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Encyclopedia > Shopping plaza
Azrieli shopping mall in Tel Aviv is the city's largest shopping center

A shopping mall (or simply mall), shopping centre, or shopping arcade is a building or set of buildings that contain stores, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from store to store. The walkways may be enclosed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 373 KB) Interior view of Azrieli shopping mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 373 KB) Interior view of Azrieli shopping mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... A skyway is a path that is traversed without touching the ground. ...


In the British Isles and Australia, shopping malls are more usually referred to as shopping centres, shopping precincts or, sometimes, shopping arcades. In North America, the term shopping mall is usually applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Strip malls are a recent development, corresponding to the rise of suburban living in the United States after World War II. As such, the strip mall development has been the subject of the same criticisms leveled against suburbanisation and suburban sprawl in general. In the United Kingdom these are called retail parks or out-of-town shopping centres. The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway, near Bristol, England. ... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Suburbanization is a term used by many to describe the current residential living situation in the United States, and it is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... Sprawl; please see: urban sprawl (also called suburban sprawl) For the metropolitan region stretching from Boston to Atlanta in William Gibsons fiction, see The Sprawl. ... A retail park is a grouping of three or more retail warehouses with associated car parking. ... A retail park is a grouping of three or more retail warehouses with associated car parking. ...

Contents

History

An example of the mid-19th-century shopping mall: The Passage in St Petersburg.

Indoor multi-vendor shopping is not a recent idea. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century A.D. The 10 kilometer long covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar also has a very old history. The Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in 15th century and is still one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58 streets and 4000 shops. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England was officially opened on 1 November 1774 and is still going strong today. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819. The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island introduced the concept to the United States in 1828. The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy followed in the 1860s and is closer to large modern malls in spaciousness. Many other large cities created arcades and shopping centres in the late 19th century and early 20th century, including the Cleveland Arcade and GUM in Moscow in 1890. Early shopping centers designed for the automobile include Market Square, Lake Forest, Illinois (1916) and Country Club Plaza, Kansas City, Missouri (1924). Image File history File links Passazh. ... Image File history File links Passazh. ... The interior of the old Passage in the 1850s. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... The Bazaar of Isfahan is one of the oldest and largest bazaars of the Middle East. ... An 1873 illustration of Tehrans bustling Bazaar. ... An entrance to the Grand Bazaar The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58 streets and 4000 shops in it. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... History The Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to clear ‘untidy, mess and unsavoury stalls’ from the main streets of central Oxford. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2006 estimate... The Burlington Arcade is a covered shopping arcade off of Piccadilly in London. ... The Westminster Arcade or Providence Arcade (The Arcade, locally) is a historic shopping center in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Nickname: Location in Rhode Island Coordinates: Country United States State Rhode Island County Providence Government  - Mayor David N. Cicilline (D) Area  - City  20. ... Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Piazza del Duomo entrance The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a covered arcade situated on the northern side of the Piazza del Duomo in Milan, connecting to the Piazza della Scala. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Cleveland Arcade in downtown Cleveland (late 1960s) The Arcade in Cleveland, Ohio was built in 1890 and is a unique architectural treasure of 19th century urban America. ... The GUM facade faces Red Square. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Kansas Citys Country Club Plaza The Country Club Plaza (often referred to as the Plaza) is an upscale shopping district and registered neighborhood centered around 55 acres (223,000 m²) in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. It was the first shopping center in the world designed to accommodate the automobile. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...



