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Encyclopedia > Shopping mall
Azrieli shopping mall in Tel Aviv is the city's largest shopping center
Azrieli shopping mall in Tel Aviv is the city's largest shopping center

A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings that contain a variety of retail units, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A pedestrian street is a street where pedestrian traffic is given partial or total priority over all other kinds of traffic. ... A Promenade is a seaside walkway constructed so that people can enjoy walking near the sea without getting their clothes wet and dirty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 373 KB) Interior view of Azrieli shopping mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 373 KB) Interior view of Azrieli shopping mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 960 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Horton Plaza shopping mall, located in downtown San Diego. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 960 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Horton Plaza shopping mall, located in downtown San Diego. ... Horton Plaza is a 5-level outdoor shopping mall located in downtown San Diego and remarkable for its bright colors, architectural tricks and odd spatial rhythms. ... San Diego redirects here. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... A skyway is a path that is traversed without touching the ground. ...


Strip malls have developed since the 1920s, corresponding to the rise of suburban living in the United States after World War II. As such, the strip mall development has been the subject of the same criticisms leveled against suburbanisation and suburban sprawl in general. In the United Kingdom these are called retail parks, out-of-town shopping centres, or precincts. Example of a small strip mall. A strip mall (also called a plaza) is a shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Suburbanization is a term used by many to describe the current residential living situation in the United States, and it is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... Sprawl; please see: urban sprawl (also called suburban sprawl) For the metropolitan region stretching from Boston to Atlanta in William Gibsons fiction, see The Sprawl. ... A retail park is a grouping of three or more retail warehouses with associated car parking. ... A retail park is a grouping of three or more retail warehouses with associated car parking. ... A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building, or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it. ...

Contents

Regional differences

An aerial view of North West England's largest shopping center, the Trafford Centre in Greater Manchester.
An aerial view of North West England's largest shopping center, the Trafford Centre in Greater Manchester.

In most of the world the term shopping centre is used, especially in Europe and Australasia; however shopping mall is also used, predominantly in North America, but also to a large extent in Asia[1]. Shopping precinct and shopping arcade are also used. In North America, the term shopping mall is usually applied to enclosed retail structures (and may be abbreviated to simply mall) while shopping centre usually refers to open-air retail complexes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixels Full resolution (992 × 653 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixels Full resolution (992 × 653 pixel, file size: 1. ... North West England is one of the nine regions of England. ... The Trafford Centre is a large indoor shopping centre located in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford in Greater Manchester, England. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England which has a population of 2. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ...


Malls in Ireland, pronounced "maills", are typically very small shopping centers placed in the center of town. They average about twenty years in age, with a mix of local shops and chain stores. These malls do not have shops found in the high street or modern shopping centers.[citation needed]


Shopping centres in the United Kingdom can be referred to as "shopping precincts" or just "precincts", but with American-style centres becoming more common in the UK, they are increasingly being referred to as "malls".[citation needed] Look up shop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A shop is an enclosed location where a specific activity is carried out. ...


History

An example of the mid-19th century arcade: The Passage in St Petersburg.
An example of the mid-19th century arcade: The Passage in St Petersburg.
Forum Bornova Open-Air Shopping Center in İzmir, Turkey
Forum Bornova Open-Air Shopping Center in İzmir, Turkey

Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century A.D. The 10 kilometer long covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar also has a long history. The Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in 15th century and is still one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58 streets and 4000 shops. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England was officially opened on 1 November 1774 and still runs today. Image File history File links Passazh. ... Image File history File links Passazh. ... The interior of the old Passage in the 1850s. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Forum Bornova I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Forum Bornova I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... The Bazaar of Isfahan is one of the oldest and largest bazaars of the Middle East. ... An 1873 illustration of Tehrans bustling Bazaar. ... An entrance to the Grand Bazaar The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58 streets and 4000 shops in it. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... History The Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to clear ‘untidy, mess and unsavoury stalls’ from the main streets of central Oxford. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ...


