short Forms (395 words)
A short form is a written document stating that the elements of informed consent required by 45 CFR 46.116 have been presented to and understood by the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative.
A short form may be used when the majority of subjects in a study are English speakers, but there are a portion of the subjects who will not be able to understand the consent form written in English.
A short form written consent document stating that the elements of informed consent required by 46.116 have been presented orally to the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative.
  More results at FactBites »



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