In the mid-20th century, with the rise of the suburb and automobile culture in the United States, a new style of shopping centre was created away from city centres. The first shopping center in the United States was Country Club Plaza, which opened in 1924 in Kansas City, Missouri. The concept of the fully-enclosed mall was pioneered by the Austrian-born architect Victor Gruen. The new generation called malls included Northgate Mall, built in north Seattle, Washington, USA in 1950, Centre Mall in Omaha, built in 1950, Gruen's Northland Shopping Center built near Detroit, Michigan, USA in 1954, and the Southdale Center, which opened in the Twin Cities suburb of Edina, Minnesota, USA in 1956. In the UK, Chrisp Street Market was the first pedestrian shopping area built with a road at the shop fronts. Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Kansas Citys Country Club Plaza The Country Club Plaza (often referred to as the Plaza) is an upscale shopping district and registered neighborhood centered around 55 acres (223,000 m²) in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. It was the first shopping center in the world designed to accommodate the automobile. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... Northgate Mall is a shopping mall in the Northgate informal district of north urban Seattle, Washington. ... Nickname: Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Greg Nickels (NP) Area  - City  142. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Northland Center is a shopping mall located at 8 Mile and Greenfield Road in Southfield, Michigan, USA, a suburb of Detroit. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Settled 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inside the Southdale Center Southdale Center, commonly known as just Southdale, was the first fully-enclosed and completely climate-controlled shopping mall in the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... location in Hennepin County, Minnesota Coordinates: Country United States State Minnesota County Hennepin Founded 1860s Incorporated 1888 Government  - Mayor James Hovland Area  - City 16 sq mi (41. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chrisp Street Tower Chrisp Street Market was designed and built as part of the Festival of Britain in 1951. ...


The title of the largest enclosed shopping mall was held by the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada for 20 years. One of the world's largest shopping complexes at one location is the two-mall agglomeration of the Plaza at King of Prussia and the Court at King of Prussia in the Philadelphia suburb of King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA. The King of Prussia mall has the most shopping per square foot in the US. Comparable in size is Europe's largest shopping center, Dundrum Town Centre in Dundrum, Dublin, Ireland. The most visited shopping mall in the world and largest mall in the United States is the Mall of America, located near the Twin Cities in Bloomington, Minnesota, USA. However, several Asian malls are advertised as having more visitors, including Taman Anggrek Mal, Kelapa Gading Mall and Megamal Pluit, all in Jakarta-Indonesia, Berjaya Times Square in Malaysia and SM Megamall in the Philippines. West Edmonton Mall (WEM), located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada is the largest shopping mall in North America and fourth largest in the world. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... The Plaza at King of Prussia is part of what is popularly referred to as the King of Prussia Mall, a huge shopping complex in King of Prussia, which is located in Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... The Court at King of Prussia is part of the massive King of Prussia Mall complex in King of Prussia, an area in Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... King of Prussia is an unincorporated community in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Dundrum Town Centre is a shopping centre located in Dundrum, Dublin, Ireland. ... Dundrum is the name of several towns in Ireland: Dundrum in County Down, Northern Ireland Dundrum in Dublin city, Republic of Ireland Dundrum in County Tipperary, Republic of Ireland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... location in Hennepin County, Minnesota Coordinates: Country United States State Minnesota County Hennepin Founded 1843 Incorporated 1858 Mayor Gene Winstead Area    - City 99. ... Kelapa Gading is the most luxurious place in Jakarta and the most vibrant too. ... Pluit is a suburb in North Jakarta that is predominantly residential. ... Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Berjaya Times Square viewed from Jalan Imbi Berjaya Times Square KL is a building containing a huge shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... The SM Megamall is one of the largest shopping malls in the Philippines and also known as SM Ortigas. ...


