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Encyclopedia > Shopi

The Shopi (шопи, scientific transliteration šopi; singular шоп, šop, with various regional names also existing) are are an ethnic subgroup of the Bulgarian people that inhabits the region of the Shopluk (Шоплук, Šopluk) in central western Bulgaria, around the towns of Botevgrad, Svoge, Elin Pelin, Kostinbrod, Slivnitsa, Dragoman, Samokov, Ihtiman, Dupnitsa, Kyustendil, Tran, Breznik, Pernik. The Shopi are the original population of Sofia and the adjacent villages. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... all my regards and wishes to Angela Marinova from Alexandarsy@yahoo. ... Svoge (Своге) is a town in western Bulgaria, part of Sofia Province. ... Dragoman, a word of Aramaic/Assyrian origin, designates the function of interpreter, translator and official guide in countries and polities of the Near East. ... Samokov (Самоков) is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria. ... Dupnitsa (Дупница) is a town in western Bulgaria. ... Kyustendil is a city in western Bulgaria, the capital of the Kyustendil Province, with a population of 47,196 (as of 2005). ... Tran (Трън) is a small town in Pernik Province, western Bulgaria. ... Breznik (Bulgarian Брезник) is a town in Western Bulgaria. ... Pernik is situated 19 miles southwest of Sofia Pernik is a city in Bulgaria, on the Struma River, with a population of 92,627 (2005 census). ... Flag Seal Location Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Government Country  Province Bulgaria  Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Geographical characteristics Area    - City 1,310 km²    - Land   (?) km²    - Water   (?) km² Population    - City (2006) 1,376,742    - Density   907/km² Coordinates , Elevation 550 m Time zone - Summer (DST) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC...

They speak a distinctive west Bulgarian dialect that is regarded to be part of the transitional Torlakian dialect also present in Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia by some linguists. Torlakian is the name used for the dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro), North-west Macedonia and North-Eastern Bulgaria. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Independence    - From the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Yugoslavia formed December 1, 1918   - Serbia and Montenegro union dissolved June 5, 2006  Area    - Total 88,361... Motto: (English: ) Anthem: (Transliteration: ) (English: ) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian, Albanian1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Branko Crvenkovski  - Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Independence From Yugoslavia   - Declared September 8, 1991  Area    - Total 25,333 km² (146th)   9,779 sq mi   - Water (%) 1. ...



The Shop dialect belongs to the "et" (western) group of Bulgarian dialects, and differs from the standard language through a number of characteristic features.


  • The variable /ja/-diphthong (променливо я) is always pronounced /e/.

Shop: пресно млеко; standard Bulgarian language: прясно мляко (fresh milk) Bulgarian is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ...

  • In other cases the /ja/-diphthong is pronounced /ə/.

Shop: седъ; standard Bulgarian: седя (to sit)

  • In most cases there is no stressed "ъ" (/ɤ/) sound as in standard Bulgarian. It is substituted with /a/.

Shop: моя маж ме лаже (moja maž me laže); standard Bulgarian: моят мъж ме лъже (mojat mǎz me lǎže) (my husband is lying to me)

  • The /x/-sound is often omitted.

Shop: леп (lep); standard Bulgarian: хляб (hljab) (bread)

  • Iotated /n/ and /l/ ("нь", "ль") can stand at the end of a word or before /e/.

Shop: конье (konje); standard Bulgarian: коне (kone) (horses) Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ...

  • In the past tenses (aorist and imperfect) and in the past participle the stress falls always on the ending and not on the stem.

Shop: гле'дах ([gle'dax]), гле'дал ([gle'dal]); standard Bulgarian: 'гледах (['gledəx]), 'гледал (['gledəl]) ([I] was watching; [he, she, it] watched) Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ... Imperfect has several meanings: The imperfect tense in linguistics an imperfect cadence in music theory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

  • Iotated /k/ occurs in some cases.

Shop: макя (makja); standard Bulgarian: майка (majka) (mother)

  • In most cases the /l/ sound is pronounced labialized (more like /w/) before front vowels (e, и), as well as back vowels (a, ъ, o, у). This is in contrast to standard Bulgarian where /l/ is labialized only before back vowels, consonants and in the end of the word.