The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819. The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island introduced the concept to the United States in 1828. The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy followed in the 1860s and is closer to large modern malls in spaciousness. Other large cities created arcades and shopping centres in the late 19th century and early 20th century, including the Cleveland Arcade and Moscow's GUM in 1890. Early shopping centers designed for the automobile include Market Square, Lake Forest, Illinois (1916) and Country Club Plaza, Kansas City, Missouri (1924). This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Westminster Arcade or Providence Arcade (The Arcade, locally) is a historic shopping center in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Providence redirects here. ... Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Piazza del Duomo entrance The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a covered arcade situated on the northern side of the Piazza del Duomo in Milan, connecting to the Piazza della Scala. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... The Cleveland Arcade in downtown Cleveland (late 1960s) The Arcade in Cleveland, Ohio was built in 1890 and is a unique architectural treasure of 19th century urban America. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The GUM facade faces Red Square. ... Incorporated City in 1861. ... Kansas Citys Country Club Plaza The Country Club Plaza (often referred to as the Plaza) is an upscale shopping district in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. It was the second shopping center in the world designed to accommodate shoppers arriving by automobile. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...


An early indoor mall in the United States was the Lake View Store at Morgan Park, Duluth, Minnesota, which was built in 1915 and held its grand opening on July 20, 1916. The architect was Dean & Dean from Chicago and the building contractor was George H. Lounsberry from Duluth. The building is two-stories with a full basement and shops were originally located on all three levels. All of the stores were located within the interior of the mall with some shops being accessible from both inside and out. Morgan Park is a neighborhood in Duluth, Minnesota. ... Duluth is the county seat of St. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In the mid-20th century, with the rise of the suburb and automobile culture in the United States, a new style of shopping centre was created away from downtown. “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Car redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ...


Early shopping centers

Amazonas Shopping Mall in Manaus, Brazil.
Amazonas Shopping Mall in Manaus, Brazil.

An early shopping center in the United States was Country Club Plaza, which opened in 1924 in Kansas City, Missouri. Other important shopping centers built in the 1920s and early 1930s are the Highland Park Village in Dallas, Texas; River Oaks in Houston, Texas; and Park and Shop in Washington, DC. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 764 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 764 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Location in Brazil Country Region State Amazonas Founded 1669 Government  - Mayor Serafim Corrêa (PSB) Area  - City 11. ... Kansas Citys Country Club Plaza The Country Club Plaza (often referred to as the Plaza) is an upscale shopping district in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. It was the second shopping center in the world designed to accommodate shoppers arriving by automobile. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...


However, the concept of the fully-enclosed shopping mall did not appear until the 1950s. The idea was pioneered by the Austrian-born architect and American immigrant Victor Gruen. This new generation, that were eventually called malls, included Northgate Mall, built in north Seattle, Washington, USA in 1950, Victor Gruen's Northland Shopping Center built near Detroit, Michigan, USA in 1954, and Gulfgate Mall in Houston were all originally open-air pedestrian shopping centers that later were enclosed as malls. The first enclosed, postwar shopping center (or mall) was the Gruen-designed Southdale Center, which opened in the Twin Cities suburb of Edina, Minnesota, USA in 1956. As equally important as the enclosed aspect of these new malls was that for the first time in the development of American cities, these malls moved retailing away from the dense, commercial downtown into the new sprawling and largely residential suburbs. This formula--enclosed space with stores attached, away from downtown, and accessible only by automobile--became a popular way to build retail across the world at different moments. In the UK, Chrisp Street Market was the first pedestrian shopping area built with a road at the shop fronts. Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... A look inside Northgate Mall The north entrance of Northgate Mall (with totem pole) Northgate Mall is a shopping mall in the Northgate district of north urban Seattle, Washington. ... Seattle redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Northland Center is a shopping mall located at 8 Mile and Greenfield Road in Southfield, Michigan, USA, a suburb of Detroit. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Inside the Southdale Center Southdale Center, commonly known as just Southdale, was the first fully-enclosed and completely climate-controlled shopping mall in the United States. ... A map of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. ... location in Hennepin County, Minnesota Coordinates: , Country State County Hennepin Founded 1860s Incorporated 1888 Government  - Mayor James Hovland Area  - City  16. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Chrisp Street Tower Chrisp Street Market was designed and built as part of the Festival of Britain in 1951. ...