Beijing's (Peking) Golden Resources Mall, opened in October 2004, is the world's second largest mall, at 600,000 m² (approximately 6 million square feet). Berjaya Times Square in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is advertised at 700,000 m². SM Mall of Asia in the Philippines, opened in May 2006, is the world's third largest at 386,000 square meters of gross floor area with further expansions still ongoing. The Mall of Arabia inside Dubailand in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which will open in 2008, will become the largest mall in the world, at 929,000 square meters (10 million sq. feet). Jin Yuan Mall facade Jin Yuan Mall or Golden Resources Mall (Chinese: 金源时代购物中心; Pinyin: JÄ«nyuán Shídài Gòuwù ZhōngxÄ«n) located in Beijing is believed to be the second largest shopping mall in the world. ... Berjaya Times Square viewed from Jalan Imbi Berjaya Times Square KL is a building containing a huge shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... Kuala Lumpurs landmark, the PETRONAS Twin Towers Kuala Lumpur (Jawi:كوالا لمبور) is the largest city in Malaysia and the capital of the federation. ... The SM Mall of Asia is the largest shopping mall in the Philippines and the largest shopping mall in the world in terms of gross floor size, after the South Dongguan Mall (China), Golden Resources Mall (China), Central World Plaza (Thailand), Seacon Square (Thailand), Runwal Arcade - Mumbai (India). ... The Ilyas and Mustafa Galadari Group has announced the Mall of Arabia, a huge shopping mall to be built as part of City of Arabia in the Dubai Land theme park premises in Dubai. ... Dubailand logo Dubailand part of Dubai Holding, is an entertainment complex under development in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Coordinates: Emirate Dubai Government  - Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Pitt Street Mall" of Sydney is Australia's busiest shopping precinct. This mall has eight retail centres and more than 600 speciality stores, within two city blocks.

A Mall can refer to a shopping mall, which is a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area, or an exclusively pedestrian street, that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. Mall is generally used in North America and Australasia to refer to a large shopping area usually comprised of a single building which contains multiple shops, usually "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term arcade is more often used, especially in Britain, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings (see town centre). A larger, often only partly covered but exclusively pedestrian shopping area is in Britain also termed a shopping precinct or pedestrian precinct. The majority of British shopping centres are in town centres, usually inserted into old shopping districts, and surrounding by subsidiary open air shopping streets. A number of large out-of-town "regional malls" such as Meadowhall, Sheffield and the Trafford Centre, Manchester were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but there are only ten of them or so and current planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. ImageMetadata File history File links Pitt_Street_Mall_Sydney. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Pitt_Street_Mall_Sydney. ... Pitt Street Mall is the pedestrianised section of Pitt Street in the CBD of Sydney, Australia. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The town centre is usually the commercial or geographical centre of a town. ... Meadowhall is a large shopping centre located three miles northeast of central Sheffield, England. ... Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. ... The Trafford Centre is a large indoor shopping centre located in Metropolitan Borough of Trafford in Greater Manchester, England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ...

Classes of malls


In many cases, regional and super-regional malls [1] exist as parts of large superstructures which often also include office space, residential space, amusement parks and so forth. This trend can be seen in the construction and design of many modern supermalls such as Cevahir Mall in Turkey. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 166 KB) Summary en: Description: Mercado de Abasto (Abasto Shopping), Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 166 KB) Summary en: Description: Mercado de Abasto (Abasto Shopping), Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Facade of the Abasto on Corrientes Avenue. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Cevahir Shopping Centre: Largest Mall of Europe, seen here with its six floors Cevahir Shopping Centre, opened on October 15, 2005, is a modern shopping and entertainment center located in the ÅžiÅŸli district of Istanbul, Turkey. ...


Regional Malls

A regional mall is a shopping mall which is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall. As such, it is typically larger with 400,000 square feet (37,000 ) to 800,000 square feet (74,000 m²) gross leasable area with at least 2 anchors[2], and offers a wider selection of stores. Given their wider service area, these malls tend to have higher-end stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable. Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas. A square foot is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 foot long. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Gross leasable area (GLA) in the retail development industry is a term applied to shopping malls, lifestyle centers, outlet malls and other retail centers to indicate the amount of floor space available to be rented. ...


Super-regional Malls

A super-regional mall is a shopping mall with over 800,000 square feet (74,000 m²) [3] of gross leasable area, and which serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region in which it located.