Shop: лале /lwalwe/; standard Bulgarian: лале /lwale/ (tulip) Labialisation is secondary articulatory feature of sounds in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ...


  • Most often the definite article for masculine nouns is -о or -от (-ot) instead of -а or -ът (-ǎt).

Shop: отивам у градо (otivam u grado); standard Bulgarian: отивам в града (otivam v grada) (I am going in town) Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ...

  • There are some characteristic plurals.
  • The forms for the relative and the interrogative pronouns and adverbs are the same.

Shop: че ме видиш, кога ме нема (če me vidiš, koga me nema); standard Bulgarian: ще ме видиш, когато ме няма (šte me vidiš, kogato me njama) (idiom: you'll never see/catch me)

  • Most often the particle for the forming of the future tense is "че" (če) instead of "ще" (šte).

Shop: че ода (če oda) standard Bulgarian: ще ходя (šte hodja) (I will be going)

  • In the present tense for the first and second conjugation the ending for the fisrt person singular is -м (-m) and for plural is -ме (-me) instead of -а/я (-a/ja) and -м (-m) respectively as in standard Bulgarian.

Shop: я седим, ние седиме (ja sedim, nie sedime); standart Bulgarian: аз седя, ние седим (az sedja, nie sedim) (I am sitting, we are sitting)

  • There are some characteristic past participles:

Shop: валило, умийен (valilo, umijen); standard Bulgarian: валяло, умит (valjalo, umit) (rained, washed)


  • The personal pronoun for the first person singular is "я" ("ja") instead of "аз" ("az").
  • The personal pronouns for the third person are as follows:
    • Nominative case: masc. он (on), fem. она (ona), neut. оно (ono), pl. они (oni)
    • Accusative case, long form (after prepositions): masc. него/ньега (nego/njega), fem. нея (neja), neut. него/ньега (nego/njega) , pl. них (nih)
  • The possessive pronoun for the third person plural is нихния (nihnija), нихната (nihnata), etc.
  • The interrogative word "що" ("što") is used more often than the standard "какво" ("kakvo").

Shop: Що сакаш? (Što sakaš?); standard Bulgarian: Какво искаш? (Kakvo iskaš?) (What do you want?) An interrogative word (also known simply as an interrogative) is a function word used for the item questioned in a question. ...

  • The preposition "у" ("u") is used instead of "в" ("v").

Shop: у градо (u grado); standard Bulgarian: в града (v grada) (in town)

  • There are plenty of typical words for the Shop dialect in particular, as well as for other western dialects in general.

Some examples are:

Shop standard Bulgarian translation
сакам (sakam) искам (iskam) to want
чиним (činim) правя (pravja) to do/make
прашам (prašam) питам (pitam) to ask
мравучка (mravučka) мравка (mravka) ant
спийем (spijem) спя (spja) to sleep
тражим (tražim) търся (tǎrsja) to search
оти? (oti?) защо? (zašto?) why?
окам (okam) викам (vikam) to shout


The Shopi have a very original and characteristic folklore. The traditional male costume of the Shopi is white, while the famale costumes are diverse. The embroidery is well developed as an art and is very conservative. The agriculture is the traditional main occupation, with cattle breeding coming second. Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with designs stitched in strands of thread or yarn using a needle. ...

In terms of music, the Shopi have a complex folklore with the heroic epic playing an important part. The Shopi are also known for playing particularly fast and itense versions of Bulgarian dances. The rebec, kaval and bagpipe are popular instruments and two-part singing is common. Minor second intervals are common in Shop music and are not considered dissonant. Bulgarian folk dances are intimately related to the music of Bulgaria. ... The rebec (sometimes rebeck, and originally various other spellings) is a bowed string musical instrument. ... A 1919 Kaval. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ...

The traditional Shop house that has a fireplace in the centre has only survided in some more remote villages, being displaced by the Middle Bulgarian type. The villages in the plains are larger, while those in the higher areas are somewhate straggling and have traditionally been inhabited by single families (zadruga). The unusually large share of placenames ending on -ovtsi, -entsi and -yane evidence for the preservation of the zadrugi until even after the 19th century. A zadruga refers to a type of village community common among South Slavs in Yugoslavian history. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Two very popular and well-known fоlklore groups are Poduenski Babi and Bistrishki Babi — the Grandmothers of Poduene and Bistritsa villages.