The title of the largest enclosed shopping mall remains with the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada since 1986. West Edmonton Mall is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records for the "largest shopping centre in the world" and "world's largest parking lot". West Edmonton Mall (WEM), located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada is the largest shopping mall in North America and the third largest in the world. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ...


One of the world's largest shopping complexes at one location is the two-mall agglomeration of the Plaza at King of Prussia and the Court at King of Prussia in the Philadelphia suburb of King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA. The King of Prussia mall has the most shopping per square foot in the US. The most visited shopping mall in the world and largest mall in the United States is the Mall of America, located near the Twin Cities in Bloomington, Minnesota, USA. However, several Asian malls are advertised as having more visitors, including Mal Taman Anggrek, Kelapa Gading Mall and Megamal Pluit, all in Jakarta-Indonesia, Berjaya Times Square in Malaysia and SM Megamall in the Philippines. The Plaza at King of Prussia is part of what is popularly referred to as the King of Prussia Mall, a huge shopping complex in King of Prussia, which is located in Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... The Court at King of Prussia is part of the massive King of Prussia Mall complex in King of Prussia, an area in Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... King of Prussia is an unincorporated community in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Mall of America (also MOA, MoA, or the Megamall) is a shopping mall located in the Twin Cities suburb of Bloomington, Minnesota. ... A map of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. ... location in Hennepin County, Minnesota Coordinates: Country United States State Minnesota County Hennepin Founded 1843 Incorporated 1858 Mayor Gene Winstead Area    - City 99. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Mall Taman Anggrek (also known as MTA or TA) is the one of the largest shopping mall and condominium complex in Southeast Asia. ... Kelapa Gading is the most luxurious place in Jakarta and the most vibrant too. ... Pluit is a suburb in North Jakarta that is predominantly residential. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Berjaya Times Square KL is a building containing a huge shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... The SM Megamall is one of the largest shopping malls in the Philippines and also known as SM Ortigas. ...


Beijing's (Peking) Golden Resources Mall, opened in October 2004, is the world's second largest mall, at 600,000 m² (approximately 6 million square ft). Berjaya Times Square in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is advertised at 700,000 square metres (7,530,000 sq ft). SM Mall of Asia in the Philippines, opened in May 2006, is the world's third largest at 386,000 square metres (4,154,900 sq ft) of gross floor area. The Mall of Arabia inside Dubailand in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which will open in 2008, will become the largest mall in the world, at 929,000 square metres (9,999,700 sq ft). Jin Yuan Mall facade Jin Yuan Mall or Golden Resources Mall (Chinese: 金源时代购物中心; Pinyin: JÄ«nyuán Shídài Gòuwù ZhōngxÄ«n) located in Beijing is believed to be the second largest shopping mall in the world. ... Berjaya Times Square KL is a building containing a huge shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... Kuala Lumpurs landmark, the PETRONAS Twin Towers Kuala Lumpur (Jawi:كوالا لمبور) is the largest city in Malaysia and the capital of the federation. ... The SM Mall of Asia is the largest shopping mall in the Philippines and the largest shopping mall in the world in terms of gross floor size, after the South Dongguan Mall (China), Golden Resources Mall (China), Central World Plaza (Thailand), Seacon Square (Thailand),and Runwal Arcade (India). ... The Ilyas and Mustafa Galadari Group has announced the Mall of Arabia, a huge shopping mall to be built as part of City of Arabia in the Dubai Land theme park premises in Dubai. ... Dubailand logo Dubailand part of Tatweer (which belongs to Dubai Holding), is an entertainment complex under development in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq...

"Pitt Street Mall" of Sydney is Australia's busiest shopping precinct. This mall has eight retail centres and more than 600 speciality stores, within two city blocks.
"Pitt Street Mall" of Sydney is Australia's busiest shopping precinct. This mall has eight retail centres and more than 600 speciality stores, within two city blocks.