Components

Food court

A shopping mall food court consists of several stalls offering different cuisines. At a typical food court, meals are ordered at one of the stalls then carried to a common dining area, which is normally a plaza contiguous with the counters of the multiple food vendors[4]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1783 KB) Summary Food court at Pentagon City Mall in Arlington, Virginia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1783 KB) Summary Food court at Pentagon City Mall in Arlington, Virginia. ... The Fashion Centre at Pentagon City, also known as Pentagon City Mall, is an upscale shopping mall in Arlington, Virginia. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000...


Typical vendors are McDonald's, Spud U Like and Cinnabon. McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... The Spud-U-Like is a brand of convenience food restaurants popular in the United Kingdom that sells baked potatoes with a variety of toppings. ... Cinnabon is a chain of American baked goods stores and kiosks formerly owned by AFC Enterprises, and, as of 2004, owned by FOCUS Brands, Inc. ...


Department stores

Main article: Department store
An example of an anchor store at The Florida Mall located in Orlando, Florida.

When the shopping mall format was developed by Victor Gruen in the mid-1950s, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller stores in the mall as well. These larger stores are termed anchor store or draw tenant. Anchors generally have their rents heavily discounted, and may even receive cash inducements from the mall to remain open. In physical configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the amount of traffic from one anchor to another. The interior of a typical Macys department store. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1006 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1006 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The main entrance of The Florida Mall. ... Nickname: Location in Orange County and the state of Florida. ... Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Early on, grocery stores were a common type of anchor store, since they are visited often. However, research on consumer behavior revealed that most trips to the grocery store did not result in visits to surrounding shops. As of 2005, the declining popularity of old-line department stores makes it necessary for mall management companies to consider re-anchoring with other retail alternatives, or mix commercial development with residential development to guarantee a captive clientèle[5]. This Flagship Randalls store in Houston, Texas is an example of a supermarket. ...


Dead malls and new trends

Main article: Dead mall

In the U.S, as more modern facilities are built, many early malls have become largely abandoned, due to decreased traffic and tenancy. These "dead malls" have failed to attract new business and often sit unused for many years until restored or demolished. Interesting examples of architecture and urban design, these structures often attract people who explore and photograph them. This phenomenon of dead and dying malls is examined in detail by the website Deadmalls.com, which hosts many such photographs, as well as historical accounts. Until the mid-1990s, the trend was to build enclosed malls and to renovate older outdoor malls into enclosed ones. Such malls had advantages such as temperature control. Since then, the trend has turned and it is once again fashionable to build open-air malls. Some enclosed malls have been opened up, such as the Sherman Oaks Galleria. In addition, some malls, when replacing an empty anchor location, have replaced the former anchor store building with the more modern outdoor design, leaving the remainder of the indoor mall intact, such as the Del Amo Fashion Center in Torrance, California. A dead mall is a shopping mall with a high vacancy rate, low consumer traffic level, or is dated or deteriorating in some manner. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and cities. ... Deadmalls. ... Sherman Oaks Galleria is a shopping mall and business center located in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of Los Angeles, California at the corner of Ventura and Sepulveda Boulevards in the San Fernando Valley. ... Built in 1975, Del Amo Fashion Center is a two-level regional shopping mall in Torrance, California, USA. With a Gross leasable area (GLA) of 2. ... Location of Torrance in the County of Los Angeles Country United States State California County Los Angeles County, California Government  - Mayor Frank Scotto Area  - City 20. ...

The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway, near Bristol, England. Escalators connect the upper and lower levels.