A famous plate in Bulgaria is Shopska salad, named after this ethnic group. Shopska salad Shopska salad or Shop salad (Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian: Шопска салата, Shopska salata) is popular in Bulgaria, Serbia and Macedonia. ...

The Shopi in literature and anecdotes

The Shopi — especially those from near Sofia — have the widespread (and arguably unjustified) reputation of stubborn, selfish and slow people. There are lots of proverbs and anecdotes about them, more than about all other ethnic groups in Bulgaria (except for the Roma people). The Roma people (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom), often referred to as gypsies, are a heterogeneous ethnic group who live primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Latin America, the southern part of the United States and the Middle East. ...

A distinguished writer from the region is Elin Pelin who actually wrote some comic short stories and poems in the dialect. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Anecdotes and proverbs

  • От Искаро по-длибого нема, от Витоша по-високо нема. (Ot Iskaro po dlibogo nema, ot Vitoša po-visoko nema.) (There is nothing deeper than the Iskar River, and nothing higher than the Vitosha Mountain.)
On the one hand, it means that the Shopi refuse to acknowledge other countries' virtues; but on the other this is a clear example of their patriotism.
  • Once a Shop went to the zoo and saw the giraffe. He watched it in amazement and finally said: Е, те такова животно нема! (E, te takova životno nema!) (There is no such animal!)
So even seeing the truth with his own eyes, he or she refuses to acknowledge it.
  • Once a Shop went to the city, saw aromatic soaps on a stand and, thinking that they were something to eat, bought a piece. He began to eat it but soon his mouth was all foam. He said: Пеняви се, не пеняви, пари съм давал, че го ядем. (Penjavi se, ne se penjavi, pari sǎm daval, če go jadem) (Foam or not foam, it cost money, I shall eat it.)
When money is spent, even unpleasant things should be endured.
  • How was the gorge of the Iskar River formed? As the story goes, in ancient times the Sofia Valley was a lake, surrounded with mountains. The ancient Shopi were fishermen. One day, while fishing with his boat one of them bowed in order to take his net out of the water. But the boat was floating towards the nearby rocks on the slope of the Balkan Mountains. Consequently the Shop hit his head on the rocks and the entire mountain split into two. The lake flew out and the gorge was formed.
  • There is a saying throughout Bulgaria that the Shopi's heads are wooden (дървена шопска глава, dǎrvena šopska glava), meaning they are too stubborn. Interestingly, in Romania there is such saying about Bulgarians in general.
  • Once upon a time three Shopi climbed on top of the Vitosha Mountain. There was a thick fog in the valley so they thought it was cotton. They jumped down and perished.
This is to show three points of interest: the Shopi are not very smart after all; Vitosha must be really very high; and, as a serious point, the phenomenon, when Vitosha stands over low clouds shrowding the high plains and valeys of Western Bulgaria, is very common in winter and is called temperature inversion.
  • Another example of the Shopi's stubbornness: Once, in plain summer, a Shop wore a very thick coat. When asked if it wasn't too hot, he answered: It's not because of the coat but because of the weather.
  • In other parts of Bulgaria all locals from Sofia are called, somewhat scornfully, "Shopi", although the majority of the city's population are not descendants of the real vernacular minority but of immigrants from other regions.

The Iskar (Bulgarian: Искър; Latin Oescus) is, with a length of 368 km, the longest river thar runs solely in Bulgaria, and a right tributary of the Danube. ... Defense of the homeland is a commonplace of military patriotism: The statue in the École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... The Sofia Valley (Bulgarian: Софийска котловина, transliterated as Sofiyska kotlovina, or Софийско поле, Sofiysko pole) is a valley in central western Bulgaria, bordering Stara Planina to the northeast, the Viskyar, Lyulin, Vitosha and Lozenets mountains to the southwest, the Vakarel Mountain to the southeast and the low Slivnitsa Heights to the northwest. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian: Stara Planina, Old Mountain) is an extension of the Carpathian mountain range, separated from it by the Danube River. ... Smoke rising in Lochcarron is stopped by an overlying layer of warmer air. ...


  • Rodovo Nasledstvo ethnography section — article about the Shopi (in Bulgarian). Retrieved on 2006-06-02.



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