A mall can refer to a shopping mall, which is a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area, or an exclusively pedestrian street, that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. Mall is generally used in North America and Australasia to refer to a large shopping area usually composed of a single building which contains multiple shops, usually "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term arcade is more often used, especially in Britain, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings (see town centre). A larger, often only partly covered but exclusively pedestrian shopping area is in Britain also termed a shopping precinct or pedestrian precinct. The majority of British shopping centres are in town centres, usually inserted into old shopping districts, and surrounding by subsidiary open air shopping streets. A number of large out-of-town "regional malls" such as Meadowhall, Sheffield and the Trafford Centre, Manchester were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but there are only ten of them or so and planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. The Metro centre, Gateshead, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema ImageMetadata File history File links Pitt_Street_Mall_Sydney. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Pitt_Street_Mall_Sydney. ... Pitt Street Mall is the pedestrianised section of Pitt Street in the CBD of Sydney, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Retail redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The town centre is usually the commercial or geographical centre of a town. ... Meadowhall is a large shopping centre located three miles northeast of central Sheffield, England. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... The Trafford Centre is a large indoor shopping centre located in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford in Greater Manchester, England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This page is about the shopping center; for the stop on the Washington Metro, see Metro Center (Washington Metro). ... This article is about Gateshead, England. ...


Classes of malls

In many cases, regional and super-regional malls exist as parts of large superstructures which often also include office space, residential space, amusement parks and so forth. This trend can be seen in the construction and design of many modern supermalls such as Cevahir Mall in Turkey. The International Council of Shopping Centers' 1999 definitions[2] were not restricted to shopping centers in any particular country, but later editions were made specific to the U.S. with a separate set for Europe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 166 KB) Summary en: Description: Mercado de Abasto (Abasto Shopping), Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 166 KB) Summary en: Description: Mercado de Abasto (Abasto Shopping), Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Facade of the Abasto on Corrientes Avenue. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Cevahir Shopping Centre: Largest Mall of Europe, seen here with its six floors Cevahir Shopping Centre, opened on October 15, 2005, is a modern shopping and entertainment center located in the ÅžiÅŸli district of Istanbul, Turkey. ... The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) is an international trade association of the shopping center industry. ...


Regional malls

The unusual exterior of the Selfridges department store in the Bullring shopping complex in Birmingham, England exemplifies the extraordinary designs of modern shopping malls.
The unusual exterior of the Selfridges department store in the Bullring shopping complex in Birmingham, England exemplifies the extraordinary designs of modern shopping malls.

A regional mall is, per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the United States, a shopping mall which is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall. As such, it is typically larger with 400,000 square feet (37,000 m²) to 800,000 square feet (74,000 m²) gross leasable area with at least 2 anchors[3] and offers a wider selection of stores. Given their wider service area, these malls tend to have higher-end stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable. Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas. Download high resolution version (500x646, 158 KB)Birminghams iconic new Selfridges building, opened in 2003 a part of the new Bull Ring shopping centre in the city centre. ... Download high resolution version (500x646, 158 KB)Birminghams iconic new Selfridges building, opened in 2003 a part of the new Bull Ring shopping centre in the city centre. ... Selfridges in Birmingham. ... The Selfridges store designed by Future Systems at the Bullring. ... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) is an international trade association of the shopping center industry. ... Gross leasable area (GLA) in the retail development industry is a term applied to shopping malls, lifestyle centers, outlet malls and other retail centers to indicate the amount of floor space available to be rented. ...


Super-regional malls

A super-regional mall is, per the ICSC, in the U.S. a shopping mall with over 800,000 square feet (74,000 m²)[3] of gross leasable area, and which serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region in which it located.