In parts of Canada, it is now rare for new shopping malls to be built, as outdoor outlet malls or big box shopping areas known as power centres are now favored, although the traditional enclosed shopping mall is still much in demand by those seeking weather-protected, all-under-one-roof shopping. In addition the enclosed interconnections between downtown multi story shopping malls continue to grow in the Underground city of Montreal (32 kilometres of passageway), the PATH system of Toronto (27 km of passageway) and the Plus15 system of Calgary (16 km of overhead passageway). Image File history File linksMetadata The_Mall,_Patchway,_Bristol,_England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata The_Mall,_Patchway,_Bristol,_England. ... The Nebraska Crossing Outlet Mall An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall, in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own branded stores. ... A big box is a box that is big. ... A Power Centre is an unenclosed shopping centre that usually contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers (usually located in plazas) with a common parking area shared among all the retailers. ... Montreals Underground City (French: ) is the set of interconnected complexes (both above and below ground) in and around downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (in unity, prosperity) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... PATH is a 27-kilometre network of pedestrian tunnels beneath the office towers of downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Facing north, +15 sign and covered walkway linking the TransCanada Tower (east) and Fifth Avenue Place Facing north, three level skywalk linking TD Square to the Calgary Eaton Centre Facing west, skywalk over the C-Train tracks linking the downtown Sears department store to the 4th Street Southwest LRT station... Nickname: Motto: Onward Location of Calgary within census division number 6, Alberta, Canada. ...

Legal issues

One controversial aspect of malls has been their effective displacement of traditional main streets. Many consumers prefer malls, with their spacious parking garages, well-maintained walkways, and private security guards, over public streets, which often suffer from limited parking, poor maintenance, and limited police coverage.[citation needed] Main Street in Los Altos, California. ... A security officer guards a construction site. ...


In response, a few jurisdictions, notably California, have expanded the right of freedom of speech to ensure that speakers will be able to reach consumers who prefer to shop within the boundaries of privately owned malls.[6] See Pruneyard Shopping Center. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Typical roadside sign The PruneYard Shopping Center is a sprawling 250,000 square foot (23,000 m²) shopping center located in Campbell, California at the intersection of Campbell Ave. ...


See also

The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... This is a list of the worlds largest shopping malls, based on gross leasable area (GLA) rather than total area. ... This is a list of notable shopping malls or shopping centres by country. ... // The following is a list of defunct shopping malls that are no longer open to the public, or have been converted for other uses. ... This is a list of shopping malls converted to an outdoor format, i. ... This page lists important shopping streets or districts by city. ... Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... Rouse on the August 24, 1981 cover of TIME. James Wilson Rouse (April 26, 1914 - April 9, 1996) was a pioneering real estate developer civic activist, and later, free enterprise-based philanthropist. ...

Types of shopping facilities

The Nebraska Crossing Outlet Mall An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall, in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own branded stores. ... Example of a small strip mall. A strip mall (also called a plaza) is a shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. ... Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Main Street in Los Altos, California. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Main Street. ... A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ... A Power Centre is an unenclosed shopping centre that usually contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers (usually located in plazas) with a common parking area shared among all the retailers. ... The term lifestyle center is used in a variety of ways. ...

Shopping property management firms

Main article: :Category:Shopping property management firms

Planning concepts

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ... In shopping mall design, the Gruen transfer refers to the moment when consumers respond to scripted disorientation cues in the environment. ...

References

  • Hartwick, M. Jeffrey. 2004. Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream. University of Pennsylvania Press (ISBN 0-8122-3762-5).
  • Ngo-Viet, Nam Son. 2002. The Integration of the Suburban Shopping Center with its Surroundings: Redmond Town Center. Seattle: University of Washington.

shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ International Council of Shopping Centers Shopping Center Definitions. Information Accurate as of 1999.
  2. ^ International Council of Shopping Centers
  3. ^ International Council of Shopping Centers Shopping Center Definitions. Information Accurate as of 2004. Retrieved Feb 20, 2007.
  4. ^ Food court. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/food-court
  5. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20050527/ai_n14652651
  6. ^ Judd, Dennis R. (1995) "The Rise of the New Walled Cities" in Liggett, Helen and Perr, David C. (eds.), Spatial Practices, Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp. 144-168.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Shopping malls
  • Academic Shopping Mall studies site
  • History of the Shopping Mall
  • International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC)
  • Documentary photography project on the largest American shopping malls by photojournalist Stephan Rauch

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

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