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Encyclopedia > Shorea robusta

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malvales
Family: Dipterocarpaceae
Genus: Shorea
Species: S. robusta
Binomial name
Shorea robusta

Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. In India it extends from Assam, Bengal and Jharkhand west to the Shivalik Hills in Haryana, east of the Yamuna. The range also extends through the Eastern Ghats and to the eastern Vindhya and Satpura ranges of central India. It is often the dominant tree in the forests where it occurs. The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Orders See text. ... Families Malvaceae (mallows,...) Dipterocarpaceae Sarcolaenaceae Cistaceae Muntingiaceae Bixaceae Diegodendraceae Cochlospermaceae Sphaerosepalaceae Thymelaeaceae Neuradaceae The Malvales are an order of flowering plants, mostly comprised of shrubs and trees. ... Genera Anisoptera Cotylelobium Dipterocarpus Dryobalanops Hopea Marquesia Monotes Neobalanocarpus Pakaraimaea Parashorea Shorea Stemonoporus Upuna Vateria Vateriopsis Vatica Dipterocarpaceae is a family of 17 genera and approximately 580-680 species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees with two-winged fruits. ... Species About 360 species, including: Shorea academia Shorea acuminata Shorea acuminatissima Shorea affinis Shorea agamii Shorea albida Shorea almon Shorea amplexicaulis Shorea aptera Shorea argentifolia Shorea assamica Shorea atrinervosa Shorea balangeran Shorea beccariana Shorea bracteolata Shorea brunnescens Shorea collina Shorea compressa Shorea congestiflora Shorea contorta Shorea cordifolia Shorea crassa Shorea... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur - now a part of Guwahati. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... Haryana (Hindi: , IPA: / /) is a state in north India. ... The Triveni Sangam, or the intersection of Yamuna River and Ganges River. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ...

Sal is moderate to slow growing, and can attain heights of 30 to 35 m and a trunk diameter of up to 2-2.5 m. The leaves are 10-25 cm long and 5-15 cm broad. In wetter areas, it is evergreen; in drier areas, it is dry-season deciduous, shedding most of the leaves in between February to April, leafing out again in April and May. The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ...


Sal is one of the most important sources of hardwood timber in India, with hard, coarse-grained wood that is light in colour when freshly cut, and becoming dark brown with exposure. The wood is resinous and durable, and is sought after for construction, although not well suited to planing and polishing. Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood The term hardwood designates wood from angiosperm trees. ...

Sal resin is burned as incense in Hindu ceremonies, and sal seeds and fruit are a source of lamp oil and vegetable fat. Incense is a preparation of aromatic plant matter, often with the addition of essential oils extracted from plant or animal sources, intended to release fragrant smoke for religious, therapeutic, or aesthetic purposes as it smolders. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


  • Ashton (1998). Shorea robusta. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links

  • Haryana Online: Sal

  Results from FactBites:
Forest resources and institutions (7391 words)
Fourth, an examination of importance values of Shorea robusta trees and saplings between the three forests (Table 5.1) reveals that overall, the dominance, density, and frequency of the Shorea robusta species is higher in Kaswang than in the other two forests.
During the field visit, many species, Shorea robusta being one, appeared to be quite capable of establishing a foundation regardless of the steepness of the slope.
The other possibility is that because Shorea robusta is in fact the climax species of these forests, it may be robust in terms of its ability to grow in a variety of soils.
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