Outlet malls

Main article: Outlet mall

An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own stores. Other stores in outlet malls are operated by retailers selling returned goods and discontinued products, often at heavily reduced prices. Outlet stores were found as early as 1936, but the first multi-outlet mall, Vanity Fair, located in Reading, PA didn't open until 1974. Belz Enterprises opened the first enclosed factory outlet mall in 1979, in Lakeland, TN, a suburb of Memphis.[4] The Nebraska Crossing Outlet Mall An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall, in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own branded stores. ... Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... Reading is the county seat of Berks County, Pennsylvania. ... Belz Enterprises is a major American-based developer of shopping malls. ... Lakeland is a city in Shelby County, Tennessee. ... City nickname: The River City or The Bluff City Location in the state of Tennessee County Shelby County, Tennessee Area  - Total  - Water 763. ...


Components

Food court

Main article: Food court

A shopping mall food court consists of shops stalls offering different cuisines. At a typical food court, meals are ordered at one of the shops then carried to a common dining area, which is normally a plaza contiguous with the counters of the multiple food vendors.[5] Food court at the Fashion Centre at Pentagon City in Arlington, Virginia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1783 KB) Summary Food court at Pentagon City Mall in Arlington, Virginia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1783 KB) Summary Food court at Pentagon City Mall in Arlington, Virginia. ... The Fashion Centre at Pentagon City, also known as Pentagon City Mall, is an upscale shopping mall in Arlington, Virginia. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000...


Department stores

Main article: Department store

When the shopping mall format was developed by Victor Gruen in the mid-1950s, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller stores in the mall as well. These larger stores are termed anchor store or draw tenant. Anchors generally have their rents heavily discounted, and may even receive cash inducements from the mall to remain open. In physical configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the amount of traffic from one anchor to another. The interior of a typical Macys department store. ... Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... In retail, an anchor store, or draw tenant, is one of the larger stores in a shopping mall, usually a department store in a major retail chain, such as Macys or JCPenney. ...


Dead malls

Main article: Dead mall

In the U.S, as more modern facilities are built, many early malls have become largely abandoned, due to decreased traffic and tenancy. These "dead malls" have failed to attract new business and often sit unused for many years until restored or demolished. Interesting examples of architecture and urban design, these structures often attract people who explore and photograph them. This phenomenon of dead and dying malls is examined in detail by the website Deadmalls.com, which hosts many such photographs, as well as historical accounts. Until the mid-1990s, the trend was to build enclosed malls and to renovate older outdoor malls into enclosed ones. Such malls had advantages such as temperature control. Since then, the trend has turned and it is once again fashionable to build open-air malls. Some enclosed malls have been opened up, such as the Sherman Oaks Galleria. In addition, some malls, when replacing an empty anchor location, have replaced the former anchor store building with the more modern outdoor design, leaving the remainder of the indoor mall intact, such as the Del Amo Fashion Center in Torrance, California. A dead mall is a shopping mall with a high vacancy rate, low consumer traffic level, or is dated or deteriorating in some manner. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Deadmalls. ... Sherman Oaks Galleria is a shopping mall and business center located in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of Los Angeles, California at the corner of Ventura and Sepulveda Boulevards in the San Fernando Valley. ... Del Amo Fashion Center is a two-level regional shopping mall in Torrance, California, USA. It is currently managed and co-owned by Simon Property Group. ... Location of Torrance in the County of Los Angeles Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor Frank Scotto Area  - Total 20. ...

The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway, near Bristol, England. Escalators connect the upper and lower levels.
The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway, near Bristol, England. Escalators connect the upper and lower levels.

Image File history File linksMetadata The_Mall,_Patchway,_Bristol,_England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata The_Mall,_Patchway,_Bristol,_England. ... The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway. ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Escalators at Canary Wharf, London. ...

