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Encyclopedia > Sholom Schwartzbard

Sholom Schwartzbard (1886-1938) was an anarchist and political assassin, who was acquitted by a French jury of the assassination of Symon Petlura. Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelt Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ...

In 1926 he assassinated Symon Petlura, the head of the government-in-exile of Ukrainian People's Republic in Paris. He was accused by Ukrainian emigrants of being a Soviet spy. According to Ukrainian historian Michael Palij, a GPU (Soviet secret police) agent named Mikhail Volodin came to Paris that August, and allegedly, they met and, Schwartzbard began stalking Petlura. This account has not been substantiated by other sources. 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic or Ukrainian National Republic (Українська Народна Республіка, Ukrayinska Narodna Respublika, abbreviated УНР, UNR) was a republic in a part of the territory of the modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petlura. ... Soviet redirects here. ... GPU can stand for: Graphics processing unit, a special microprocessor used in computer graphics hardware The State Political Directorate (Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie), the name of the secret police in the USSR in one of the stages of its development Global Processing Unit, a generic name for a distributed computing project...

On 25 May, 1926, while window shopping along a Paris boulevard, he was approached by a man who asked in Ukrainian, "Are you Mr. Petlyura?" When he responded in the affirmative, the man, a Ukrainian-born Jewish anarchist named Sholom Schwartzbard, shouted (according to his later deposition) "Defend yourself, you bandit!" Petlyura raised his cane and Schwartzbard pulled out a gun, shooting him three times, while exclaiming "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." When police rushed to him to make their arrest, he reportedly calmly handed over his weapon, saying, "You can arrest me, I've killed a murderer."

Schwartzbald's parents were among fifteen members of his family murdered in the pogroms. The core of his defence was—as presented by noted barrister Henri Torrès—that he was avenging the deaths of victims of the pogroms. This premise found favour with the French jury, who acquitted him.

Schwartzbard had fifteen family members killed in Jewish pogroms, and he himself had survived one such attack in 1905 during the Russian Revolution. In 1910, at age 24, he settled in Paris and found work in a watch factory. During the first World War, he fought with the French Foreign Legion and was wounded at the Front. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... A pogrom (from Russian: погром (meaning wreaking of havoc) is a massive violent attack on a particular ethnic or religious group with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to three specific events in the history of Imperial Russia. ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The French Foreign Legion (French: Légion Étrangère) has been an unique and distinguished unit within the French Army since 1831. ...

In 1917, while travelling to Odessa to join the Red Guard, he reportedly was told of Petlura's responsibility for pogroms in the Ukraine, a widely held belief among Jews at the time. However, historian Henry Abramson, in A Prayer for the Government: Ukrainians and Jews in Revolutionary Times, 1917-1920, rejected the notion that Petlura was directly responsible, or that he had control over an infamous 1919 attack in Proskurov in which 1,500 Jews were killed. He did, however, note that Petlura may have been unable to put a stop to the pogroms for fear of losing the loyalty of the army. Odessa or Odesa (Ukrainian Одеса, Russian Одесса, Turkish Hacıbey) is a Ukrainian port city on the Black Sea and the center of countrys Odeska oblast. Population 1,012,500 (2004). ... The term Red Guards may refer to one of the following. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Khmelnytskyi, (Khmelnitsky in Russian, Chmielnicki in Polish, sometimes spelled Khmelnytskyy) is a city in Ukraine. ...

After the assassination of Petlura, Schwartzbard was arrested and his trial began on October 18, 1927. Schwartzbard's defense was led by Henri Torres, a renowned Jewish-French jurist. After a trial lasting eight days, the jury concluded that Schwartzbard was not guilty. October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Schwartzbard died in Cape Town on March 3, 1938. 29 years later, his remains were buried in Israel, in accordance with his will. The central area of Cape Town as seen from Table Mountain. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...



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