New trends

In parts of Canada, it is now rare for new shopping malls to be built, as outdoor outlet malls or big box shopping areas known as power centres are now favored, although the traditional enclosed shopping mall is still in demand by those seeking weather-protected, all-under-one-roof shopping. In addition the enclosed interconnections between downtown multi story shopping malls continue to grow in the Underground city of Montreal (32 kilometres of passageway), the PATH system of Toronto (27 km of passageway) and the Plus15 system of Calgary (16 km of overhead passageway). The Nebraska Crossing Outlet Mall An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall, in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own branded stores. ... A big box is a box that is big. ... A Power Centre is an unenclosed shopping centre that usually contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers (usually located in plazas) with a common parking area shared among all the retailers. ... Montreals Underground City (French: ) is the set of interconnected complexes (both above and below ground) in and around downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... PATH is a 27-kilometre network of pedestrian tunnels beneath the office towers of downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Facing north, +15 sign and covered walkway linking the TransCanada Tower (east) and Fifth Avenue Place Facing north, three level skywalk linking TD Square to the Calgary Eaton Centre Facing west, skywalk over the C-Train tracks linking the downtown Sears department store to the 4th Street Southwest LRT station... This article is about the Canadian city. ...


Vertical malls

Due to the high land price in densely populated conurbations such as Hong Kong, and the higher yield on retail property, the "vertical mall" is common - Times Square is considered the first of its kind[6]. The concept of the vertical mall departs from the common western model of the flat shopping mall: space allocated to retail is configured over a number of storeys accessible by escalators linking the different levels of the mall. The challenge of this type of mall is to overcome the natural tendency of shoppers to move horizontally and encourage shoppers to move upwards and downwards[6]. Times Square (Traditional Chinese: ) is a major shopping centre and office tower complex in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ...


Shopping property management firms

Main article: :Category:Shopping property management firms

A shopping property management firms is a company that specializes in owning and managing shopping malls. Most shopping property management firms own at least 20 malls, often specializing in one area.[citation needed] Some shopping property management firms use a similar naming scheme for most of their malls, for example Mills Corporation puts "Mills" in most of their mall names. The Mills Corporation (NYSE: MLS) was a publicly traded real estate investment trust headquartered in Chevy Chase, Maryland. ...


Legal issues

One controversial aspect of malls has been their effective displacement of traditional main streets. Many consumers prefer malls, with their spacious parking garages, entertaining environments, and private security guards, over downtown, which often suffers from limited parking, poor maintenance, and limited police coverage.[7][8] Main Street in Los Altos, California. ... A security officer guards a construction site in the Peoples Republic of China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ...


In response, a few jurisdictions, notably California, have expanded the right of freedom of speech to ensure that speakers will be able to reach consumers who prefer to shop, eat, and socialize within the boundaries of privately owned malls.[9] See Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins. This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the general concept. ...


See also

The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... This article is about the largest buildings in the world. ... This is a list of the largest shopping malls in the United States of America. ... // This article provides a list of shopping malls in the United States of America (U.S.). Because there are 46,990 shopping malls and centers in the U.S. (according to the June 27, 2004 edition of The Dallas Morning News), this list is restricted to notable shopping malls. ... This is a list of shopping centres in the United Kingdom. ... Rouse on the August 24, 1981 cover of TIME. James Wilson Rouse (April 26, 1914 - April 9, 1996) was a pioneering real estate developer civic activist, and later, free enterprise-based philanthropist. ...

Types of shopping facilities

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Example of a small strip mall. A strip mall (also called a plaza) is a shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. ... Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Main Street in Los Altos, California. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Main Street. ... A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ... A Power Centre is an unenclosed shopping centre that usually contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers (usually located in plazas) with a common parking area shared among all the retailers. ... A lifestyle center, as used in commercial development in the United States, is a shopping center or mixed-used commercial development that combines the traditional retail functions of a shopping mall but with leisure amenities oriented towards upscale consumers. ...

Planning concepts

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ... In shopping mall design, the Gruen transfer refers to the moment when consumers respond to scripted disorientation cues in the environment. ...

References

  1. ^ Urban Geography: A Global Perspective By Michael Pacione
  2. ^ International Council of Shopping Centers Shopping Center Definitions. Information Accurate as of 1999.
  3. ^ a b International Council of Shopping Centers Shopping Center Definitions for the U.S. Information accurate as of 2004. Retrieved Feb 20, 2007.
  4. ^ University of San Diego webpage Retrieved June 1, 2007
  5. ^ Food court. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/food-court
  6. ^ a b Danny Chung, Reach for the sky, The Standard, December 09, 2005
  7. ^ Tony O'Donahue, The Tale of a City: Re-Engineering the Urban Environment (Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd., 2005), 43.
  8. ^ Bernard J. Frieden & Lynne B. Sagalyn, Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989), 233.
  9. ^ Judd, Dennis R. (1995) "The Rise of the New Walled Cities" in Liggett, Helen and Perr, David C. (eds.), Spatial Practices, Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp. 144-168.
  • Hardwick, M. Jeffrey. Gruen biography2004. Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream. University of Pennsylvania Press (ISBN 0-8122-3762-5).
  • Ngo-Viet, Nam Son. 2002. The Integration of the Suburban Shopping Center with its Surroundings: Redmond Town Center. Seattle: University of Washington.

The Standard,29 September 2004 Mr. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Shopping malls
Look up Shopping mall in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Academic Shopping Mall studies site
  • History of the Shopping Mall
  • International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC)
  • Photography project on the largest American shopping malls
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Look up Development in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Cluster effect be merged into this article or section. ... A business park in Santa Barbara County, California A business park or business estate is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together. ... This page lists leading upscale shopping streets and districts by city. ... A retail park is a grouping of three or more retail warehouses with associated car parking. ... An industrial park (or industrial estate in British English) is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ... Industrial district is a term used to describe an area where workers of a monolithic heavy industry (ship-building, coal mining, steel-working, ceramics, etc) live within walking-distance of their places of work. ... A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field. ... This is a list of technology centers throughout the india , United States and around the world. ... Subdivision is the act of dividing up land into smaller pieces that are easier to sell, usually via a plat. ... Entrance to a guard-gated community (Paradise Village Grand Marina Villas, Nuevo Vallarta, Mexico). ... A housing estate is a medium-to-low density residential area, usually part of a suburb of a town or city in a developed country. ... A science park is a property development designed for a concentration of high tech or science related businesses. ... The following is a list of science parks, research parks, technology parks and biomedical parks of the world, organized by continent. ... Technopolis is a term coined from the word technology and the suffix -polis, which means city in Greek. ... The Universitätscampus Wien, Austria ( details) Campus (plural: campuses) is derived from the (identical) Latin word for field or open space. English gets the words camp and campus from this origin. ... A satellite campus is the campus of a college or university that is physically detached from the main university or college area. ... A new town, planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... This is a list of planned cities (sometimes known as planned communities or new towns) by country. ... The Try2004 Hyperstructure or Megacity as featured on the Discovery Channels Extreme Engineering programs. ... Model villages were a classification of social/industrial developments created in the UK during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Cluster development (or cluster initiative) is the economic development of business clusters. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. ... Land use planning is the term used for a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines which seek to order and regulate the use of land in an efficient way. ... Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in British English) is a movement in urban planning that reached its peak in the United States from the late 1940s through the early 1970s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Regional planning is a branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... Context theory Environmental design and planning rest on theories of how new development should relate to its context. ... Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Shopping Directory - the Orlando Mall - Orlando, Florida - a world of shopping (280 words)
For your shopping pleasure our shopping directory has hundreds of world class stores with thousands of products and services for you including and specializing in clothing, automobies, consumer electronics, on-line entertainment, sports, food, travel and we just don't have room to list it all....have fun shopping.
Although The Orlando Mall does not accept responsibility for any of the content of the stores in our shopping directory, we try to screen them to bring you sites that are as trustworthy as possible or as far as we can determine.
The Orlando Mall is a virtual mall, and is designed for the convenience of those who would like a single web site to shop on-line.
Shopping mall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1862 words)
One of the world's largest shopping complex at one location is the two-mall agglomeration of the Plaza at King of Prussia and the Court at King of Prussia in the Philadelphia suburb of King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Mall can refer to a shopping mall, which is a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area, or an exclusively pedestrian street, that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic.
Mall is generally used in North America and Australasia to refer to large shopping areas, while the term arcade is more often used, especially in Britain, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings.
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